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Measurement
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1.

## Place-Value Centers [electronic resource]

First-graders develop an understanding of the numeration system by relating counting, grouping, and place-value concepts. Activities include measuring with Unifix cubes and using base-ten blocks. Covers the following NCTM standards: number sense and numeration, measurement, connections.
Online
1997
2.

## A Rocket Shape [electronic resource]

Second- and third-graders experiment to subdivide a square to create a rocket shape. After completing their rockets, they reconvene as a class to discuss their difficulties and problem solving strategies. Covers the following NCTM standards: geometry and spatial sense, measurement, problem solving, and reasoning.
Online
1997
3.

## Circumference/Diameter [electronic resource]

After reviewing the meaning of radius, diameter, center, and circumference, fourth-graders working in teams measure circular objects throughout the room. They are then challenged to find the relationship between the circumference and the diameter. Covers the following NCTM standards: geometry and spatial sense, measurement, connections, and reasoning.
Online
1997
4.

## Windows, Dinos, and Ants [electronic resource]

First-graders are engaged in problem solving and measuring with both standard and nonstandard units. Students work in groups to measure three different distances: ant farm tunnels, dinosaurs, and the length from their classroom window to the playground below. Covers the following NCTM standards: measurement, number sense and numeration, problem solving, and reasoning.
Online
1997
5.

## How Long Is a Minute? [electronic resource]

Having already studied the concept of an hour, first-graders investigate time as a measure of duration. They list activities, such as writing their name, that could be accomplished within a minute, then estimate how many times in one minute they could do it. Covers the following NCTM standards: measurement, estimation, reasoning, and connections.
Online
1997
6.

## Balloon Travel [electronic resource]

In an integrated math/science lesson, second- and third-graders collect data to answer questions such as, "What is the farthest a balloon can travel before falling?" To answer the question, they must understand distance, volume, capacity, and time. Covers the following NCTM standards: measurement, estimation, connection, and problem solving.
Online
1997
7.

## Meter Cords [electronic resource]

Third- and fourth-graders use linear measurement in learning about decimals. Students measure different items with a meter divided into 10 parts then learn to write their measurements using decimal notation. Includes the following NCTM standards: measurement, fractions and decimals, connections, and communications.
Online
1997
8.

## Pencil Box Staining [electronic resource]

Fourth-graders are faced with the task of finding out how much stain to buy from the hardware store and encounter problems as they work with many mathematical ideas in the context of a real application. Students work in groups with pencil box pieces, a ruler, calculator, and instruction sheet. Covers the following NCTM standards: measurement, fractions and decimals, problem solving, and reasoning.
Online
1997
9.

## How Many People Will Fit? [electronic resource]

First-graders investigate the concept of area by figuring out how many people will fit in four different areas in the school building. They organize and record solutions and use measuring, counting, and addition to find the total number of people. Covers the following NCTM standards: estimation, measurement, reasoning, and problem solving.
Online
1997
10.

## Making an Impact [electronic resource]

What would happen if an asteroid were to hit the surface of the earth? How large a crater would the impact create? In this workshop, the ideas of force and motion are introduced, as seventh-grade students drop balls to simulate asteroid impacts. By varying a ball s mass, the height from which it is dropped, or the material being struck, the students explore what factors affect the size of the crater. They also learn about data collection and the proper use of measurement units.
Online
2001
11.

## Drag Races [electronic resource]

Forces can help put objects into motion and can also bring moving objects to a stop. In this workshop, fifth-grade students explore the physics of motion using plastic cars with strings and washers attached to provide a pulling force. The students test the speed of the vehicles and explain what forces bring the vehicles to a stop, as the cars collide with and displace barriers at the end of their run. Finally, the students discuss their findings to help solidify their understanding of the effect of forces on motion.
Online
2001
12.

## When Rubber Meets the Road [electronic resource]

A rubber band twisted around the axle of a plastic car provides the force that moves the car forward. In this workshop, fifth-grade students continue their exploration of force and motion by recording and comparing the distance a vehicle travels under various conditions. Students predict the distance the car will travel by counting the number of twists in the rubber band, and observe the car s speed as it rolls across the floor. When the force of the rubber band stops acting, the force of friction slows the car to a stop.
Online
2001
13.

## On a Roll [electronic resource]

The force of gravity makes a ball roll when it is placed on an incline. In this workshop, first-grade students roll balls of different sizes, masses, and materials down ramps of varying heights, comparing their speeds. The students then experiment by replacing the ramp with a cardboard tube, and try to determine how the tube must be oriented to allow the ball to roll, much as it rolled down the ramp.
Online
2001
14.

## Keep on Rolling [electronic resource]

Roller coasters are filled with twists and turns, as changes in height and direction supply a variety of push and pull forces. In this workshop, first-grade students build on their prior experience with rolling objects. By designing and constructing their own roller coaster made from ramps, cardboard tubes, and flexible tubes, the students experiment with ways to get a marble from the top of a table into a bucket on the floor, some distance away.
Online
2001
15.

## What Does It Mean to Measure? [electronic resource]

Explores what can be measured and what it means to measure. Identifies measurable properties such as weight, surface area, and volume, and discusses which metric units are more appropriate for measuring these properties. Defines use of precision instruments, and presents alternate methods such as displacement. Examines approximation techniques and how to make better approximations using reasoning skills.
Online
2002
16.

## The Metric System [electronic resource]

Discusses the relationships between units in the metric system and how to represent quantities using different units of measure. Describes how to estimate and measure quantities of length, mass, and capacity, and solve measurement problems.
Online
2002
17.

## Measurement Fundamentals [electronic resource]

Investigates the difference between a count and a measure, and examines essential ideas such as unit iteration, partitioning, and the compensatory principle. Presents the many uses of ratio in measurement and how scale models help us understand relative sizes. Discusses the constant of proportionality in isosceles right triangles as well as precision and accuracy in measurement.
Online
2002
18.

## Angle Measurement [electronic resource]

Reviews mathematical notation for angle measurement and describes angles in terms of the amount of turn. Uses reasoning to determine the measures of angles in polygons based on the idea that there are 360 degrees in a complete turn. Presents the relationships among angles within shapes and generalizes a formula for finding the sum of the angles in any n-gon. Use activities based on GeoLogo to explore the differences among interior, exterior, and central angles.
Online
2002
19.

## Indirect Measurement and Trigonometry [electronic resource]

Learn how to use the concept of similarity to measure distance indirectly, using methods involving similar triangles, shadows, and transits. Applies basic right-angle trigonometry to present the relationships among steepness, angle of elevation, and height-to-distance ratio. Uses trigonometric ratios to solve problems involving right triangles.
Online
2002
20.

## Area [electronic resource]

Defines area as a measure of how much surface is covered. Explores the relationship between the size of the unit used and the resulting measurement. Finds the area of irregular shapes by counting squares or subdividing the figure into sections. Describes how to approximate the area more accurately by using smaller and smaller units. Relates this counting approach to the standard area formulas for triangles, trapezoids, and parallelograms.
Online
2002