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A Fondo-in Their Own Words
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1.

Severo Ochoa

Severo Ochoa was a Spanish scientist of international renown; he became an American citizen in 1956. In 1959, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (shared with American scientist Arthur Kornberg) for his important work on the metabolism of nucleic acids and the discovery of the enzyme polynucleotide phosphorylase.
Online
2016; 1976
2.

Mario Benedetti a Fondo

Mario Benedetti published over 80 books with more than 1,200 editions translated into 25 languages. His work covers various genres: poetry, short stories, novels, essays and literary criticism. His political positions forced him to leave Uruguay, beginning exile in Buenos Aires, then on to Peru, where he was arrested, deported, and installed in Cuba in 1976. The following year, Benedetti moved to Madrid.
Online
2016; 1978
3.

Franco Zefirelli

Franco Zeffirelli is the stage name of Gianfranco Corsi (Florence, 1923), Italian filmmaker, director, designer and producer of operas, theater, film, and television. He began his career with Luchino Visconti, first as an actor and later as an assistant in various cinematographic, theatrical, and operatic productions. He became independent as an opera director in the early 1950s. His acclaimed production of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet was the basis of his third film, Romeo and Juliet (1968). His international reputation suffered a setback following the failure of Brother Sol, Sister Luna (1972), but returned to success with the television production of Jesus of Nazareth (1978)and biographical film Callas Forever (2002).
Online
2016; 1980
4.

Raphael

The Spanish singer Rapahel began his career in 1962. His recording history includes: 326 gold albums, 49 platinum albums, and the only uranium record. His albums reached worldwide sales of over 50 million copies. Raphael performed on some of the world's biggest stages including: Carnegie Hall, Radio City Music Hall, Madison Square Garden, and the Kennedy Center in Washington DC.
Online
2016; 1977
5.

Alain Robbe-Grillet

French writer and filmmaker Alain Robbe-Grillet was a theoretician and leader of the literary movement "Nouveau Roman. "In 1953,he published his first work with this narrative intent, Les gommes. He wrote screenplays including Last Year at Marienbad, directed by Alain Resnais in 1961. From 1972 to 1997, he taught in the United States at New York University (NYU) and Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri.
Online
2016; 1980
6.

Alberto Sordi

Alberto Sordi (Rome, 1920 - 2003) is an Italian actor, director, and screenwriter. Along with Marcello Mastroianni, Ugo Tognazzi, Nino Manfredi, and Vittorio Gassman, Sordi was one of the great names of the commedia all'italiana; he was also spokesman of the Romany in Italian cinematography. Between 1952 and 1955, Sordi achieved stardom within the world of cinema with The White Sheikh (1952) and The Useless (1953). In 1977, he starred in A Little Bourgeois Piccolo with Shelley Winters and Romolo Valli. He received five Nastro d'Argento awards and seven David di Donatello awards, and in 1995 won the Golden Lion for his film career at the Venice Film Festival.
Online
2016; 1979
7.

Madre Teresa de Calcuta

Agnes Gonxha was an Indian Catholic nun of Albanian origin who founded the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta in 1950. For over 45 years she served the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying while guiding the expansion of her congregation. After her death, she was beatified by Pope John Paul II and given the title Blessed Teresa of Calcutta. She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.
Online
2016; 1980
8.

Libertad Lamarque

Libertad Lamarque (1908-2000). The singer and actress Libertad Lamarque, was an icon of the Golden Age. She discusses the 1938 musical film Madreselva (Honeysuckle)and from "the bride of the romantic tango, always feminine" we hear: I am Crazy about the Horns of Cars and The Girl of the Seventeen. She recounts her trajectory in the theater, musical comedy, and her tours of America.
Online
2016; 1976
9.

Sophia Loren

Sofia Villani Scicolone is an Italian actress and winner of 50 international awards, including two Oscars (one honorary), a BAFTA Award, and several nominations for the Golden Globes. Her career as Sophia Loren officially begin in 1954 after meeting Vittorio De Sica, with whom she won an Oscar for La Ciociara (Two Women). She starred alongside Marcello Mastroianni in numerous film comedies.
Online
2016; 1979
10.

Antonio Skármeta

Antonio Skármetta is the grandson of a family of immigrants from Dalmatia. He is one of the greatest literary figures of his country and internationally famous for his novel Ardiente Paciencia - El cartero de Neruda (The Postman - 1985) which was adapted to film in 1995. In 1975, the young Skármetta published his first novel: Soñé que la nieve ardía (I Dreamed that the Snow was Burning).
Online
2016; 1978
11.

Federico Fellini

In a rare interview, Federico Fellini discusses his biography with humor. The comedy-drama film I vitelloni (1953) was his first major success. He earned five Oscar nominations, winning the award with Otto e mezzo (8 1/2) and Amarcord.
Online
2016; 1977
12.

Roman Polanski

Director, producer, and actor Roman Polanski won three Oscars for his film Tess, dedicated to his wife Sharon. A few years prior to this A Fondo interview, Polanski was forced to leave the United States after accusations of having sex with a minor emerged.
Online
2016; 1980
13.

Richard Nixon

Richard Nixon, the 37th president of the United States, was the only president to resign from office. According to Soler Serrano, lengthy negotiations between Spain and the United States were necessary before this A Fondo interview could proceed; the interview occurs six years after his resignation. In 1978, the former president published is memoirs in The Memoirs of Richard Nixon and it became a best seller.
Online
2016; 1980
14.

Jorge Semprún

Jorge Semprún Maura (December 10, 1923 - June 7, 2011) was a Spanish writer, intellectual, politician and screenwriter, whose work was written mostly in French. He was Minister of Culture in Spain between 1988 and 1991, under the government of Felipe González, and a leader of the Spanish Communist Party, under the pseudonym Federico Sánchez; he was expelled in 1964. His experience in the concentration camp of Buchenwald marked the character of his entire work; he published The Second Death of Sánchez in 1977, earning the Planet Award. Semprún passed away in Paris in June of 2011.
Online
2016; 1977
15.

Mercè Rodoreda

Mercè Rodoredais a Catalan novelist of a brief but important work; La Plaza del Diamante was translated to English in 1981 under the title The Time of the Doves. Rodoreda lived in exile for many years, mainly in Geneva.
Online
2016; 1980
16.

Arthur Rubinstein

Arthur Rubinstein became world famous for his interpretations of Chopin piano music. With the German invasion in World War II, he moved to the United States, where he was nationalized in 1946. Rubinstein's optimistic mindset is reflected in the vitality of his performances. He felt at ease in classicism and romanticism, and had an unmistakable sound.
Online
2016; 1977
17.

Chabuca Granda

Chabuca Granda is a Peruvian singer and lyricist. Her voice and vast work extended beyond the borders of her country. One of her best-known songs is The Cinnamon's Flower.
Online
2016; 1977
18.

Manuel Vázquez Montalbán

Vázquez Montalbán was a poet, journalist and novelist. His novels about the detective Pepe Carvalho have been widely distributed, including several English translations.
Online
2016; 1979
19.

Antonio Saura

Spanish artist and writer Antonio Saura (1930-1998) was a guest of A FONDO in June 1976. The founder of the group "El Paso" describes his initial trajectory, his long seasons in France, his friendship with Picasso and Miró, the evolution towards expressionism and abstraction, the treatment of color, the moral attitude, and his attitude to the success he obtained: "I do not worry at all ... The important thing is to live".
Online
2016; 1976
20.

Atahualpa Yupanqui

Atahualpa Yupanqui (1908 - 1992). Born Héctor Roberto Chavero, Yupanqui recalls his childhood in the Pampas "the first music was the spur, mirror of the night." His many works include: poetry books The song of the wind and The Pagador Persecuted; song The Axes of My Cart; and composition: The Sacrifice of Tupac Amaru. In 1950, he performed in Parisat the behest of Edith Piaf. When he recorded this A FONDO in 1977, his success was international. "I have no nostalgia, I pick up the guitar and the country is with me".
Online
2016; 1977