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Geomorphology
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1.

Mountain Building [electronic resource]

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Destroys the myth of the mountain as a solid, permanent structure. Animations are used to illustrate the process of orogeny (mountain building) through accretion and erosion, as well as the role of plate tectonics, the rock cycle, and how different types of rock are formed in the course of mountain building.
Online
1992
2.

Earth's Structures [electronic resource]

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A visit to the Grand Canyon lays the foundation for this exploration of rock layers and deformation. Topics include sedimentation, major structures, the methods used to examine them, and how petroleum may be trapped inside rock layers. The program also looks at tectonic force and the different types of stress involved in the formation of geologic structures.
Online
1992
3.

Earthquakes [electronic resource]

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Showing actual footage of earthquakes and their aftermath, discusses the forces that fuel these massive events. Faults, waves, and the transfer of energy from the epicenter are explained, and histories of the seismograph and Richter scale are presented. The program also describes devices being developed to study and eventually predict earthquakes.
Online
1992
4.

Geologic Time [electronic resource]

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To illustrate the immensity of geologic time, the entire span of Earth's existence is compressed down to a year. The timeline of major geologic events is superimposed onto the year for a condensed view of Earth's evolution. A relationship between this timeline and that of life on Earth is established, with fossils and radiocarbon dating playing a major role in the discovery
Online
1992
5.

Evolution Through Time [electronic resource]

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The fossil record reveals much about the diversity and development of species. Examines the traces left by early plants, animals, and single-celled organisms and follows the progression of life forms over time. Connections are drawn between atmospheric gases, climate change, rock formation, biological functions, and mass extinctions.
Online
1992
6.

Minerals [electronic resource]: The Materials of Earth

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Looks at the variety of minerals that have been indispensable to human civilization, their atomic and crystalline structures, and their physical properties such as hardness and luster. Petrologist's methods of sectioning rocks are demonstrated, and gems, precious metals, ore excavation, and the value of silicates are discussed
Online
1992
7.

Volcanism [electronic resource]

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Volcanoes provide clues about what is going on inside Earth. Animations illustrate volcanic processes and how plate boundaries are related to volcanism. Also surveys the various types of eruptions, craters, cones and vents, lava domes, magma, and volcanic rock. The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens serves as one example.
Online
1992
8.

Intrusive Igneous Rocks [electronic resource]

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Explains that most magma does not extrude onto Earth's surface but cools slowly deep inside Earth. This magma seeps into crevices in existing rock to form intrusive igneous rocks. Experts provide a graphic illustration of this process and explain the types and textures of rocks such as granite, obsidian, and quartz. Once again, plate tectonics is shown to be involved in the process.
Online
1992
9.

Weathering and Soils [electronic resource]

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Explains that the Cleopatra's Needle obelisk in New York City's Central Park is severely weathered after only 75 years, whereas the dry climate of Egypt has preserved similar structures in that country for millennia. Shows how weather, climate, chemicals, temperature, and type of substrate, factor into rock and soil erosion. Environmental connections are also considered.
Online
1992
10.

Mass Wasting [electronic resource]

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Explains that anyone undertaking a building project must understand mass wasting or the downslope movement of earth under the influence of gravity. Various factors in mass wasting, including the rock's effective strength and pore spaces, are discussed, as are different types of mass wasting such as creep, slump, and landslides. Images of an actual landslide illustrate the phenomenon.
Online
1992
11.

Sedimentary Rocks [electronic resource]: The Key to Past Environments

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Returns to the Grand Canyon where exposed layers of sedimentary rock allow scientists to peer into the geologic past. The movement of sediment and its deposition are covered, and the processes of lithification, compaction, and cementation that produce sedimentary rocks are explained. Organic components of rock are also discussed.
Online
1992
12.

Metamorphic Rocks [electronic resource]

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Demonstrates that the weight of a mountain creates enough pressure to recrystallize rock, thus creating metamorphic rocks. Outlines the recrystallization process and the types of rock it can create, from claystone and slate to schist and garnet-bearing gneiss. The relationship of metamorphic rock to plate tectonics is also covered.
Online
1992
13.

Running Water 1 [electronic resource]: Rivers, Erosion and Deposition

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Demonstrates that rivers are the most common land feature on Earth and play a vital role in the sculpting of land. Shows landscapes formed by rivers, the various types of rivers, the basic parts of a river, and how characteristics of rivers, their slope, channel, and discharge, erode and build the surrounding terrain. Aspects of flooding are also discussed
Online
1992
14.

Running Water 2 [electronic resource]: Landform Evolution

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Demonstrates the power of rivers in showing how the Colorado River is powerful enough to have carved the Grand Canyon. Focuses on how such carving takes place over time, looking at erosion and deposition processes as they relate to river characteristics and type of rock. The evolution of rivers is covered, along with efforts to prevent harmful consequences to humans.
Online
1992
15.

Groundwater [electronic resource]

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Reminds us that approximately three-quarters of Earth's surface is covered by water but most fresh water comes from underground. Topics include aquifers, rock porosity and permeability, artesian wells, the water table, cave formation, sinkholes, and how groundwater may become contaminated.
Online
1992
16.

Wind, Dust and Deserts [electronic resource]

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Demonstrates that land in arid climates is shaped in particular ways. Shows how deserts are defined by infrequent precipitation and how desertification relates to proximity to the equator, proximity to mountains, and ultimately plate tectonics. Images of landscapes illustrate how wind creates features such as dunes, playas, blow-outs, and even oases
Online
1992
17.

Glaciers [electronic resource]

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Demonstrates that many of the world's most beautiful landscapes were made by glaciers. Explains glacial formation, structure, movement, and methods of gouging and accumulating earth. Provides images of glaciers and glacial landforms such as moraines, and discusses how study of glaciers may help us understand ice ages and the greenhouse effect.
Online
1992
18.

Waves, Beaches and Coasts [electronic resource]

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Shows the dynamic interaction of two geologic agents: rocky landmasses and the energy of the ocean. Aspects of waves and their types, parts, movement, and impact on the shore are illustrated. Also covers shoreline characteristics, currents, sea barriers, tides, and how the greenhouse effect could impact sea level and coastal lands.
Online
1992
19.

Living With Earth: 1 [electronic resource]

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Scenes of San Francisco before the Loma Prieta earthquake address how humans are learning to cope with earthquakes. Various groups and agencies are studying the San Andreas Fault and the damage caused along its path to better understand how earthquakes ravage the land. Methods of studying earthquakes are reviewed.
Online
1992
20.

Living With Earth: 2 [electronic resource]

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Discusses where oil comes from, how it is extracted, and how it is converted into energy. The effects of oil drilling and the burning of fossil fuels are also addressed, and the potential of alternative energy sources is considered
Online
1992