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1.

The First World War and the Rise of Facism [electronic resource]

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Program 47 traces the fall of old empires during World War I and the rise of right-wing dictatorships in Italy, Spain, and Germany.
Online
1989
2.

The Second World War and the Rise of Facism [electronic resource]

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Program 48 discusses the new tactics and strategies employed in World War II. Describes the targeting of civilian populations and the Nazi holocaust.
Online
1989
3.

Eastern Europe [electronic resource]: 1900-1939

This program traces the history of Eastern Europe from the reign of Franz Josef to the rise of Hitler and the beginnings of the Second World War. Topics covered include the war for Macedonia pitting Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece against the Turks; political manipulation of the Balkans by Russia, Austria, Britain, and France; domination of Serbia; the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand; the fall of czarist Russia; the Hungarian Revolution of 1918; rise of the Communist Party; birth of the Czechoslovakian Republic; the Treaty of Versailles; the rise of Marshal Pilsudski in Poland; formation of the United Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes; and the Munich Conference.
Online
2006; 1991
4.

Irish Civil War [electronic resource]: Madness From Within

In 1922, the people of Ireland turned against each other in one of the bloodiest civil wars in history. In its wake, internecine feuding incited decades of terrorist atrocities. This program features interviews with participants in the Civil War, some in their 90s, whose passionate defense of the side they took remains as strong and vivid as ever. Contributions from surviving relatives of participants in the war, including three sons and daughters of members of the 1922 Provisional Government headed by Eamon de Valera and Michael Collins, provide insights into the infighting that led to Collins' assassination. The political roles of the parties Sinn Fein and Fianna Fail are examined, as well as the military role of the Irish Republican Army. Interviews are interwoven throughout with [...]
Online
2006; 1998
5.

Kosovo [electronic resource]: Of Blood and History

To fully understand the recent bloodshed in Kosovo, one must go back 600 years and trace the causes of the undying hatreds that permeate Serbia and the surrounding region. Using eyewitness accounts, maps, and footage both of historic events and of Serbian life, this program examines the ethnic nationalism and religious extremism that have resulted in the long-standing hatred between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians-a hatred that continued to destabilize the Balkans during the Milosevic regime.
Online
2005; 1999
6.

George Steiner [electronic resource]: Vienna 1900

Behind 1900 Vienna's facade of elegance and affluence, a new generation of artists, musicians, writers, and thinkers was struggling to escape the straitjacket of Austro-Hungarian society. In this vintage program, George Steiner, one of the great literary minds of the 20th century, presents his wide-ranging theories on time, language, and culture within the context of Vienna in 1900-a city and time that gave the world Wittgenstein, Schoenberg, Klimt, Freud, and even Hitler. "Why this look at Vienna at the turn of the century? Because that Vienna now surrounds us," says Steiner. "To speak of Vienna 1900 is to speak very directly of our own condition."
Online
2005; 1985
7.

Fascism [electronic resource]: Legacy of Hate

As the ultra-right edges closer to real power in Europe, a dismayed EU fears a dark renaissance in politics. This disturbing program, supported by footage including a skinhead hate party and anti-immigrant violence, traces the virulent resurgence of xenophobia in Europe. Joerg Haider, of Austria's Freedom Party; Albert Szabo, founder of Hungary's World Nation Party; and politicos from the German, Italian, and French extreme right defend their platforms while author Michael Ignatieff, historian Anton Pelinka, Jewish leaders, and Kosovar and Kurdish refugees counter with insights into the psychology of hate and voice fears that Europe's bloody history will soon repeat itself.
Online
2005; 2000
8.

Francois Mitterrand [electronic resource]: Tale of Power

Fueled by an unflagging determination, Francois Mitterrand succeeded in revitalizing France's political left and then holding the nation's highest office for fourteen pivotal years. Drawing on interviews with Mitterrand, his former cabinet members, and others, this program sorts out the melange of triumphs, failures, rivalries, and scandals that made up the late president's career in power politics. Archival footage firmly sets the life of the magisterial leader of the French Socialist Party within the context of post-World War II-and post-Soviet Union-European history.
Online
2006; 2000
9.

Escaping Franco [electronic resource]: From Danger Into Danger

This program documents the Spanish Civil War from the point of view of the Spaniards who went into exile as a result of it. Firsthand accounts of that brutal conflict and the cruel realities of life as a refugee are movingly described by a broad cross-section of survivors. Graphic newsreel footage accompanies their stories of destruction at home and escape to other countries: tales of separation, imprisonment, forced labor, and frontline action at the start of World War II, as well as-for some, at least-testimonials to the kindness of strangers.
Online
2005; 2002
10.

Holding on, Fighting Back [electronic resource]: Long Road Home to Spain

After the fall of France in World War II, the hardships of the Spanish Civil War refugees grew worse. In this program, survivors from those desperate days openly talk of their ordeals and victories: repression and reprisals in Franco's Spain; suffering in French internment camps; deportation to Nazi concentration camps; meritorious service with the French Resistance and Allied forces; and, after the war, their lives in exile until, after Franco's death, they could finally go home. Graphic newsreel footage places each story in context.
Online
2005; 2002
11.

France-America's Friend? [electronic resource]: The de Gaulle Years

The war in Iraq is not the first time that the U.S. has been at loggerheads with its mercurial ally France. This program presents a vivid account of an earlier troubled phase in Franco-American relations: the critical years from 1961 to 1969. Drawing on recently declassified archival materials as well as on eyewitness accounts from the advisors, colleagues, and ministers of Charles de Gaulle, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon, the program depicts JFK's historical visit to France, his discovery of a famously difficult ally in de Gaulle, and the ambiguous relationship that developed between the two countries in the years to come.
Online
2006; 2001
12.

Alfonso XIII [electronic resource]

After reprising key events from Alfonso XIII's early years-most notably the loss of Spain's remaining colonies in 1898-this program traces his reign up to the military debacle at Annual. Vintage film and dramatizations bring early-20th-century Spain to life as they document major challenges to Spanish monarchal rule: Catalan agitation for autonomy, the spread of socialism and anarchism, the execution of Francisco Ferrer Guardia, labor violence, and ongoing warfare in Morocco. Sociocultural aspects of the times, such as the literary Generation of '98, are also singled out.
Online
2006; 2004
13.

España, España [electronic resource]

The dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera. Spain's Second Republic. The Spanish Civil War. This program, composed almost entirely of period footage and photographs, seeks to understand the tortuous sociopolitical forces at work in Spain between the two world wars. Profiles of public figures and popular movements combined with background on liberal reforms and horrific atrocities evoke an image of a people torn between hope and despair.
Online
2006; 2004
14.

Franco, Franco, Franco! [electronic resource]

For nearly 40 years, the totalitarian regime of Generalisimo Francisco Franco defined Spain. This program draws upon archival footage and photographs to show what life was like for Spaniards during that era: on the one hand, post-war economic hardships, curtailed civil liberties, and stringent governmental suppression of opposition, while on the other, widespread modernization and, following the Spanish Miracle, an improved standard of living. Franco's grooming of the future king, Juan Carlos, is also covered.
Online
2006; 2004
15.

España En Libertad [electronic resource]

The coronation of Juan Carlos I marked the third restoration of Spanish Bourbon rule. This program tracks the mixed fortunes of post-Franco Spain as it transitioned into a parliamentary monarchy and moved forward into the 21st century. News footage of policymakers and events addresses free elections, economic restructuring, membership in the E.U., educational reforms, and social security as well as the failed 23-F coup, high unemployment, labor strikes, and terrorism.
Online
2006; 2004
16.

The Battle of Verdun [electronic resource]

The battle that marked the turning point of World War I, the epitome of trench warfare, and so costly in human life that France may never have recovered.
Online
2006; 1986
17.

The Bielski Brothers [electronic resource]

The Bielski Brothers commanded the largest Jewish partisan group operating in occupied Europe during World War II. They saved the lives of more Jews than Oscar Schindler and took revenge against hundreds of Nazis and collaborators. Remarkably, their story has never been told before on film. This moving and powerful program tells their unique story and how they built an entire town to house their 1,500 members half-underground in the primordial forests of Byelorussia. The program shows how the twin motivations of survival and revenge drove the Bielski partisans to succeed at all costs. The two surviving Bielski Brothers, who agreed to be interviewed for the first time in this program, explain how their unit was organized, and what life was like for the partisans in their four-year bat [...]
Online
2006; 1996
18.

Radio Revolution [electronic resource]: Broadcasting for Freedom in Cold-War Romania

Likened to "a strange religion. with millions of invisible believers," Radio Free Europe gave listeners in Eastern Bloc countries a much-needed alternative to government media. This program examines the impact of RFE broadcasts on Nicolae Ceausescu's Romania and the lengths to which Romanian authorities went to suppress U.S.-backed radio. Viewers learn how the 1977 Vrancea Earthquake enabled RFE to step up its activities in the country; how Ceausescu's operatives in the Romanian Securitate-and, allegedly, even the notorious terrorist Carlos the Jackal-committed violent acts against RFE personnel; and how the power and popularity of RFE found full expression in the Romanian Revolution.
Online
2010; 2009
19.

Alfonso XIII [electronic resource]

After reprising key events from Alfonso XIII's early years-most notably the loss of Spain's remaining colonies in 1898-this program traces his reign up to the military debacle at Annual. Vintage film and dramatizations bring early-20th-century Spain to life as they document major challenges to Spanish monarchal rule: Catalan agitation for autonomy, the spread of socialism and anarchism, the execution of Francisco Ferrer Guardia, labor violence, and ongoing warfare in Morocco. Sociocultural aspects of the times, such as the literary Generation of '98, are also singled out.
Online
2005; 2004
20.

Russia's Last Tsar [electronic resource]

In tsarist Russia, Nicholas II had absolute power over his vast realm, yet he was helpless in the face of his son Alexei's life-threatening hemophilia. Enter Rasputin, a self-styled holy man whose apparent ability to heal the young heir to the throne won him the devotion of Empress Alexandra, to the dismay of practically everyone else. This program presents the wrenching drama of the collapse of the centuries-old Romanov dynasty-a story of abdication, imprisonment, and assassination-against the backdrop of a nation under unendurable stress: military disasters, economic collapse, widespread unrest, and the rampant spread of Bolshevism. The program ends by revealing the location of the tsar's lost grave, a mystery for decades solved at last.
Online
2010; 1996