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Discrimination in Education — Law and Legislation — United States
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1.

The Road to Brown

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Presents the role of Charles Hamilton Houston in the cases which led to the landmark Supreme Court case of Brown vs. Board of Education. Gives a history of segregation, Jim Crow Laws, the NAACP and biographical information on persons influential in the desegregation movement.
DVD
1990
Clemons (Stacks)
2.

Interview With H. Brandt "Brandy" Ayers May 10, 1987.

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Disc 132. Journalist Brandy Ayers describes the Willie Brewster murder and subsequent trial that featured the shooting of indicted killer Damon Strange by Jimmy Glenn Knight in the courthouse during the grand jury hearing. He also discusses how the jury commission worked in Alabama. Disc 133. Mr. Ayers calls for a new style of politics wherein all factions come together for total mobilization. He believes that the American dream is not real for African Americans.
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
3.

Interview With Jack Bass September 19, 1987.

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Disc 194. Professor Jack Bass talks about Judge J. Waites Waring and his daring decisions. Mr. Bass also recalls the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals applying a broad interpretation of Brown v. Board of Education to its decisions during the civil rights era. For example, in the Montgomery bus boycott case, the Fifth Circuit Court declared that Brown had overturned Plessy v. Ferguson. Mr. Bass offers remarks concerning Judge Richard Taylor Rives, Judge John R. Brown's dissent in Gomillion v. Lightfoot, and socioeconomic changes in the South. Disc 195. Mr. Bass describes the African American diaspora to the North. Mr. Bass talks about Judge Frank M. Johnson and his judicial decisions reshaping the structure of society in Alabama. Mr. Bass comments on the problems faced by judges, as well [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
4.

Interview With Gardner L. Bishop December 6, 1985.

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Disc 083. Civil rights activist Gardner Bishop talks about his involvement with the Consolidated Parents Group. He relates that the group first met to discuss the atrocious school facilities in African American neighborhoods. At his suggestion, the group embarked on a school strike to embarrass the white school board. Mr. Bishop relates the details of the school strike saga. Disc 084. Mr. Bishop introduced himself to Charles Houston in order to enlist his help. Houston became the group's lawyer, ended the strike, and led the group into legal action. As the Consolidated Parents Group became organized, they needed publicity for their legal cases, and so provoked arrests by swimming in a public pool. Mr. Bishop recounts Houston's unexpected illness. Disc 085. Mr. Bishop tells the story [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
5.

Interview With Delores R. Boyd May 8, 1987.

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Disc 122. Footage of Montgomery, Alabama. At 8:00, Judge Dolores R. Boyd interview begins at her home in Montgomery. Disc 123. Judge Boyd offers opinions on the so-called New South, desegregation versus integration, the still-unrealized aspects of the Brown v. Board of Education ruling, and accessing the civil rights movement via churches. Disc 124. Judge Boyd discusses her childhood role models, her school experiences, and the need for appreciation of African American culture. Disc 125. Ms. Boyd believes African Americans are struggling to keep what they have earned over past few decades. She says there is racism, especially because of economic disparity, and the law is critical to determining society's values. At 9:28, footage of Boyd at her office.
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
6.

Interview With Frances Brand October 25, 1987.

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Disc 243. Footage of unknown Charlottesville house. At 1:00, interview with Frances Brand in her art gallery in Charlottesville. She describes her series of paintings, called "Firsts," as a tribute to important individuals within the Charlottesville community, especially people she considered exemplars of civil rights advocacy. She remembers her subjects and their achievements. At 13:30, discussion with three Charlottesville city school board members. One, Henry Mitchell, was a part of the NAACP's 1956 lawsuit to desegregate Charlottesville schools. He describes the aftermath of the desegregation ruling and the commonwealth's policy of Massive Resistance. Disc 244. Three members of the Charlottesville city school board, including Grace Tinsley, Henry Mitchell, and Clifford Bennett, d [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
7.

Interview With Wiley Branton July 15, 1987.

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Disc 175. After serving in World War II, Wiley Branton returned to discriminatory voter registration laws in his home state of Arkansas. He participated in voter education and was arrested and convicted (wrongfully) of rigging an election. This incident inspired him to go to law school. He participated in forcing the integration of University of Arkansas Law School in 1947. He describes Jim Crow professional schools in the South. Disc 176. Mr. Branton recalls the Moore v. Dempsey case from his childhood. Mr. Branton goes over a case he tried in eastern Arkansas called State of Arkansas v. Paul Lewis Beckwith. Mr. Branton discusses his childhood. He talks about desegregation in Arkansas and the education situation for African Americans at the time of the Brown v. Board of Education de [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
8.

Interview With Alvin J. Bronstein July 14, 1987.

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Disc 168. J. Clay Smith talks about Charles Hamilton Houston as the architect of the modern civil rights movement. From 3:50 to 10:40, footage of Houston and William Hastie portraits. From 10:40 to end, Alvin J. Bronstein interviewed in his office. As a young lawyer Mr. Bronstein traveled south in 1964 for Freedom Summer. He was sent to St. Augustine, Florida to work on a law suit that would force hotels to serve African Americans. He then went to Mississippi and stayed for five years as a trial lawyer in Macomb where there had been 37 church bombings. He set up offices around the South as part of the Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee funded by the ACLU. In 1968, civil rights cases in Mississippi had changed from defense of African Americans to cases advocating for rights. Dis [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
9.

Interview With Drewary Brown October 25, 1987.

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Disc 241. Drewary Brown talks about social and economic life in Charlottesville during the civil rights era and in 1987. Mr. Brown walks down the Mall in Charlottesville. At 12:37, interview with Florence Bryant in front of Jefferson School in Charlottesville. Ms. Bryant discusses the work of the NAACP on behalf of teachers. She mentions J. Rupert Picott, Aline Black, and Melvin Austin as instrumental in helping African American teachers get equal pay in Virginia in 1940. See also reports her involvement in desegregating schools in Charlottesville. She regards Charlottesville as a leader in desegregation.
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
10.

Interview With Florence Coleman Bryant October 25, 1987.

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Disc 241. Drewary Brown talks about social and economic life in Charlottesville during the civil rights era and in 1987. Mr. Brown walks down the Mall in Charlottesville. At 12:37, interview with Florence Bryant starts in front of Jefferson School in Charlottesville. Ms. Bryant discusses the work of the NAACP on behalf of teachers. She mentions J. Rupert Picott, Aline Black, and Melvin Austin as instrumental in helping African American teachers get equal pay in Virginia in 1940. She also reports her involvement in desegregating schools in Charlottesville. She regards Charlottesville as a leader in desegregation. Disc 242. Ms. Bryant advocates the teaching of African American history. She tells about her own life. At 7:49 interview with Mr. Eugene Williams begins. Mr. Williams discuss [...]
DVD
2006
Clemons (Stacks)
11.

Interview With Robert L. Carter July 9, 1985.

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Disc 055. Civil rights attorney Robert Carter recalls his childhood, his education, Howard Law School, and Charles Hamilton Houston. He says that he wasn't seriously confronted by racial discrimination until he went into the Army. Disc 056. Mr. Carter names three of his most important cases before the US Supreme Court: McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, Brown v. Board of Education, and NAACP v. Alabama. He says that Brown is important because it implied that African Americans were equal to whites in all walks of life, and it gave African Americans a feeling of freedom like they never had before. NAACP v. Alabama is important because it made use of the First Amendment in a civil rights argument. Gomillion v. Lightfoot led to Baker v. Carr. He recalls it was his idea to use psychologi [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
12.

Interview With Julius L. Chambers March 24, 1987.

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Disc 107. Footage of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund offices including that of civil rights attorney, professor, and NAACP director counsel Julius L. Chambers. Disc 108. Mr. Chambers discusses the origins of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, Charles Hamilton Houston, Thurgood Marshall, Jack Greenberg, important cases in fund history, the Keyes principle, and employment cases like Duke Power. Disc 109. Chambers recalls the most important civil rights case that grew out of his practice, Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education in the US Supreme Court, which became known as the busing case. He talks about current concerns of the fund, responding to Reagan administration challenges to civil rights, developing protection for the poor. Disc 110. Some 1987 fund work in cas [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
13.

Interview With William T. Coleman July 13, 1987.

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Disc 157. Attorney and former Secretary of Transportation William Coleman reveals the story behind his clerkship appointment to Justice Frankfurter, what Frankfurter was like as a justice, and his experiences being a clerk at the Supreme Court. He discusses other justices, like Black, and their relationships with Frankfurter. Mr. Coleman declares it a tragedy that the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments did not protect African Americans. He says that Charles Houston, William Hastie, and Thurgood Marshall were the ones who plotted civil rights cases' winning strategy. Disc 158. Mr. Coleman regrets that the Houston, Hastie, Marshall strategy was not being taught in law schools in the 1980s. He proposes it's because most people still don't see African Americans as being intelligent, well-ed [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
14.

Interview With Charles Todd Duncan November 15, 1985.

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Disc 074. Civil rights attorney Charles Todd Duncan discusses his involvement with the Brown v. Board of Education cases when he worked in the law office of Frank D. Reeves. He did much research on the history of African American codes. He was straight out of law school and was mainly a helper and errand-runner on the case, but he likes to remember that he was the one who personally physically filed the Brown case at the US Supreme Court. He mentions Charles Black. Mr. Duncan talks about Brown's impact, as well as what it didn't affect. Disc 075. Mr. Duncan helped out on the Brown case at the New York City NAACP Legal Defense Fund offices. He participated in strategy and decision-making sessions there and describes what these sessions were like. He recounts how the five Brown cases w [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
15.

Interview With William Evans January 18, 1985.

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Disc 021. Civil rights attorney Samuel Wilbert Tucker argues that the Brown v. Board of Education decision didn't mandate immediate desegregation, so it took years of court cases make it happen slowly. He also discusses civil rights in 1985. At 7:00 there is footage of brothers Samuel and Otto Wilbert visiting the Alexandria Library. At 9:50, interview with William Evans begins. There is no sound until 11:54. Evans discusses his participation in the 1939 Alexandria Library Sit-In. Disc 022. Civil rights activist William Evans recounts the 1939 Alexandria Library Sit-In, details of the circumstances, the hearings, and the other men involved.
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
16.

Interview With Earl B. Dickerson June 4, 1985.

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Disc 046. Pictures inside and outside the Supreme Life Insurance Company in Chicago. At 11:26, Elwood interviews civil rights attorney Earl Dickerson in Dickerson's home in Chicago. Disc 2047. Mr. Dickerson discusses his involvement with the National Lawyers Guild, the Smith Act and the Communist 11, and the Fair Employment Practices Committee. Disc 048. Mr. Dickerson recounts his association with the civil rights commission under President Truman. He also discusses being president of the National Bar Association. He talks about the Fair Employment Practices Committee during the early 1940s, his meetings with President Franklin Roosevelt concerning FEPC, not being invited back to serve on the FEPC, and his dealings in Birmingham as part of the FEPC. Disc 049. Mr. Dickerson talks more [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
17.

Interview With George R. Ferguson January 18, 1985.

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Disc 003. George Ferguson recalls his experiences in the aftermath of the Brown v. Board of Education decision as president of the Charlottesville NAACP, as plaintiff and witness in the local suit to admit African American students to public schools, and as a father and husband dealing with the effects of discrimination on his family. Ferguson first mentions the educational workshops in 1958 organized by the NAACP and June Shagaloff. He discusses events of 1955 when African American parents applied to have their children attend desegregated schools. His daughter Olivia and another student, John Martin, were assigned to Venable/Lane schools by Judge John Paul of the US District Court Fourth Circuit. Ferguson recounts intimidation and harassment of the NAACP by the Boatwright committee [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
18.

Interview With Anne Hobson Freeman October 26, 1987.

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Disc 251. Attorney Oliver Hill reviews Virginia's policy of Massive Resistance, the General Assembly's Boatwright committee and Thompson committee, Virginia courts and judges, and the people placement board. At 11:20, Anne Hobson Freeman talks about her new book on the law firm of Hunton and Williams in Richmond. The firm represented the school board of Prince Edward County in 1951 when students there sued the district for integration. Disc 252. Freeman relates the history of the Hunton and Williams Law firm in Richmond, Virginia, especially pertaining to the 1951 Prince Edward County integration case and Richmond integration cases. She states that the firm employed lawyers whose opinions fell on both sides of the integration issue. She also discusses several of the firm's lawyers in [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
19.

Interview With John Hope Franklin November 23, 1985.

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Disc 076. Civil rights activist and history professor John Hope Franklin did historical research for the Brown v. Board of Education cases. He wrote opposition papers, vetted briefs for historical accuracy, and answered history questions from the lawyers. He describes the slow development of state segregation policies and laws, the 14th amendment and schools, the political climate regarding race issues in the late 19th century, and the suppression of African American voters in the South. Disc 077. Mr. Franklin describes the suppression of African Americans in the South via state legislation. He talks about the elaborate disenfranchisement of African Americans using restrictions regarding real estate, literacy, voting, etc. He mentions Plessy v. Ferguson, the Oklahoma State Constituti [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)
20.

Interview With Calvin C. Green May 24, 1985.

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Disc 033. Mr. Green was a public school teacher in Richmond at Jefferson Huguenot Wythe High School and also pastor at Calvary Baptist Church in Saluda, Virginia. One of the most important cases in civil rights law decided by the US Supreme Court carries his name, Green v. County School Board of New Kent County. Green discusses why the case became notable, the background leading up to the case. Disc 034. The Green case was about the freedom of choice policy put forth by New Kent School Board. Mr. Green tells how it was not really freedom of choice because there were all kinds conditions and outcomes; for example, when the school board was forced to integrate schools, they closed all the African American schools and laid off all the African American administrators. Disc 035. Mr. Green [...]
DVD
2006
Ivy (By Request)