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1.

Spreading

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk observes that spreading decreases the energy of sound as it travels. Energy loss due to spreading is proportional to the square of the distance from the source.
Online
2015; 2011
2.

Sonar

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about sonar, which stands for sound navigation and ranging, the process by which objects (like submarines, for example) are discovered when sound waves are reflected off of them and then detected.
Online
2015; 2011
3.

Heard Island Test and Climate Change, the

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about efforts to measure ocean warming through sound in a test done near Heard Island, an area considered unique because sound emanating from that point can theoretically reach every ocean basin on Earth.
Online
2015; 2011
4.

Using Sound to Measure Ocean Warming

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about efforts to measure ocean warming through the use of sound--a process known as dark acoustic thermometry. Professor Munk notes that since the speed of sound increases in the ocean with temperature, the time it takes for a pulse to cross a body of water should diminish as the water gets warmer.
Online
2015; 2011
5.

Marine Animals and Sound

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about the use of sound by marine animals. Professor Monk observes that while scientists don't fully understand all the ways marine animals use sound, it is generally believed that animals in the marine environment probably use sound to search for food and mates, as well during the navigation process.
Online
2015; 2011
6.

Temperature and the Velocity of Sound

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about the relationship between temperature and the velocity of sound, observing that velocity increases with temperature. Because temperature generally increases anywhere from ten to twenty degrees moving up from one kilometer to the surface, so, too, does the speed of sound generally increase closer to the surface.
Online
2015; 2011
7.

Global Warming and Sea Level Change

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about the relationship between global warming and sea level change. Professor Munk points out that, contrary to popular belief, the melting of floating ice does not change sea level. It is the melting of land-based ice masses that contributes to a rise in sea level.
Online
2015; 2011
8.

Shadow Zones

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about shadow zones, which develop in response to surface heating and other geophysical phenomena, and behind which the volume of sound is much lower than in surrounding areas.
Online
2015; 2011
9.

Noise Pollution and Marine Life

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about the impact of sound on marine animals. He discusses the campaign of environmental groups to cut down on noise pollution in the ocean--a campaign which Professor Munk argues resulted in opposition to valuable oceanographic research.
Online
2015; 2011
10.

Scattering

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about scattering, which occurs as sound bounces off bubbles, suspended particles, organisms, the surface, the bottom, or other objects. Small-scale temperature changes which act like foreign objects can also scatter the sound.
Online
2015; 2011
11.

Ocean as a Sound Channel, the

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about differences in the ways sound travels in the ocean as compared to through the air. He observes that the ocean is an ideal medium through which sound can travel.
Online
2015; 2011