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1.

Escaping Franco [electronic resource]: From Danger Into Danger

This program documents the Spanish Civil War from the point of view of the Spaniards who went into exile as a result of it. Firsthand accounts of that brutal conflict and the cruel realities of life as a refugee are movingly described by a broad cross-section of survivors. Graphic newsreel footage accompanies their stories of destruction at home and escape to other countries: tales of separation, imprisonment, forced labor, and frontline action at the start of World War II, as well as-for some, at least-testimonials to the kindness of strangers.
Online
2005; 2002
2.

Holding on, Fighting Back [electronic resource]: Long Road Home to Spain

After the fall of France in World War II, the hardships of the Spanish Civil War refugees grew worse. In this program, survivors from those desperate days openly talk of their ordeals and victories: repression and reprisals in Franco's Spain; suffering in French internment camps; deportation to Nazi concentration camps; meritorious service with the French Resistance and Allied forces; and, after the war, their lives in exile until, after Franco's death, they could finally go home. Graphic newsreel footage places each story in context.
Online
2005; 2002
3.

En el Inicio de los Tiempos [electronic resource]

Starting with the birth of the universe, this program brings to light the geologic formation of the Iberian Peninsula, the flourishing of the dinosaurs, and the rise of humankind. Using extensive dramatization, En El Inicio de los Tiempos traces the advances of the earliest humans, rendering a detailed and highly plausible scenario of existence during the unrecorded chapters of human history. Maps and photos of archaeological artifacts provide additional insights into life during prehistoric times.
Online
2006; 2004
4.

De Altamira Al Til de Metal [electronic resource]

The discovery of the Altamira caves in the 19th century radically altered the popular perception of early human life on the planet. This program explores the world of the Paleolithic and Mesolithic peoples who called the Iberian Peninsula home. Images of artifacts, paintings, and archaeological sites reveal how the ancients of unrecorded history progressed from Stone Age to Bronze Age and from hunting/gathering to agriculture. In addition, re-creations of life in prehistoric times show how modern humans' ancestors worked-and expressed their artistic natures.
Online
2006; 2004
5.

Tarteso, el Reino Legendario de Argantonio [electronic resource]

The history of Tartessos, the first great mining economy of Iberia, is also a story of prosperity-and ruin. This program makes extensive use of dramatizations, images of artifacts, footage of ruins, maps, and 3-D re-creations of ships and buildings to illustrate the skilled craft of metalwork, science of navigation, spread of overseas trade, intersection of cultures, development of written language, and use of currency as history unfolded during that remarkable epoch.
Online
2006; 2004
6.

Las Grandes Potencias Se Disputan Iberia [electronic resource]

After the disappearance of Tartessos, other Iberian locales rose to prominence and flourished-until their successes drew the unwanted attention of rival civilizations. This program tracks the history of Iberia during the era of Carthaginian and Roman expansion. Paintings, dramatizations, and maps reconstruct the course of the Punic Wars. In addition, the characteristics and cultures of these embattled regions are examined through re-creations of everyday life, images of artifacts, and footage of ruins in Girona, Tarragona, Teruel, Galicia, Asturias, Soria, and Seville.
Online
2006; 2004
7.

Hispania, Un Producto de Roma [electronic resource]

This program chronicles Rome's conquest and protracted pacification of the Iberian Peninsula-and the subsequent Romanization of its peoples as Hispania was integrated into an empire united by Roman law, Roman language, and the remarkable Roman road. A wide range of visuals brings this era of warfare and uneasy peace to life, including dramatizations, 3-D computer animations, paintings, mosaics, sculptures, edifices, artifacts, maps, and ruins in Girona, Aragon, Cuenca, Soria, Cadiz, Seville, Cordoba, Asturias, and Burgos.
Online
2006; 2004
8.

Del Imperio Cristiano a los Reinos Barbaros [electronic resource]

This program charts the turbulent history of the Iberian Peninsula under the Romans and Visigoths. The feudalistic divide between landowners and farmers, the brutal suppression and subsequent legalization of Christianity, barbarian invasions and the disintegration of the western Roman Empire, Visigothic rule, and incursions by Muslim armies are described through dramatizations, maps, artifacts, paintings, and footage of early churches. Many 3-D computer re-creations-villas, an amphitheater, a church, and entire towns-are included as well.
Online
2006; 2004
9.

El Islam y la Resistencia Cristiana [electronic resource]

This program focuses on the rise of the Moorish civilization on the Iberian Peninsula. Spotlights on Moorish poetry, music, science, medicine, engineering, commerce, and agriculture during that time underscore Islam's lasting influence on the region.
Online
2006; 2004
10.

La Disgregacion del Islam Andalusi y el Avance Cristiano [electronic resource]

From the death of Almanzor and the breakup of Moorish al-Andalus into taifas to Christian victory at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, this program depicts the continuous transformation of the Iberian Peninsula as rival powers shaped the land's destiny. The alliances and struggles among Christians, Moors, Almoravides, and Almohads are captured through numerous dramatizations and maps. Key figures, including Alfonso VI and El Cid, are featured.
Online
2006; 2004
11.

La Peninsula de los Cinco Reinos [electronic resource]

This program employs dramatizations, maps, art, and architecture to follow the ongoing struggles between Christians and Moors-and among the Christians themselves-during the years 1213 through 1347 as the Christian reconquista changed into a Crusade. It also contrasts these clashes of arms with the cultural revival among Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Iberian melting pot.
Online
2006; 2004
12.

La Epoca de Las Calamidades [electronic resource]

This program delves into a period of violence and catastrophe in Spanish history as civil war and ongoing campaigns against the Moors, on the one hand, and the Black Death and economic and agricultural crises, on the other, ravaged the Iberian Peninsula. Dramatizations and maps, architecture and art, bring to life a narrative that spotlights pivotal events such as the Battle of Rio Salado and key personages-the Trastamaras, Pedro the Cruel, and others-who moved Spain ever closer to becoming a world power.
Online
2006; 2004
13.

La Monarquia de los Reyes Catolicos [electronic resource]

The union of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, two able rulers known jointly as the Catholic Monarchs, set the stage for the unification of Spain religiously as well as politically and economically. This program utilizes dramatizations, location footage of historical landmarks, and maps to illustrate their consolidation of power, including the final conquest of Granada, the expulsion of the Jews, and the establishment of the Inquisition in Spain. Spanish conquests in the Mediterranean and Columbus's voyages of discovery are also mapped out.
Online
2006; 2004
14.

La Nueva España de Felipe V [electronic resource]

Under Philip V, Spain at last began to recover from the long stagnation it had suffered during the twilight of the Habsburg dynasty. Employing dramatizations and maps, this program charts the reign of the first Bourbon king of Spain and the geopolitical forces that shaped the Europe of the Enlightenment-most notably the Spanish and Austrian wars of succession and their treaties. Bourbon reformism is also considered, and homage is paid to the arts and architecture of the times.
Online
2006; 2004
15.

Carlos III [electronic resource]: Luces y Sombras del Reformismo Ilustrado

Told in flashback during the final days of Charles III's life, this program scrutinizes that enlightened monarch's reign, a period of moderate reformism that required balancing innovation with the heavy weight of tradition. Successful domestic initiatives such as the renovation of Madrid, controversial incidents including the reform riot of 1766 and the expulsion of the Jesuits, and disastrous foreign policy decisions that drew Spain into the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution are each looked at in their turn.
Online
2006; 2004
16.

A la Sombra de la Revolucion [electronic resource]

Charles IV succeeded to the Spanish throne in 1788. One year later, the cataclysmic revolution in neighboring France dealt European monarchism a blow of seismic proportions. Focusing on Charles' reign-conducted with extreme passivity and ending in abdication-this program uses film clips, dramatizations, paintings, and architectural landmarks to examine a country caught in the throes of sociopolitical turmoil. Queen Maria Luisa and her lover Manuel de Godoy, the true royal powers, are spotlighted as Spain's fortunes in the shadow of Napoleonic France are appraised.
Online
2006; 2004
17.

Vivan Las Caenas! [electronic resource]

Beginning with the Battle of Bailen, this program charts the erratic course of politics in Spain that saw Ferdinand VII deposed by Napoleon and replaced by the emperor's brother, Joseph; reinstated at the end of the Peninsular War by the victorious allied forces; constrained by a coup in 1820 to abide by the liberal Constitution of 1812; and unbound by a second coup to resume his authoritarian reign-an era known as the Decada Ominosa. Wars for independence in Spain's American possessions are also chronicled. Dramatizations and film clips capture the harshness of the period.
Online
2006; 2004
18.

Por la Senda Liberal [electronic resource]

With the Pragmatic Sanction, the Spanish rule passed to Ferdinand VII's young daughter, Isabella, upon his death-and touched off the Carlist Wars, with Ferdinand's brother Don Carlos pitting himself against Queen Regent Maria Cristina. This program employs dramatizations, artwork, maps, film clips, and footage of palaces and other landmarks to make sense of the complex political and social forces at work during the years of the First and Second Carlist Wars. Battles and reprisals as well as reforms and socioeconomic progress all have a place in this story of Spain's turn toward liberalismo.
Online
2006; 2004
19.

Viva España Con Honra! [electronic resource]

The reign of Isabella II was characterized by palace intrigues, antechamber influences, barracks conspiracies, and military pronunciamientos. This program illustrates the factionalist ferment that led to the Revolution of 1868, the expulsion of the queen, the regency of Francisco Serrano, and the short reign of Amadeus I. Film clips, artwork, dramatizations, and maps shed light on the unrest at home and in Cuba as well as on moderate progress in public works and slight improvements in commerce and finance. The advantageous Spanish war against Morocco is also presented.
Online
2006; 2004
20.

El Regreso de los Borbones [electronic resource]

Beginning with the brief tenure of Amadeus I, continuing on through the short-lived First Republic, and concluding with the reign of Alfonso XII and the early years of Alfonso XIII, this program thoroughly acquaints viewers with the second Bourbon restoration. Using dramatizations, architectural landmarks, artwork, and film clips, it covers upsurges of regionalismo and cantonalismo, the Third Carlist War, Cuban separatism, socialism, ongoing industrialization, mass emigration, and work- and education-related social reforms.
Online
2006; 2004