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United States — Economic Conditions
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The Fronts

Nightline continues up-to-the-minute coverage of the strikes in Afghanistan, a look at the administration efforts on coalition building, the balancing act between law enforcement and civil liberties, homeland defense, and the impact on the economy.
Ivy (By Request)

By River, by Rail [electronic resource]: History of the Black Migration

In the early 20th century, blacks moved north in hope of a better life with little more than a prayer and the shirts on their backs. In this program, poet Maya Angelou, NAACP President Kweisi Mfume, and a host of other African-Americans recount the story of the migration, of separated families, and of the hardships, prejudice, and struggle for acceptance in the North that resulted in disillusionment. Black luminaries include James Cameron, author of A Time of Terror; Jacob Lawrence, artist and creator of The Black Migration series; and Dr. Julius Garvey, son of Marcus Garvey, founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the Back to Africa movement of the 1920s.
2006; 1994

How a Bill Becomes a Law [electronic resource]

This program deciphers the legislative process by explaining how an idea metamorphoses into a law. In interviews, prominent legislators and lobbyists explain how a bill is conceived, moved through the House and Senate or killed in committee, amended, prepared for a vote, and sent for the President or Governor's signature.
2005; 1993

Amendment 17 [electronic resource]: Elections of U.S. Senators

The U.S. Constitution is the world's oldest written charter of government in continuous effect. Much of the success of this document can be attributed to the way the Constitution has changed to meet the needs of the American people. The framers of the Constitution wisely anticipated the need to make changes to the Constitution as the world itself changed. Between 1787, when the Constitution was written, and the present time, thousands of proposed amendments have been introduced in Congress. But in that time, only 27 of those proposed amendments have been ratified. These 27 amendments tell some of the most important stories in American political, social, and cultural history. They tell the story of the founding principles of the American nation, and how that nation has changed. This c [...]
2007; 1998

It's the Law [electronic resource]

The laws of the criminal justice system are primarily framed by the Constitution, which sets the standards of due process. In this program, lawyers, prosecutors, and judges explain the differences between misdemeanors and felonies, the various degrees of crimes, and the elements of a crime. Investigation procedures in the gathering of evidence and statements are discussed. Legal experts and police officers clearly illustrate such concepts as 5th Amendment rights, Miranda warnings, the "stop and frisk" rule, search warrants, and the "knock and announce" rule. Probable cause and arrest procedures are also demonstrated.
2005; 2001

Order in the Court [electronic resource]

In this program, various legal experts explain pretrial and trial procedures, pointing out along the way differences in juvenile proceedings. Judges and lawyers navigate the pretrial process, beginning with the establishment of probable cause and formal charging by grand jury. Indictment, pretrial release, bail, and arraignment are also discussed. Such concepts as an alibi, burden of proof, and reasonable doubt are clearly explained. Finally, a panel of experts comments on a sentencing hearing and punishment, along with the defendant's constitutional right to appeal.
2005; 2001

A Day in the Life of a Senator [electronic resource]

Congress plays a vital role in hammering out the policies that shape everyday life. Why then do so many Americans feel that it exists in a world of its own, out of touch with the very constituencies that elected them in the first place? This program scrutinizes the political landscape through the eyes of America's elected elite, presenting firsthand what politicians really do-and endure-both in Washington and in their represented states. Featured Senators Kay Bailey Hutchinson (R-TX) and Patrick Leahy (D-VT) speak out on topics including whether bipartisan cooperation is possible in the Clinton post-impeachment era.
2005; 1999

Constant Combatants [electronic resource]: President and Congress

Moderated by Harvard Law School's Charles Nesson, this Fred Friendly Seminar focuses on the tension between the President and Congress during a policy crisis in the fictional European country of Nukraine, involving issues such as the power to wage war, conduct diplomacy, and operate in secrecy, as well as the media's responsibilities in matters of national security. Panelists include U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia; former Secretary of State Alexander Haig; former Senator Warren Rudman; Professor Michael Sandel, of Harvard University; Richard Holbrooke, U.S. ambassador to the U.N. and former Assistant Secretary of State; James Fallows, former editor at U.S. News & World Report; and others.
2006; 1997

Sacred Spirit [electronic resource]: Lakota Sioux, Past and Present

This poignant collage features members of the Oglala Lakota Sioux living on and off the Pine Ridge reservation who present their unself-pitying yet pointed observations on Lakota history and modern-day Lakota life. Their creation myth and their attitudes toward Mother Earth and the concept of time contribute insights into their worldview, while footage of a major powwow and a tepee-raising offer glimpses of the people's cultural heritage. Wounded Knee and the extermination of the buffalo are discussed. Gang violence, alcoholism, lack of employment, and housing and health problems are also addressed, as well as the many faces of subjugation.
2005; 1999

The Biggest Jewish City in the World [electronic resource]

From the Czarist persecutions to those of Hitler, America provided a haven for Jews. Their influx made New York the world's most densely populated city. They went on to become one of the most influential immigrant groups in America.
2007; 1976

Out of the Depths [electronic resource]: The Miner's Story

Danger has always surrounded the coal miner's profession, but in the early years of the Colorado coal fields, it was almost as risky for a worker to stay above ground and face the wrath of the company as it was to toil in the tunnels below. This Bill Moyers program presents the memories of the people who worked those mines, freeing the rocks, metals, and minerals on which much of 20th-century American industry was founded. The depths of their struggles are revealed as they recall the deplorable conditions in which they labored and the events which led to the legendary 1913 United Mine Workers' strike as well as the infamous 1914 Ludlow Massacre.
2010; 1984

Ike [electronic resource]: Dwight D. Eisenhower

This program introduces viewers to Dwight 'Ike' Eisenhower, the man who went from Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe during WWII to Commander-in-Chief of the United States during the early years of the Cold War.
2011; 1996

Thomas A. Edison [electronic resource]: The Wizard of Menlo Park

American inventor, scientist, and businessman, this episode of A&E Classroom profiles Thomas Alva Edison, dubbed 'The Wizard of Menlo Park' for his creation of the long-lasting electric light bulb, the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the sound recording. Edison originated more than 1,000 U.S. and international patents for devices that greatly influenced communication around the world.
2011; 1996

Lincoln [electronic resource]

Burdened by a tragic family life, suicidal urges, and unsettled sexuality, Abraham Lincoln was able to employ his powerful wit and innate charm to transform his inner demons. Filmed as if through the president's own eyes, this episode of Biography captures the dark soul behind one of history's brightest lights. Interviews with leading Lincoln biographers such as Gore Vidal, Jan Morris, and Harold Holzer are also included.
2011; 2006

The Orphan Trains [electronic resource]

Eighty years ago, Elliot Bobo was taken from his alcoholic father's home, given a small cardboard suitcase, and put on board an "orphan train" bound for Arkansas. Bobo never saw his father again. He was one of tens of thousands of neglected and orphaned children who roamed the streets of New York in search of money, food, and shelter. Beginning in 1853 a young minister named Charles Loring Brace founded the Children's Aid Society - an organization that sent orphans west to begin new lives with farm families. His program would turn out to be a forerunner of modern foster care. But as The Orphan Trains, from the PBS American Experience collection, so poignantly reveals, even those for whom the journey ultimately was a triumph found the transition from one life to another almost always [...]

Division [electronic resource]

America became a nation just as a revolution in commerce and industry swept the Western world. This program explores the economic growth of the United States in the context of rising friction between the North and South-over the moral issue of slavery, but also over the differences between industrial power and an agricultural economy focused on cotton. With the election of Abraham Lincoln, Civil War was inevitable.
2011; 2010

Civil War [electronic resource]

The War Between the States rages. In 1863, the Confederate Army seems poised for victory. Following the bloody battle of Antietam, President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation. Former slaves join the Union army in droves. With superior transportation (railroads), communication (telegraph lines), and battlefield technology, the Union prevails and America is on track to become a global superpower.
2011; 2010

Heartland [electronic resource]

In 1869, the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of America became linked through a massive implementation of rail technology. The Transcontinental Railroad connected Americans in new ways and altered the entire ecology of the continent. The vast Plains, where buffalo and Native Americans had once roamed, were remade by land speculators and industrialists. In less than a quarter of a century, the West was transformed.
2011; 2010

Cities [electronic resource]

In 1871, Chicago burned to the ground, and from the ashes of the old city a new kind of metropolis rose up. This program shows the restless spirit embodied in the skyscrapers of American cities (as well as in the Statue of Liberty) but it also addresses new social problems, such as poverty and organized crime, that came with growing urbanization. Worker uprisings, immigration, and the expansion of mass transportation are covered.
2011; 2010

Boom [electronic resource]

Henry Ford's Model T and assembly line, together with the discovery of abundant oil reserves, opened up a new way of life for Americans in the early decades of the twentieth century. This episode looks at those developments and traces the significance of World War I, prohibition, African-American migration from the South to northern cities, and the origin and growth of the Hollywood film industry.
2011; 2010