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61.

No Rest for the Wicked [electronic resource]: Protestantism and Economics

In the 21st-century landscape of shopping malls and skyscrapers, capitalism appears irreligious-but beneath its secular veneer lie theological principles born in the 1500s. This program examines the rise of the Protestant work ethic and the religious foundations of Western industry; it also reveals a Protestant consciousness at the heart of social activism and the opposition to extreme capitalism. Beginning with John Calvin and his sanctification of material success, the film focuses on Britain's Nonconformist movement, John Winthrop's colonial ventures, the Puritan basis of Benjamin Franklin's ideals, and divisions that arose within Protestantism over slavery and the excesses of factory labor.
Online
2009; 2006
62.

The Shadow of God [electronic resource]: Turning the Dark Side of Monotheism to the Light

No religions have proved more combative than Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, despite the fact that they share the same deity-or perhaps because of it. In this program, renowned biblical scholar and religious historian Othmar Keel sheds light on topics such as the volatile historical and cultural contexts in which the Old Testament originated; the protracted struggle of monotheism for supremacy over polytheism; and brutal ruptures between successive belief systems that have pitted Jews against polytheists, Christians against Jews, and Muslims against both Christians and Jews. Keel urges adherents of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam to critically review their own histories within a vertical ecumenical vision based on their common origins and not on their denominational differences.
Online
2007; 2006
63.

Transjordan Part 1 [electronic resource]: Holy Land, Historical Land

Transjordan-the Oultrejordain of Crusader times, known to the ancients as Edom and Moab-is steeped in biblical history. In this program, archaeologists Fawzi Zayadine, Mohammed Waheeb, and Carmelo Pappalardo attempt to match up biblical events with the terrain where it is said that they occurred. The refuge of Lot, the trail of the Exodus, the place of Jesus' baptism, Moses' vantage point on the summit of Mount Nebo, and early churches of the Madaba region are the focus of their exploration. In addition, Catreena Hamarneh, director of the Madaba Mosaic School, discusses the remarkable Madaba mosaics and their restoration.
Online
2007; 2006
64.

Transjordan Part 2 [electronic resource]: Crusader Castles

Recent research at the 12th-century Frankish castles of Shobak and Kerak in what was called Transjordan provides valuable insights into life and death in the Holy Land during the time period of the Crusades. In this program, historian Cedric Devais, of the French Institute of the Near East-Amman, and history guide Mustapha Kiwan talk about prior archaeological missions to the region, structural aspects of the fortifications, and day-to-day life within those massive stone bastions. In addition, the program addresses the political and economic incentives to waging holy war against the Muslim forces.
Online
2007; 2006
65.

Ethiopia [electronic resource]

Could Ethiopia have been founded by the son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba? In this program art historian Gus Casely-Hayford searches for the facts behind the legend by traveling to several important religious sites: Gondar, with its stunning icons; Lalibela, a cluster of 11 churches carved from single blocks of stone; remote Debre Damo monastery; Axum, allegedly home to the Ark of the Covenant; and finally, to a pre-Christian temple where inscriptions in ancient Sabaean - the language spoken by the people of Sheba - provide a tenuous link to the biblical queen. Casely-Hayford also talks with an Eastern Orthodox patriarch and goes to bustling, Muslim Harar as part of the quest to find cultural expressions that link modern Ethiopia to its ancient past.
Online
2009
66.

The First Christianity [electronic resource]

This program brings viewers to exceptional sacred sites throughout the Near East and Asia to trace the first expansion of Christianity from Jerusalem - which was not to Rome with Paul, but to Turkey, Syria, Egypt, Armenia, and Ethiopia. After the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD followers of Jesus fled to Asia Minor, establishing a thriving ecclesiastical community at least 100 years before Constantine made Christianity Rome's official religion. The video highlights the significance of the Syriac Orthodox Church and discusses differences between Eastern and Roman imperial Christianity, the doctrine of the Trinity, and the impact of Islam in Syria. It covers the rule and the rivalries of Constantine, Nestorius, Cyril, and Timothy I; the Councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon; and a stronghold of [...]
Online
2009
67.

Catholicism [electronic resource]: The Unpredictable Rise of Rome

Rome was once the center of Christian persecution, but the martyrdom there of Paul and Peter began the unfolding of a historical epic that ended with the seat of empire becoming the spiritual capital of the Western Latin church. This program charts the development of Roman Catholicism, traveling to the ancient Port of Ostia, churches in Ravenna, and a remote Celtic monastery to show how Constantine took Christianity from a religion for the downtrodden to a faith aligned with temporal power and wealth. As the Church expanded, key doctrines fell into place: priestly celibacy, confession and penance, purgatory and indulgences, and original sin. The video highlights the accomplishments of Damasus I, Gregory I, and Gregory the Reformer; examines early signs of schism that began with the " [...]
Online
2009
68.

Orthodoxy [electronic resource]: From Empire to Empire

On July 16, 1054, a dramatic event occurred during the worship service in the Church of Hagia Sophia: a papal delegation delivered a document excommunicating the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the Patriarch promptly excommunicated the Pope in return. Known as The Great Schism, the act divided Eastern from Western Catholic Christianity. Going on location to the most venerated sites in the Byzantine world, this program presents a history of Eastern Orthodoxy. The video focuses on the tenacity of the Church as it survived Muslim invasions, the destruction by Crusaders of its holy city, the crumbling of the Byzantine Empire, czarist exploitation, and being shut down by the Soviet regime. It also covers the conversion of the Slavs, the use of icons - banned in a desperate reversal of lo [...]
Online
2009
69.

Reformation [electronic resource]: The Individual Before God

The Reformation was a period of rebellion, upheaval, and war - all sparked by one man whose revolt against church authority led to the creation of Protestantism and ultimately, to a reinvigoration of the Catholic faith. This program travels to churches in Europe, Britain, and Mexico to explore the key figures, philosophies, and movements of the Protestant Reformation. It looks at the issues that inflamed Martin Luther, and then Zwigli and John Calvin, as well as the doctrines that divided them, and the many branches of Protestantism that formed as a result. The video also provides an overview of the English Reformation and the English Civil War, the Reconquista, the Council of Trent and the Counter-Reformation, the impact of missionaries in Mexico, the sectarian tensions in Bohemia t [...]
Online
2009
70.

Protestantism [electronic resource]: The Evangelical Explosion

Now identified mainly with Fundamentalism, the Evangelical movement that began in 18th-century Britain was an exuberant expression of Protestantism that quickly spread across the globe. What made it so compelling that slaves and slave-owners, the poor and the powerful alike, embraced it in America, Africa, and Asia? This program studies the cultural, theological, and political framework of the Evangelical movement and the branches of Protestantism that it produced. Beginning with the influence of the Moravians, it covers John Wesley's Methodism, Jonathan Edwards and the first two Great Awakenings, the impact of the American Revolution, and the linking of politics, capitalism, and Protestantism in the new nation's ascendency. The video also goes to Africa to examine the establishment [...]
Online
2009
71.

God on Trial [electronic resource]

For more than a millennium Western civilization looked to the Church for answers to questions about life's meaning. But for many, acceptance of ecclesiastical doctrine wasn't enough. This program traces the roots of modern religious skepticism back over 400 years to examine both the unraveling and the endurance of Christian belief. It explores challenges to established theologies in the ideas of Spinoza, Newton, and Voltaire and in the ideals of the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the Victorian era and considers erosion of faith in the 20th century caused by the impact of World War I and political totalitarianism. The video goes to Auschwitz, the Vatican, and St. Martin-in-the-Fields to consider how the Holocaust, the Second Vatican Council, and late-20th-century social cha [...]
Online
2009
72.

Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire [electronic resource]

Out of the ashes of the Roman Empire rose the Holy Roman Empire, born during Christmas of 800 in the Basilica of St. Peter's in Rome. This program covers the antecedents and the life of Charlemagne, shows life at the court, life of the courtiers and of the peasants, recounts the battle of Roncevaux-site of the epic Chanson de Roland-and counterpoints the glories of the Carolingian Renaissance with the everyday realities of hunger, plague, and constant violence. The program concludes with the first of Europe's major confrontations between empire and church, in this instance between Henry IV and Gregory VII.
Online
2005; 1989
73.

Byzantium [electronic resource]: From Splendor to Ruin

This program covers the founding of Constantinople as a second Rome, its flowering when the Roman Empire in the West was shattered, its gradual decline under the impact of Normans, Turks, Venetians, and the Crusades, and finally, its fall in 1453. The program describes the history, art, and religious significance of Byzantium, its attempts to restore the Roman Empire, its influence in the West, and its heritage.
Online
2006; 1989
74.

Christians, Jews, and Moslems in Medieval Spain [electronic resource]

Due partly to the weakness of its Visigothic rulers, partly to its proximity to Africa, the Iberian peninsula was conquered by Berbers and by Arabs belonging to the Ommayad Dynasty of Damascus. This program describes the history of Spain from the time of the first landing in 711, through the nearly 800-year-long war that ended in the expulsion of both Moors and Jews in 1492; the development of a culture whose people spoke various Spanish dialects while the official language was Arabic; the role of the School of Toledo in preserving, translating, and making known the ancient Greek scientific texts as well as Arabic treatises on philosophy and science; the rabbinic center in Toledo; and the history of the Jews in Spain.
Online
2005; 1979
75.

Stonehenge in Context [electronic resource]: From Modern Myth to Ancient History

Using 3-D computer re-creations of Stonehenge during its three phases of construction, archival film and photos of archaeological excavations, and artwork, this program traces the long history of Britain's most famous Neolithic landmark. Archaeologists Geoffrey Wainwright, Dave Batchelor, and Gillian Swanton and authors Rosamund Cleal, Clive Ruggles, Christopher Chippindale, and Mike Pitts consider the many theories posited over the centuries, summarily debunking some and conservatively praising others. Remarkable footage of a recent attempt to build a similar monument using ancient human-powered methods is included.
Online
2005; 2002
76.

Easter Island in Context [electronic resource]: From Paradise to Calamity

When Dutch sailors landed on Easter Island, they found a warlike people recovering from anarchy and cannibalism. What had gone wrong with a civilization that had lived in peace for nearly a thousand years? In this program, Claudio Cristino, the island's resident archaeologist; William Liller, of the Easter Island Foundation; Patricia Vargas Casanova, of the Easter Island Studies Institute at the University of Chile; and others offer their views on moai, rongorongo tablets, the Birdman Cult, and the devastating effects of overpopulation, to provide a captivating glimpse of a complex culture driven to the brink of extinction. Images of artifacts, 3-D computer graphics, and artwork enhance the program.
Online
2006; 2002
77.

Noah's Flood in Context [electronic resource]: Legend or History?

How much truth is there in the Old Testament account of Noah? Enhanced by satellite imagery, declassified intelligence photos, archival footage, and artwork, this program considers the scientific plausibility of the Noah story. Experts including Porcher Taylor III; archaeologist Fredrik Hiebert, of the University of Pennsylvania; linguist Peter Machinist, of Harvard Divinity School; geologist Farouk El-Baz, of Boston University; and others discuss the efforts of British Museum researcher George Smith, archaeologist Sir Leonard Woolley, explorer Fernand Navarra, and former astronaut James Irwin to prove the Noah story while presenting counter-theories based on the latest scientific scholarship and research.
Online
2006; 2002
78.

The Mystery of the Tomb of Jesus [electronic resource]: Quest for Historical Christ

This program uses footage of the caverns beneath the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other sacred sites, artwork, and expert commentary to analyze the historicity of Jesus' last days, the political context of 1st-century Jerusalem, and the emergence of Christianity as an institution. Jesus' execution, burial of the dead in Jewish tradition, the significance of Jesus' tomb, and two millennia of Jerusalem's history are addressed by N. T. Wright, canon theologian of Westminster Abbey; archaeologist Ronny Reich, of the University of Haifa; Martin Biddle, of the University of Oxford; Jonathan Riley-Smith, of the University of Cambridge; author John Dominic Crossan; and others.
Online
2005; 2002
79.

Revolution of Conscience [electronic resource]: Life, Convictions, and Legacy of Martin Luther

Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the church door at Wittenberg hoping to open a theological dialogue. Instead, he sparked the Reformation. This definitive documentary chronicles Luther's life and lasting impact on religion and society through a wealth of location footage, original manuscripts, period paintings, and expert commentary from Dr. Timothy George, Dean of Beeson Divinity School, and Dr. Paul Richardson, professor of hymnology at Samford University. Providing social and historical context, the program elucidates key theological issues, such as sanctification, justification, the sale of plenary indulgences, the dogma of transubstantiation, and, ultimately, the origin of religious authority itself.
Online
2005; 2003
80.

Baalbek [electronic resource]: Roman Temple Complex

On the plains of Beqaa, on the site of the Phoenician city of Baalbek, stands what is arguably the world's most impressive testament to Imperial Roman architecture: the gigantic temple complex dedicated to Jupiter, Venus, and Bacchus. Its six-story columns are the tallest ever erected, and its stones-some weighing nearly a thousand tons-are the largest ever used. In this program, architect Jean-Pierre Adam, of the National Center of Scientific Research, and Chaker Ghadban, former director of Lebanese antiquities, utilize the existing remains and computer-generated animation to demonstrate how the immense temples at Baalbek were built.
Online
2005; 2001