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Treasures of the World: North Africa
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Africa — History
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1.

Thebes, Egypt: The City of Amon

The capital of Egypt during the period of the Middle and New Kingdoms, Thebes was the city of the god Amon. With the temples and palaces at Karnak and Luxor and the necropolises of the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens, Thebes is a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization at its height.
Online
2017; 2000
2.

Fez, Morocco: Labyrinth and Paradise

Founded in th 9th century, Fez reached its height first in the 14th century under the Marinides and again in the 17th century. In 1912, when France established Rabat as the new capital, its political importance declined, but its religious and cultural role continues today, centered as it is around the two famous mosques of Al-Qarawiyin and Al-Andalus in the heart of the medina.
Online
2017; 1997
3.

The Cliff Temples of Abu Simbel, Egypt

This exceptional archaeological area is bordered by such magnificent monuments as the temples of Ramses II in Abu Simbel and the Sanctuary of Isis in Philae, which were saved from the Nile's rising waters thanks to an international campaign launched by UNESCO.
Online
2017; 2000
4.

Cairo’s Islamic Old City, Egypt

Tucked away amid the modern urban area of Cairo lies one of the world's oldest Islamic cities, with its famous mosques, madrasas, hammams, and fountains. Founded in the 10th century, it became the new center of the Islamic world, reaching its Golden Age in the 14th century.
Online
2017; 1996
5.

Ghadamès, Libya: The Underground Oasis

Built in an oasis, Ghadamès, "the pearl of the desert," is one of the oldest pre-Saharan cities and an outstanding example of a traditional settlement. Its domestic architecture is characterized by a vertical division of functions: the ground floor used to store supplies; then another floor for the family, overhanging covered alleys that create what is almost an underground network of passageways; and, at the top, open-air terraces reserved for the women.
Online
2017; 1999
6.

St. Catherine's Cloister, Egypt

The Orthodox Monastery of St. Catherine stands at the foot of Mount Horeb where, the Old Testament records, Moses received the Tablets of the Law. The mountain is known and revered by Muslims as Jebel Musa. The entire area is sacred to three world religions: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. The Monastery, founded in the 6th century, is the oldest Christian monastery still in use for its initial function. Its walls and buildings are of great significance to studies of Byzantine architecture, and the Monastery houses outstanding collections of early Christian manuscripts and icons. The rugged mountainous landscape, containing numerous archaeological and religious sites and monuments, forms a perfect backdrop to the Monastery.
Online
2017; 2004
7.

Tunis's Old City, Tunisia: A Day in Ramadan

Under the Almohads and the Hafsids, from the 12th to the 16th centuries, Tunis was considered one of the greatest and wealthiest cities in the Islamic world. Some 700 monuments, including palaces, mosques, mausoleums, madrasas and fountains, testify to this remarkable past.
Online
2017; 2004
8.

The Pyramids of Giza and Memphis, Egypt

Extraordinary funerary monuments remain around the capital of the Old Kingdom of Egypt, including rock tombs, ornate mastabas, temples and pyramids. In ancient times, the site was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
Online
2017; 2000
9.

Marrakech, Morocco: Pearl of the South

Marrakesh, founded in 1071-1072, was the capital of the Almoravids and later the Almohades. The lively medina contains an impressive number of architectural masterpieces, including the walls and the monumental gates; the Kutubiya Mosque, with its 250-feet-high minaret; the Saadian tombs; and characteristic old houses.
Online
2017; 1997
10.

Kairouan, Tunisia: Sacred City of the Maghreb

Founded in 670, Kairouan flourished under the Aghlabide dynasty in the 9th century. Despite the transfer of the political capital to Tunis in the 12th century, Kairouan remained the first holy city of the Maghreb. Its rich architectural heritage includes the Great Mosque, with its columns in marble and porphyry, and the 9th-century Mosque of the Three Gates.
Online
2017; 2000