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61.

Baby in a Frame [electronic resource]

Six-month-old William Knight was born with a clubfoot, a deformity that could delay his development and cause him to walk with a limp for the rest of his life. However, his parents are determined to help him overcome this disability and have volunteered him for a pioneering treatment no surgeon had ever used on such a young child. During a 90-minute operation shown in part in this program, wires are pushed through William's leg and foot to hold them rigidly in a metal frame. The frame is gradually adjusted to pull William's foot back into position. Six weeks later it is removed, and William is able to take his first steps.
Online
1996
62.

The Female Reproductive Organs [electronic resource]

Dr. Alice Roberts continues her explanation of our reproductive systems, in this episode looking at the female sexual organs. Using an MRI scanner on her own body, she demonstrates how everything fits together-possibly a first for a television presenter. Using her trademark dissections of animal parts, drawings, and props, Dr. Roberts explains the female reproductive organs. Thousands of chocolate mini eggs help to demonstrate the huge number of eggs a baby girl is born with and how they immediately start disintegrating. There is also advice on how to become "breast aware," on the importance of protecting oneself from sexually transmitted infections, and on the value of smear tests for fighting cervical cancer.
Online
2008
63.

Ear, Nose, and Throat [electronic resource]

Our ears, nose, and throat are all situated close together in the skull, but each has a different function. In this episode, Dr. Alice Roberts shows viewers the tiny bones in the ear called the ossicles. It's clear that our ears are very intricate and vulnerable to damage. She then explains that loud noise can cause permanent harm to our ears. Every time you leave a nightclub or concert with ringing in the ears, you have to some extent damaged your hearing, so it is very important to provide protection. Dr. Roberts points out that the ears have a vital role to play in balance and also explains some of the roles of the nose and the throat.
Online
2008
64.

Conjoined Twins [electronic resource]

One in every 100,000 sets of twins is born joined together. Some will be separated by complex, often risky surgical procedures. But what causes twins to be born this way? What can doctors do to help them? And what are the prospects for those who have no option but to spend their lives joined together? Filmed in the United States, South Africa, Russia, and Poland, this documentary tells the story of some of the most dramatic recent separations of conjoined twin babies-and interviews adult twins who remained conjoined. Today, ambitious surgeons are using new computer technology to help them undertake operations-like separating twins joined at the head-that would once have been considered impossible.
Online
2001
65.

Rachel's Brain [electronic resource]

This medical documentary tells the harrowing story of Rachel Mulkern, who has suffered from a rare and extremely severe form of epilepsy. Throughout her life she has tried to deal with the overwhelming effects of her condition. As we look in on her, we discover that she is faced with as many as five debilitating fits a day. In addition, she is becoming increasingly violent. At a loss to find any effective treatment, her parents have come to the conclusion that her only hope will involve a radical approach: an operation to open her skull and remove half her brain. This documentary follows the surgery and its extraordinary aftermath.
Online
1999
66.

TEDTalks [electronic resource]: Iain Hutchison - Saving Faces

Facial surgeon Iain Hutchison works with people whose faces have been severely disfigured. By pushing to improve surgical techniques, he helps to improve their lives...and by commissioning their portraits, he celebrates their humanity. Warning: this talk contains images of disfigured and badly injured faces that may be disturbing. Squeamish? Hide your screen from 12:10-13:19, but do keep listening. Portraits shown in this talk come from Mark Gilbert.
Online
2011
67.

The Immune System: Series 2 [electronic resource]

The immune system is the body's defense from attack - whether from viruses like influenza or unwanted bacteria. In this episode, Dr. Alice Roberts explains how it works and what happens when it goes wrong. She also takes part in a stunt guaranteed to scare her, so the scientific effects on her immune system can be observed. Immunologist Josh Bosch compares blood samples taken before and after Dr. Roberts was terrorized. They show that her infection-fighting white blood cells were raised fivefold in a stress response resulting from her experience. Using all the means at her disposal (dissections, drawings, paintball guns, even cakes), Dr. Roberts explains the fantastic complexity of our immune system.
Online
2008
68.

The Liver: Series 2 [electronic resource]

It was thought that only alcoholics got cirrhosis of the liver, but doctors now realize that this is not necessarily the case, and that our genes and other aspects of our lifestyles all play their part in damaging the organ. This episode follows the story of Philip Parker, who is on the waiting list for a liver transplant. Surgeons are filmed replacing his liver. Dr. Alice Roberts also visits scientists at Newcastle University who hope to be able to grow replacement livers from stem cells obtained from a baby's umbilical cord. Although the liver has the ability to regenerate, with liver disease on the increase both from alcohol and other causes, this is an organ in peril.
Online
2008
69.

The Stomach and Intestines: Series 2 [electronic resource]

In this episode, Dr. Alice Roberts uses dissection, drawing, and some unusual tests to reveal where the stomach and intestines are, how big they are, and how best to look after them. Dr. Roberts is joined by Lesley Love, a 40-year-old estate agent whose diet is based almost entirely on chocolate and cheese. The doctor embarks on a mission to impress upon her the need for more fruit and vegetables. She reveals that it is normal to defecate as seldom as once every three days or as often as three times a day. It is important to be aware of one's bowel habits and take notice of any changes, as these can be signs of bowel cancer.
Online
2008
70.

Kidneys [electronic resource]

In this tour of the human body, Dr. Alice Roberts introduces viewers to the key organs. She dissects animal organs - similar in form and function to human ones - and explains how we can hold on to our health and live to a ripe old age. Dr. Roberts puts three rugby players through their paces to find out how their kidneys cope under the stress of dehydration; and June, who has been in dialysis for four years, speaks from her own experience with failing kidneys. Her sister, Lorraine, offers her own kidney, and when it is found to be a match, the program follows the live kidney transplant operation.
Online
2007
71.

Heart [electronic resource]

The heart is a hardworking organ that makes sure every muscle, tissue, and cell in the body gets just what it needs. In this episode, Dr. Alice Roberts puts her own heart to the test when she rides in a stunt plane performing acrobatics. She discovers what happens to her heart rate under stress. When she's back on the ground, she visits a pub and a chip shop to analyze what happens to her heart when she's drinking alcohol and eating chips. She finds out why a couple of alcoholic drinks are good for the heart and sees for herself just how greasy fat from chips looks when it enters her bloodstream.
Online
2007
72.

Lungs [electronic resource]

In this episode, Dr. Alice Roberts uses shock tactics to make one confirmed smoker realize how much she's damaging her lungs. On a night in the pub, Lisa can easily binge smoke her way through 40 cigarettes. She gets out of breath quickly and knows that quitting cigarettes will give her more endurance. She meets Dr. Roberts in the laboratory, where they dissect a set of pig's lungs (very similar to human lungs) to discover just how they work. They also watch an operation carried out on a 56-year-old smoker, who has a cancerous tumor on her lungs. Lisa realizes this is exactly what she could be facing if she doesn't give up her habit.
Online
2007
73.

Eyes [electronic resource]

Dr. Alice Roberts undergoes a thorough eye examination in this episode of her tour of the body's major organs. She puts her own body to the test, beginning with a 250-foot climb up a sheer cliff face - blindfolded. She also meets Sarah, who has a family history of eye problems, and sets out to discover if her computer- and TV-dependent lifestyle is affecting her sight. In addition, Dr. Roberts investigates whether carrots really are good for the eyes and whether the sunglasses available today offer enough protection from sun damage. She also checks out the pros and cons of modern laser eye surgery, and gets a firsthand account of living with vision impairment.
Online
2007
74.

Skin [electronic resource]

The body's largest organ - the skin - comes under close scrutiny in this episode. Dr. Alice Roberts puts her own skin through a series of tests, weathering temperature extremes and undergoing a computer program that shows what she will look like at the age of 80. She also looks into the thousands of wrinkle creams available today to determine whether they are helpful and meets a 22-year-old farmer who exposes his skin to the hazards of the elements on a daily basis. She puts his skin under the microscope to find out just how much it is damaged. The program also features a farmer's wife in her sixties, who has a cancerous growth removed.
Online
2007
75.

Children With Cleft Lip and Palate [electronic resource]

This program shows how a support team consisting of a plastic surgeon, orthodontist, general dentist, logopedist, dental surgeon, otorhinolaryngologist, and a social worker cooperate to provide help for children and families of children born with this condition. The various types of schisis (formerly, harelip) are shown before and after operations, which are described through animation.
Online
2008; 1995
76.

Desperate Business [electronic resource]: Human Organs for Sale

For someone in desperate need of a kidney transplant, a willing donor holds the key to life. And for someone desperately poor, the opportunity to sell one of their kidneys could mean their family's survival. Though such transactions are illegal, many people, including some doctors and medical professionals, feel that they are justified. In this ABC News program, correspondent Gillian Findlay tracks the ghoulish trade from Israel through Turkey to Moldova. Interviews with patients, doctors, and donors reveal a covert world of desperation and greed. The report also raises the question: do people really want a world in which the sale of human organs is legal?
Online
2009; 2002
77.

Xenotransplantation [electronic resource]: International Debate

A gripping plea for public debate, this program offers a dynamic cross-section of views on xenotransplantation and the ethical questions it is raising. Bioethicists, researchers, academics, medical professionals, and others from institutions and companies such as Harvard Medical School, the University of Oxford, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PPL Therapeutics, and Immerge BioTherapeutics shed light on a number of pivotal issues. Among them are the safety of animal-to-human transplants, transgenic manipulation to prevent hyperacute rejection, the societal need for biosecurity versus the personal right to privacy, and the ramifications of cross-species modification. A concise history of allotransplantation is also included.
Online
2006; 2002
78.

Living Donor Organ Transplants [electronic resource]

For patients in need of an organ, the wait, not the surgery, is often the more life-threatening factor. After a concise overview of cadaveric organ transplants, this program shifts its focus to living donor organ transplants. Three liver transplant case studies-young mother to baby daughter, adult daughter to elderly mother, and adult son to elderly father-spotlight pioneering surgeon Nancy Ascher and other transplant specialists in action. Close-ups of actual surgery provide a fascinating look at the procedure that is revolutionizing the science of organ transplantation. The use of immunosuppressants to curb organ rejection is also addressed.
Online
2005; 2001
79.

Transplants [electronic resource]: History

The waiting list of organ recipients-80,000 people in America alone-is testimony to the spectacular success of transplant surgery. This program presents a history of this emerging field of medicine, highlighting breakthroughs in surgical procedures and related drugs, as well as looking at how cutting-edge technologies will change its future. Cameras go inside the operating room to show several different procedures, with detailed coverage of a father-daughter kidney transplant. Many organ recipients discuss their experiences. Interviews also include several transplant pioneers, including Dr. Thomas Starzl, who helped develop immunosuppressive medicines.
Online
2006; 2001
80.

Surgery [electronic resource]: History

Today, most surgical procedures are safe, even routine. It wasn't always that way. By looking at the obstacles of pain, infection, and shock, this program chronicles the milestones and pioneers of modern surgery, tracing the development of anesthesia, antiseptics, antibiotics, and transfusions. To illustrate just how far the field has come, the intricacies of heart bypass surgery are presented in close detail. Numerous case studies are also used to show the progress of reconstructive and cosmetic surgery, as well as the emergence of laparoscopy and other noninvasive techniques.
Online
2005; 2001