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121.

Interview With Charles Morgan July 14, 1987.

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Disc 171. Civil rights attorney Charles Morgan remembers Freedom Summer of 1964 and recalls hearing when Chaney, Schwerner, and Goodman were missing. Mr. Morgan says that the system of justice in the South did not work against African American individuals, it worked against all African Americans as a group. He explains how all parts of justice system work together and how public interest lawyers succeeded in changing the law on jury cases in the South. Disc 172. Mr. Morgan believes that you must integrate colors, creeds, cultures etc., or change and understanding will never happen. Mr. Morgan points out that there were no African American prisons in the South before the Civil War because all African Americans were imprisoned [by slavery]. The civil rights movement was a revolution in [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
122.

Interview With E. Frederic Morrow August 9, 1985.

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Disc 063. Former White House executive and civil rights attorney Frederic Morrow contends that World War II triggered increased interest in civil rights among African Americans because they were defending a way of life that they could not enjoy. Mr. Morrow recalls his 1957 trip to Africa with Vice President Richard Nixon; he remembers African nations appointing white ambassadors to the United States because African Americans were discriminated against in the US State Department. Mr. Morrow says that President Eisenhower was a decent man, but his philosophy on race was incorrect. Mr. Morrow reviews his childhood in New Jersey, what it was like in the military during World War II, and his position as the first African American in history to be on the President's staff at the White Hous [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
123.

Interview With Constance Baker Motley December 18, 1987.

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Disc 266. Judge Constance Baker Motley recalls her childhood and education, including her first experience with Jim Crow. The Gaines case in 1938 influenced her to become a lawyer. Clarence Blakeslee, a white philanthropist in Connecticut, paid for her law school tuition. She joined the NAACP Legal Defense Fund in 1945 as a clerk. She discusses the legal strategy to target southern graduate schools with enforcement of the Gaines decision. Disc 267. Judge Motley recalls the NAACP Legal Defense Fund campaign to address the lack of adequate graduate and professional schools for African American students in the South. She discusses the background of several higher education cases, including the 1946 Sweatt case in Texas and the Sipuel case in Oklahoma. The next step in the strategy was t [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
124.

Interview With James M. Nabrit March 29, 1985.

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Disc 023: Civil rights attorney James Nabrit discusses childhood and segregation in Augusta, Georgia. He covers his law practice in Texas and how he fought to have one Democratic primary instead of two (one for whites, one for African Americans). He left Texas because Mordecai Johnson wanted him to come to Howard University. There, he taught in the law school and became dean, then secretary of the university, then president. He recounts how the news of Jack Johnson’s boxing victory in Augusta, Georgia was greeted by the taunting and burning of an African American man who was celebrating. Disc 024. Nabrit recalls how the civil rights struggle developed and touches upon African American economic development. He details his preparation for civil rights cases. He declares that winning co [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
125.

Interview With Robert J. "Jeff" Norrell May 11, 1987.

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Disc 134. History professor Jeff Norrell talks in Kelly Ingram Park in Birmingham, Alabama, across the street from the 16th St. Baptist Church, about demonstrations there in 1963. He remarks on the children and student participants in the demonstrations and the confrontations between demonstrators and police in early May. He talks about what Birmingham is like in 1987, what the park and the church represent, and how downtown Birmingham has changed. Disc 135. Mr. Norrell recalls cases heard at the old Birmingham federal courthouse, like Steele v. Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company, and the Birmingham College case. He also talks about attorney Arthur Shores, the rise of African American political power in Birmingham, and voting rights cases from Birmingham. Disc 136. Mr. Norrell [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
126.

Interview With John Norton September 21, 1987.

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Disc 211. Footage of classes at Scott's Branch High School in Clarendon County, South Carolina, and some rural housing. At 13:41, Journalist John Norton, an education reporter for a Southern newspaper, talks about how Clarendon County has changed, as well as how it hasn't, since the Briggs v. Elliott case. Disc 212. Norton recounts some of the history of the school districts in Clarendon County, South Carolina. He outlines how the schools have been neglected, and therefore how the whole community is failing. Disc 213. Norton describes the education situation in Clarendon County, South Carolina. At 7:18, footage of Clarendon County, South Carolina, including rural roads, Liberty Hill Church, cotton gin.
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
127.

Interview With Matthew J. Perry September 19, 1987.

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Disc 186. Judge Matthew Perry recalls his service in the US Army during World War II in Europe. His travels overseas allowed him to participate in a society without segregation. He discusses his upbringing and education, especially the segregation of higher education institutions. He decided to be a lawyer after seeing Thurgood Marshall and Robert Carter try a case in Columbia, South Carolina concerning segregation in education. Disc 187. Judge Perry recounts the story of seeing Thurgood Marshall and Robert Carter try a case to desegregate South Carolina University Law School. Perry's own law school alma mater, South Carolina State College Law School, was established in response to the above case. He practiced law in South Carolina until his 1976 appointment to the federal judiciary [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
128.

Interview With Joseph L. Rauh October 24, 1987.

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Disc 230. Civil rights attorney Joseph Rauh talks about his clerkships to the US Supreme Court for both Justices Cardozo and Frankfurter. He discusses the 1941 Executive Order by President Franklin Roosevelt, called the Fair Employment Act, which Rauh wrote. During World War II, he worked as Gen. MacArthur's secretary and in the Lend-Lease Administration. He recalls the founding of the Americans for Democratic Action in 1947. He tells anecdotes about working with A. Philip Randolph. Disc 231. Mr. Rauh remembers, during the 1940s, African Americans and whites could not eat together in a restaurant in Washington DC. The District was a segregated city until the Supreme Court ruled otherwise. Mr. Rauh talks about his acquaintance with Charles Hamilton Houston. Mr. Rauh describes Houston' [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
129.

Interview With Louis L. Redding February 21, 1986.

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Disc 102. Civil rights attorney Louis Redding recalls his family, childhood, and going to Brown University. Disc 103. Mr. Redding tells his family’s history at Brown. After Harvard Law School, he returned to still segregated Delaware to practice law. Immediately, he tried to abolish separation based on race in courtrooms. He discussed the Parker case, its background, African American admission to University of Delaware, and Judge Collins Seitz. Disc 104. Redding says that he would not have filed the Parker case if he didn't know that Judge Collins Seitz would get the case. In Gebhart v. Belton, the public school case, Redding used testimony from psychology and sociology experts about how separate but equal was inherently detrimental to African American children. He also comments on J [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
130.

Interview With Herbert O. Reid December 6, 1985.

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Disc 080. Civil rights attorney Herbert Reid recalls his childhood in Wilson, North Carolina, and his family. He remembers hearing Charles Houston speak at his high school. His parents were involved in the formation of an NAACP chapter in Wilson, and Walter White stayed at his house when he was a little boy. He mentions Roscoe Pound's influence on Houston, but he asserts that Houston formed his own ideas of the function of the law and the social order. At Howard Law School, students and faculty called these ideas the Houstonian school of jurisprudence. Disc 081. Mr. Reid arrived at Howard Law School in 1947, when the whole school was immersed in preparing civil rights cases. He says that the early planning and pleadings in the Brown v. Board of Education cases involved work by both s [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
131.

Interview With Walter N. Ridley April 10, 1989.

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Disc 282. Dr. Walter Ridley discusses his experience at Howard University, Virginia State University, and the University of Virginia. When he was admitted to the University of Virginia in 1950, Colgate Darden stated that Dr. Ridley would have access to all university facilities. Dr. Ridley said that he did not feel out of place at the university and if people did not want him there, he was not aware of it. He also mentions Mordecai Johnson at Howard University, Carter Woodson, Charlie Thompson and George Ferguson. Disc 283. Dr. Ridley discusses his part in the integration of the African American Teachers Association with the white National Education Association. He recalls how the janitors and custodians at U.Va. told him they would protect him while he was a student there. Ridley wa [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
132.

Interview With Solomon S. Seay May 8, 1987.

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Disc 117. Shots of Beulah Johnson's Tuskegee house and neighborhood. At 3:40 change to William Elwood interviewing Mayor Johnny Ford outside Tuskegee municipal building about the impact of the Voting Rights Act, Gomillion v. Lightfoot case, Fred Gray, and being mayor for 15 years. At 12:05 change to Elwood interviewing civil rights attorney Solomon S. Seay, Jr., in Montgomery about Seay's background and education, his military service experience, and watching the top Brown v. Board of Education lawyers practice the case at Howard Law School. Disc 118. Seay recounts why he became a lawyer, his reaction to the Brown v. Board of Education ruling, what white leaders did in Montgomery to circumvent the Brown decision and keep schools segregated, and how both sides used the law to get what [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
133.

Interview With Modjeska Simkins September 19, 1987.

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Disc 190. Civil rights activist Modjeska Simkins discusses her childhood in South Carolina and the influence of her grandmother, who was a slave. She tells vivid stories of her family's ordeals with slavery and post-Civil War freedom and discrimination. Disc 191. Ms. Simkins shares stories about her family's experience with racial discrimination. She talks about people using the Bible to support their prejudices and why she quit the church. She explains the power structure among rich white people, poor white people, and African Americans. She recalls when NAACP lawyers like Thurgood Marshall would come down to South Carolina to try a case and stay in her house because they couldn't stay in any hotels. She tells how African American schools didn't have buses or fuel for heat. Disc 192 [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
134.

Interview With Collins J. Seitz February 21, 1986.

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Disc 095. Judge Collins Seitz recalls his childhood and schooling, the University of Delaware, the University of Virginia law school, and the DuPont scholarship. Disc 096. Mr. Seitz reports that discrimination was never discussed in law school, and separate but equal was never discussed while he was a young lawyer in Wilmington. Disc 097. Seitz talks about being appointed Vice Chancellor in Delaware's Court of Chancery. Important decisions he wrote in the corporate arena include the Bata Shoe case, Ringling Brothers case, and Campbell v. Loew’s. The first civil rights case he tried as judge was Parker v. University of Delaware in 1950. The case was based on the idea that separateness was inherently unequal. Disc 098. The per se theory, that segregation was inherently unequal, was a p [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
135.

Interview With J. Clay Smith July 14, 1987.

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Disc 166. Civil rights attorney and professor J. Clay Smith discusses the beginning of Howard University Law School and John Mercer Langston. Mr. Smith says the law school's mission was always to make the Constitution a living document. Early students didn't have a high school diploma, just a certificate of literacy. Most first African American lawyers and judges in different states were graduates of Howard. Charles Hamilton Houston taught at Howard; he himself went to Harvard Law School. Houston was known as a hard taskmaster. He was criticized for trying to Harvardize Howard, but he knew the law school had to be comparable to others. Disc 167. Mr. Smith recalls Houston practicing civil rights test cases in court rooms at Howard University. Both faculty and students would pose as th [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
136.

Interview With Juanita Kidd Stout June 16, 1987.

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Disc 153. Judge Juanita Kidd Stout remembers hearing Charles Houston speak in 1937 in the Gaines case in Missouri and describes what it was like in the courtroom. She talks about becoming a lawyer, being an African American woman; she declares she never felt discrimination in the field of law. She tells the story of how she came to work for Houston when she was young. Stout recalls what Houston was like, his belief in the Constitution and the rule of law, and his plans for challenges to US law decades into the future. Disc 154. Judge Stout wants to know why Houston is not well-known, as most lawyers consider him to be one of the best legal minds ever. It is tragic that he is not taught in civil rights courses. Judge Stout declares that people now don't realize the deprivations that A [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
137.

Interview With Lorin A. Thompson December 30, 1984.

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Disc 001. Mr. Lorin Thompson discusses the 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education, which in practice gave states the opportunity to close public schools in order to avoid desegregation. The Charlottesville schools closed in the fall of 1958, the teachers volunteered to teach in other venues. The crisis over school desegregation eventually became an important social, economic and moral issue. Mr. Thompson asserts that people should find an amenable solution and recognize the rights of all people. Thompson was the director of the Bureau of Population Economic Research at the University of Virginia which studied problems of urban development. Disc 002. Different camera angles.
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
138.

Interview With Samuel Wilbert Tucker January 17, 1985.

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Disc 014. Civil rights attorney Samuel Wilbert Tucker recites lyrics to an unknown song and talks about patriotism. At 13:30, Tucker and Elwood go for a walk. Disc 015. Stills of Tucker family photographs. Interview begins at 7:30 in Tucker's law office in Alexandria, VA. Subjects of discussion include Tucker's mother and father and Parker Grey school alumni. Disc 016. Tucker talks about his own education, his elementary school teachers, especially teacher Rozier D. Lyles and the naming of the Lyles Crouch elementary school. Mr. Tucker started the program for adult night classes at the Parker Grey elementary school.
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
139.

Interview With Donald Watkins May 9, 1987.

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Disc 126. Civil rights attorney Donald Watkins talks about Montgomery’s challenges, like the Confederate Flag flying on the Alabama Capitol. He also covers George Wallace, the continuing fight for civil rights, the teacher accreditation exam case, and achieving parity in society via the law. He remembers an African American custodian at the University of Alabama law school, Remus Rhodes, who taught the first African American students there how to use the library and how to form study groups. Disc 127. Watkins continues discussing Remus Rhodes, the custodian who became mentor to the first African American students at University of Alabama law school, as well as civil rights law history. At 11:30 minutes, footage of rural road and neighborhood.
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
140.

Interview With Joseph C. Watson September 20, 1987.

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Disc 208. Footage of Summerton, Clarendon County, South Carolina, the origin of the Briggs v. Elliott case, which was part of Brown v. Board of Education. At 5:10, interview with Clarendon School District One Superintendent Joseph C. Watson begins. Mr. Watson describes how the Summerton school district is not yet integrated, as it consists of only African American students despite the fact that the community is 40% white. He explains why he thinks the school district is so bad and defends the school's poor performance. Disc 209. Watson continues to explain the policies of the district school board, especially concerning budget restrictions. He reflects on his performance as superintendent. At 8:07, footage of Clarendon School District One.
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)