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81.

El Islam y la Resistencia Cristiana [electronic resource]

This program focuses on the rise of the Moorish civilization on the Iberian Peninsula. Spotlights on Moorish poetry, music, science, medicine, engineering, commerce, and agriculture during that time underscore Islam's lasting influence on the region.
Online
2006; 2004
82.

La Disgregacion del Islam Andalusi y el Avance Cristiano [electronic resource]

From the death of Almanzor and the breakup of Moorish al-Andalus into taifas to Christian victory at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, this program depicts the continuous transformation of the Iberian Peninsula as rival powers shaped the land's destiny. The alliances and struggles among Christians, Moors, Almoravides, and Almohads are captured through numerous dramatizations and maps. Key figures, including Alfonso VI and El Cid, are featured.
Online
2006; 2004
83.

La Peninsula de los Cinco Reinos [electronic resource]

This program employs dramatizations, maps, art, and architecture to follow the ongoing struggles between Christians and Moors-and among the Christians themselves-during the years 1213 through 1347 as the Christian reconquista changed into a Crusade. It also contrasts these clashes of arms with the cultural revival among Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Iberian melting pot.
Online
2006; 2004
84.

La Epoca de Las Calamidades [electronic resource]

This program delves into a period of violence and catastrophe in Spanish history as civil war and ongoing campaigns against the Moors, on the one hand, and the Black Death and economic and agricultural crises, on the other, ravaged the Iberian Peninsula. Dramatizations and maps, architecture and art, bring to life a narrative that spotlights pivotal events such as the Battle of Rio Salado and key personages-the Trastamaras, Pedro the Cruel, and others-who moved Spain ever closer to becoming a world power.
Online
2006; 2004
85.

La Monarquia de los Reyes Catolicos [electronic resource]

The union of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, two able rulers known jointly as the Catholic Monarchs, set the stage for the unification of Spain religiously as well as politically and economically. This program utilizes dramatizations, location footage of historical landmarks, and maps to illustrate their consolidation of power, including the final conquest of Granada, the expulsion of the Jews, and the establishment of the Inquisition in Spain. Spanish conquests in the Mediterranean and Columbus's voyages of discovery are also mapped out.
Online
2006; 2004
86.

Carlos V [electronic resource]: Monarca, Un Imperio, y Una Espada

A child of Belgium, a speaker of French, and a Habsburg on his father's side, there was little Spanish about Charles V, yet Spain was the core of his kingdom. This program follows the cosmopolitan "Carlos Quinto," King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, through two coronations, a wedding, wars with France and the Ottoman Empire, the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, and his retirement to the Monastery of Yuste. Dramatizations, maps, artwork, and noteworthy buildings from all over Europe are featured throughout.
Online
2006; 2004
87.

La España de Felipe II [electronic resource]: Imperio Sin Emperador

Philip II ruled over Spain at its peak of world influence.and at the start of its long slide from prominence. This program depicts the life and times of this absolutist monarch through dramatizations, artwork, and maps. High-profile topics, including the Inquisition, the Armada, and the Battle of Lepanto, are presented while addressing controversies such as the imprisonment and death of the king's heir, Don Carlos. Cultural elements such as the Ommegang Pageant, the works of El Greco, and architectural landmarks are also highlighted.
Online
2006; 2004
88.

America, Un Mundo Nuevo [electronic resource]

After Columbus came the conquistadors: intrepid men who, for good and ill, have left an indelible mark on world history. This program dramatizes the conquests of Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro in the Viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru, stories characterized by courage and brutality-on both sides. In addition, cultural exchanges between New World and Old and their effects over time are considered.
Online
2006; 2004
89.

La Decadencia Politica En el Siglo de Oro [electronic resource]

Spain's Golden Age is recognized as the most fertile and glorious era in Spanish arts and letters. Miguel de Cervantes, Francisco de Quevedo, Calderon de la Barca, Diego Velazquez, and many others created works of enduring renown.even as their country fell into ruin. This program contrasts the marvels of the Siglo de Oro through dramatizations, film clips, artwork, and visits to important locales with the ineffectiveness of Kings Philip III and IV-a long period of rule that was largely characterized by political and military decay and disaster.
Online
2006; 2004
90.

La Decadencia de Un Imperio de los Austrias a los Borbones [electronic resource]

Charles II was the last of the Spanish Habsburgs. This program follows the continuing decline of Spanish influence during Charles the Bewitched's life-and the War of the Spanish Succession that broke out upon his death. The Peace of Utrecht, which marked the triumph of balance of power over hereditary rights of rule, is addressed as well. Dramatizations, artwork, and visits to important locales bring this period to life.
Online
2006; 2004
91.

La Nueva España de Felipe V [electronic resource]

Under Philip V, Spain at last began to recover from the long stagnation it had suffered during the twilight of the Habsburg dynasty. Employing dramatizations and maps, this program charts the reign of the first Bourbon king of Spain and the geopolitical forces that shaped the Europe of the Enlightenment-most notably the Spanish and Austrian wars of succession and their treaties. Bourbon reformism is also considered, and homage is paid to the arts and architecture of the times.
Online
2006; 2004
92.

Carlos III [electronic resource]: Luces y Sombras del Reformismo Ilustrado

Told in flashback during the final days of Charles III's life, this program scrutinizes that enlightened monarch's reign, a period of moderate reformism that required balancing innovation with the heavy weight of tradition. Successful domestic initiatives such as the renovation of Madrid, controversial incidents including the reform riot of 1766 and the expulsion of the Jesuits, and disastrous foreign policy decisions that drew Spain into the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution are each looked at in their turn.
Online
2006; 2004
93.

A la Sombra de la Revolucion [electronic resource]

Charles IV succeeded to the Spanish throne in 1788. One year later, the cataclysmic revolution in neighboring France dealt European monarchism a blow of seismic proportions. Focusing on Charles' reign-conducted with extreme passivity and ending in abdication-this program uses film clips, dramatizations, paintings, and architectural landmarks to examine a country caught in the throes of sociopolitical turmoil. Queen Maria Luisa and her lover Manuel de Godoy, the true royal powers, are spotlighted as Spain's fortunes in the shadow of Napoleonic France are appraised.
Online
2006; 2004
94.

Vivan Las Caenas! [electronic resource]

Beginning with the Battle of Bailen, this program charts the erratic course of politics in Spain that saw Ferdinand VII deposed by Napoleon and replaced by the emperor's brother, Joseph; reinstated at the end of the Peninsular War by the victorious allied forces; constrained by a coup in 1820 to abide by the liberal Constitution of 1812; and unbound by a second coup to resume his authoritarian reign-an era known as the Decada Ominosa. Wars for independence in Spain's American possessions are also chronicled. Dramatizations and film clips capture the harshness of the period.
Online
2006; 2004
95.

Por la Senda Liberal [electronic resource]

With the Pragmatic Sanction, the Spanish rule passed to Ferdinand VII's young daughter, Isabella, upon his death-and touched off the Carlist Wars, with Ferdinand's brother Don Carlos pitting himself against Queen Regent Maria Cristina. This program employs dramatizations, artwork, maps, film clips, and footage of palaces and other landmarks to make sense of the complex political and social forces at work during the years of the First and Second Carlist Wars. Battles and reprisals as well as reforms and socioeconomic progress all have a place in this story of Spain's turn toward liberalismo.
Online
2006; 2004
96.

Viva España Con Honra! [electronic resource]

The reign of Isabella II was characterized by palace intrigues, antechamber influences, barracks conspiracies, and military pronunciamientos. This program illustrates the factionalist ferment that led to the Revolution of 1868, the expulsion of the queen, the regency of Francisco Serrano, and the short reign of Amadeus I. Film clips, artwork, dramatizations, and maps shed light on the unrest at home and in Cuba as well as on moderate progress in public works and slight improvements in commerce and finance. The advantageous Spanish war against Morocco is also presented.
Online
2006; 2004
97.

El Regreso de los Borbones [electronic resource]

Beginning with the brief tenure of Amadeus I, continuing on through the short-lived First Republic, and concluding with the reign of Alfonso XII and the early years of Alfonso XIII, this program thoroughly acquaints viewers with the second Bourbon restoration. Using dramatizations, architectural landmarks, artwork, and film clips, it covers upsurges of regionalismo and cantonalismo, the Third Carlist War, Cuban separatism, socialism, ongoing industrialization, mass emigration, and work- and education-related social reforms.
Online
2006; 2004
98.

Alfonso XIII [electronic resource]

After reprising key events from Alfonso XIII's early years-most notably the loss of Spain's remaining colonies in 1898-this program traces his reign up to the military debacle at Annual. Vintage film and dramatizations bring early-20th-century Spain to life as they document major challenges to Spanish monarchal rule: Catalan agitation for autonomy, the spread of socialism and anarchism, the execution of Francisco Ferrer Guardia, labor violence, and ongoing warfare in Morocco. Sociocultural aspects of the times, such as the literary Generation of '98, are also singled out.
Online
2006; 2004
99.

España, España [electronic resource]

The dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera. Spain's Second Republic. The Spanish Civil War. This program, composed almost entirely of period footage and photographs, seeks to understand the tortuous sociopolitical forces at work in Spain between the two world wars. Profiles of public figures and popular movements combined with background on liberal reforms and horrific atrocities evoke an image of a people torn between hope and despair.
Online
2006; 2004
100.

Franco, Franco, Franco! [electronic resource]

For nearly 40 years, the totalitarian regime of Generalisimo Francisco Franco defined Spain. This program draws upon archival footage and photographs to show what life was like for Spaniards during that era: on the one hand, post-war economic hardships, curtailed civil liberties, and stringent governmental suppression of opposition, while on the other, widespread modernization and, following the Spanish Miracle, an improved standard of living. Franco's grooming of the future king, Juan Carlos, is also covered.
Online
2006; 2004