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Treasures of the World: Northern and Western Europe
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1.

Rauma, Finland: Wooden Town by the Sea

Situated on the Gulf of Botnia, Rauma is one of the oldest harbors in Finland. Built around a Franciscan monastery, where the mid-15th-century Holy Cross Church still stands, it is an outstanding example of an old Nordic city constructed in wood. Although ravaged by fire in the late 17th century, it has preserved its ancient vernacular architectural heritage.
Online
2017; 2001
2.

Edinburgh, Scotland: The Capital of Scotland

Edinburgh, capital of Scotland since the 15th century, presents the dual face of an old city dominated by a medieval fortress and a new neoclassic city whose development from the 18th century onwards exerted a far-reaching influence on European urban planning. The harmonious juxtaposition of these two highly contrasting historic areas, each containing many buildings of great significance, is what gives the city its unique character.
Online
2017; 2001
3.

Bath, England: Hot Springs for High Society

Founded by the Romans as a thermal spa, Bath became an important center of the wool industry in the Middle Ages. In the 18th century, under George III, it developed into an elegant town with neo-classical buildings inspired by Palladio, which blended harmoniously with the Roman thermal complex.
Online
2017; 1995
4.

Pont du Gard, France: The Roman Aqueduct of Nîmes

The Pont du Gard was built shortly before the Christian era to allow the aqueduct of Nîmes, 31 miles long, to cross the Gard River. The hydraulic engineers and Roman architects who conceived this bridge, which is almost 165 feet high over three levels—the longest measuring 900 feet—created a technical as well as an artistic masterpiece.
Online
2017; 2000
5.

Liverpool, England

Six areas in the historic center and docklands of the maritime mercantile City of Liverpool bear witness to the development of one of the world’s major trading centers in the 18th and 19th centuries. Liverpool played an important role in the growth of the British Empire and became the major port for the mass movement of people. Liverpool was a pioneer in the development of modern dock technology, transport systems, and port management. The listed sites feature a great number of significant commercial, civic and public buildings, including St George’s Plateau.
Online
2017; 2006
6.

Bend of the Boyne, Ireland: Passage Tombs in the Bend of the River

The three main prehistoric sites of the Brú na Bóinne Complex—Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth—are situated on the north bank of the River Boyne some 19 miles north of Dublin. This is Europe's largest and most important concentration of prehistoric megalithic art. The monuments there had social, economic, religious and funerary functions.
Online
2017; 2011
7.

Orkney, Scotland: Graffiti of the Vikings

The group of Neolithic monuments on Orkney consists of a large chambered tomb (Maes Howe), two ceremonial stone circles (the Stones of Stenness and the Ring of Brodgar) and a settlement (Skara Brae), together with a number of unexcavated burial, ceremonial and settlement sites. The group constitutes a major prehistoric cultural landscape which gives a graphic depiction of life in this remote archipelago in the far north of Scotland some 5,000 years ago.
Online
2017; 2001
8.

Brussels' la Grand-Place, Belgium: The Most Beautiful Theater in the World

La Grand-Place is a remarkably homogeneous body of public and private buildings, dating mainly from the late 17th century, whose architecture encapsulates and vividly illustrates the social and cultural quality of this important political and commercial center.
Online
2017; 2001
9.

Fontainebleau, France: The Beautiful Fountain of the French Kings

Used by the kings of France from the 12th century, the medieval royal hunting lodge of Fontainebleau, standing at the heart of a vast forest in the Ile-de-France, was transformed, enlarged and embellished in the 16th century by Francis I, who wanted to make a "New Rome" of it. Surrounded by an immense park, the Italianate palace combines Renaissance and French artistic traditions.
Online
2017; 1995
10.

Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark: Burial Place of Kings

Built in the 12th and 13th centuries, this was the first Gothic cathedral built of brick in Scandinavia, and it inspired the spread of this style throughout Northern Europe. It became the mausoleum of the Danish royal family from the 15th century onwards. Porches and side chapels were added to it up until the end of the 19th century. It now provides a visible summary of the development of European religious architecture.
Online
2017; 2000
11.

Petäjävesi Old Church, Finland: Upon These Logs We Built Our Church

Petäjävesi Old Church, in central Finland, was built of logs between 1763 and 1765. This Lutheran country church is a typical example of an architectural tradition that is unique to eastern Scandinavia. It combines the Renaissance conception of a centrally planned church with older forms deriving from Gothic groin vaults.
Online
2017; 2000
12.

The Stave Churches of Urnes, Norway

The wooden church of Urnes (the stavkirke) stands in the natural setting of Sogn og Fjordane. It was built in the 12th and 13th centuries and is an outstanding example of traditional Scandinavian wooden architecture. It brings together traces of Celtic art, Viking traditions and Romanesque spatial structures.
Online
2017; 2005
13.

Luxembourg City, Luxembourg: Europe’s "Little Fortress"

Because of its strategic position, the City of Luxembourg was—from the 16th century until 1867, when it became neutral—one of Europe's greatest fortresses. Repeatedly fortified as it passed from one great European power to another (the House of Burgundy, the Habsburgs, the French and Spanish Kings, and the Holy Roman Emperors), its fortifications were, until their partial dismantlement, an epitome of military architecture spanning several centuries.
Online
2017; 2000
14.

Westminster, England: Center Stage of British Imperial History

Rebuilt starting in 1840 around striking medieval remains, Westminster Palace is an eminent example, coherent and complete, of the neo-Gothic style. With the small medieval church of St. Margaret, built in a perpendicular Gothic style, and the prestigious Westminster Abbey, where all the sovereigns since the 11th century have been crowned, the historic and symbolic significance of this site is unmistakable.
Online
2017; 1995
15.

Thingvellir National Park, Iceland

Þingvellir (Thingvellir) is the National Park where the Althing—an open-air assembly, which represented the whole of Iceland—was established in 930 and continued to meet until 1798. Over two weeks a year, the assembly set laws—seen as a covenant between free men—and settled disputes. The Althing has deep historical and symbolic associations for the people of Iceland.The property includes the Þingvellir National Park and the remains of the Althing itself: fragments of around 50 booths built of turf and stone. Remains from the 10th century are thought to be buried underground. The site also includes remains of agricultural use from the 18th and 19th centuries. The park shows evidence of the way the landscape was husbanded over 1,000 years.
Online
2017; 2006
16.

The Windmills of Kinderdijk, the Netherlands

The contribution made by the people of "the low countries" to the technology of handling water is enormous, and this is admirably demonstrated by the installations in the Kinderdijk-Elshout area. Hydraulic works to drain the land for agriculture and settlement began in the Middle Ages and have continued uninterruptedly to the present day. The site contains all the relevant elements of this technology—dikes, reservoirs, pumping stations, administrative buildings, and a series of impeccably preserved windmills.
Online
2017; 1998
17.

Maritime Greenwich, England: The Heart of Seafaring

The ensemble of buildings at Greenwich, near London, and the park in which they are set, are distinguished symbols of English artistic and scientific endeavour in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Queen's House of Inigo Jones was the first Palladian building in the British Isles, while the complex that was until recently the Royal Naval College was designed by Christopher Wren. The Park, laid out on the basis of an original design by André Le Nôtre, contains the original Royal Observatory, the work of Wren and the scientist Robert Hooke.
Online
2017; 2001
18.

Stonehenge, England: A Mystery From the Distant Past

Stonehenge and Avebury, in Wiltshire, are among the most famous groups of megaliths in the world. These two sanctuaries are formed of circles of menhirs arranged in a pattern whose astronomical significance is still unexplained. These holy places and the various nearby Neolithic sites offer an incomparable testimony to prehistoric times.
Online
2017; 1995
19.

The Canals of Amsterdam, the Netherlands: A Golden Age

The historic urban ensemble of the canal district of Amsterdam was a project for a new "port city" built at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries. It comprises a network of canals to the west and south of the historic old town and the medieval port that encircled the old town and was accompanied by the repositioning inland of the city’s fortified boundaries, the Singelgracht. This was a long-term program that involved extending the city by draining the swampland using a system of canals in concentric arcs and filling in the intermediate spaces. These spaces allowed the development of a homogeneous urban ensemble including gabled houses and numerous monuments. This urban extension was the largest and most homogeneous of its time. It was a model of large-scale town pl [...]
Online
2017; 2011
20.

Skellig Michael, Ireland: The Edge of the World

This 7th-century monastic complex, perched on the steep sides of the rocky island of Skellig Michael some 7 miles off the coast of southwest Ireland, illustrates the very spartan existence of the first Irish Christians. Since the extreme remoteness of Skellig Michael has until recently discouraged visitors, the site is exceptionally well preserved.
Online
2017; 2002