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The Arming of the Earth [electronic resource]

The 20th century began with enormous hopes for a future made safe and humane by technology. Although it realized some of these hopes, the century neared its end under the shadow of superweapons that still threaten the earth with annihilation. In this program, Bill Moyers traces the evolution of three instruments that enabled combatants to mass-produce death-the machine gun, the submarine, and the bomber plane. Each weapon helped to close the gap between soldier and target, regardless of whether that target was another soldier or an innocent civilian. And each was introduced with the promise that it would end war by making it too terrible to endure.
2010; 1984

1945 [electronic resource]: Year of Victory

This program contains contemporary newsreels shown to American and British movie audiences at year's end-important not only for the events shown, but for the emphases and biases of the participants in those events. The year 1945 began with V2s targeted on London and the Battle of the Bulge on the Continent. But then events rushed to their inevitable conclusion: the Russian attacks toward Berlin; the Yalta Conference; blistering air attacks on Germany and the crossing of the Rhine; the death of Roosevelt; Soviet and American armies converging; the surrender of Italy and the end of Mussolini; the surrender of the Germans; and the Nuremberg Trials. On the Pacific Front: the recapture of the Philippines and Burma; Iwo Jima and the historic raising of the American flag; the bombing of Tok [...]

Making the World Safe for Democracy [electronic resource]: Manifest Destiny

As the United States reshaped Manifest Destiny for use in the 20th century, the concept came to be equated not with conquest and expansion, but with the spread of American values and institutions. Focusing on World War I and the Russian Revolution, the section "A New World Order" traces the deflected trajectory of President Wilson's idealistic plan to export democracy - a plan that ended in compromises and broken dreams. "Containment," which begins with World War II, examines the spread of communism in Asia and U.S. opposition to it via the Kennan policy of containment and the Truman Doctrine. And "Quagmire" discusses how the Kennedy and Johnson administrations felt duty-bound to escalate American political and military involvement in Vietnam as a part of an ideological proxy war bet [...]

Codebreakers [electronic resource]: Bletchley Park's Lost Heroes

During World War II, British mathematician Bill Tutte broke a code ten times tougher than Enigma, with the help of engineer Tommy Flowers, who designed the world's first programmable computer to help decipher encrypted German messages. This program tells the story of how Tutte and Flowers, working with a handful of brilliant men at secret intelligence base Bletchley Park, devised a way for Churchill to hack in to Hitler's communications network, winning the war and ushering in the age of computers.

1930 [electronic resource]: The Strongmen

The Strongmen is the story of how Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin and Emperor Hirohito of Japan employed propaganda to gain absolute control over their citizens. In Italy, Mussolini was a colorful performer and a thug who counted Hitler as a friend and ally. In Russia, Joseph Stalin's insistence on total devotion ranged from the horrific to the tragic-comic. And in Japan, Emperor Hirohito was seen as a demi-God, able to protect his people from all outside threats. In the Pacific, Japan launched a brutal attack on Nanking, foreshadowing the barbarity that would soon engulf Europe.
2014; 2009

World War I [electronic resource]: War in Europe

This program illustrates the events of World War I as it was waged in the conflict's primary theater of operations, Europe. Topics include the root causes of the war and the military alliances that ignited it; the introduction of modern weaponry such as machine guns, poison gas, fighter planes, and U-boats; America's decisive involvement, including the participation of women and African-Americans; U.S. economic policies; and public support for the war effort. Correlates to standards from the National Council for the Social Studies.
2006; 2003

Lead and Fire [electronic resource]: Mussolini's Seizure of Power

He was the world's first Fascist dictator, a man with grandiose visions of restoring the Roman Empire. His exaltation of violence inspired Hitler. And yet, in the 1920s, world leaders were full of praise for Benito Mussolini and his anti-Communist stance. This program examines the rise of Italian Fascism - from its roots in Italy's humiliating loss in the WWI battle of Caporetto to the assassinations and brutality Mussolini used to destroy those who hindered his consolidation of power. Colorized archival footage, dramatic reconstructions, and expert interviews bring the period to life, revealing little-known aspects of the early Fascist movement - among them, a semblance of pluralism that included Jewish adherents.

Winston Churchill [electronic resource]: From the WPA Film Library Speeches Collection

Let us...brace ourselves to our duties and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will say, 'This was their finest hour.' -Winston Churchill Items in this compilation include, * Churchill's speech given at Guildhall, London, on 2/23/40 at a luncheon held in honor of the crews of the Exeter and the Ajax after their victory during the battle of the River Plate * His "Their Finest Hour" address, given before the House of Commons on 6/18/40 * His "The Few" address, given before the House of Commons on 8/20/40 * A speech to the Allied delegates at St. James's Palace given on 6/12/41 * An address to the U.S. Congress given on 12/26/41 * An address made to the Canadian Parliament on 12/30/41 * A speech delivered in Moscow during 1 [...]

The WPA Film Library [electronic resource]: European March Against Fascism, 1980

Multinational parade protesting the rise of European fascism

United News: Release 92 (1944) New Films of U.S. Victory in the Marshall Islands [electronic resource]

This World War II-era newsreel includes the following segments: 1. Kwajalein is bombarded from the air, from naval guns, and from artillery batteries; U.S. troops land and advance inland under a constant artillery barrage; flamethrowers and satchel charges are used against pillboxes; Japanese prisoners are deloused and given medical treatment; Admiral Nimitz witnesses the raising of the American flag.

United News: Release 101 (1944) Huge Air Fleets Bomb Nazi War Plants in Europe [electronic resource]

This World War II-era newsreel includes the following segments: 1. R.A.F. Boston bombers strike war plants in Europe. 2. Delegates from 40 nations meet for a labor conference. 3. Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. 4. Airplane propellers are tested in a wind tunnel. 5. The aircraft carrier Bon Homme Richard is launched. 6. 37th Division troops move inland on Bougainville.

United News: Release 123 (1944) Third Anniversary of Victory Fleet [electronic resource]

This World War II-era newsreel includes the following segments: 1. Merchant seamen parade in New York City; Admiral Emory Land. 2. Secretary of State Hull, Under Secretary Stettinius, Dr. Wellington Koo, and Lord Halifax at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference; Donald M. Nelson and Generals Stilwell and Hurley in Chungking. 3. Amphibious landings on New Guinea and in the Palau Islands.

United News: Release 1018 (1944) Prelude to Victory [electronic resource]

This World War II-era newsreel includes the following segments: 1. General Eisenhower lays a wreath at the Arc de Triomphe in Paris and speaks to the French people. 2. Free French and U.S. troops enter Marseilles; U.S. troops join in a parade honoring the French underground. 3. Allied troops enter Le Havre, Antwerp, and Brussels behind artillery and aerial bombardment; General Montgomery receives accolades in Brussels; the 7th Army enters Lyons and collaborationists are marched through the streets.

United News: Release 164 (1945) Final Victory on Okinawa, Allies Invade Borneo [electronic resource]

This World War II-era newsreel includes the following segments: 1. General Buckner observes artillery of the 10th Army; Navy planes blast Japanese positions on Okinawa; Australian troops land on Borneo and General MacArthur arrives; Navy torpedo boats assault a Borneo oil depot. 2. Sections of a floating drydock are launched in the U.S. and assembled in Pacific waters; a cruiser is repaired. 3. General Eisenhower, accompanied by Eleanor Roosevelt, visits F.D.R.'s grave at Hyde Park. 4. England's Queen Elizabeth arrives in New York with returning veterans.

United News: Release 179 (1945) Radio Proximity Fuse-Weapon Behind Victory [electronic resource]

This World War II-era newsreel includes the following segments: 1. Diagrams show the use of radio proximity fuses on bombs and rockets. 2. Navy Day celebrations in New York City: a Navy fleet in the Hudson River, the aircraft carrier Franklin D. Roosevelt being launched, a parade, and President Truman aboard the U.S.S. Missouri in New York harbor.

United News: Release 1053 (1945) Victory Roundup [electronic resource]

This World War II-era newsreel includes the following segments: Generals Zhukov, Spaatz, and Tedder receive General Keitel's surrender at Berlin; scenes at Munich; German Generals Goring, Kesselring, and von Runstedt are captured; General E.H. Brooks receives Germany's surrender in Austria; Admiral Doenitz is captured; British sailors board German U-boats at Antwerp; citizens of Brussels and Paris celebrate in the streets; General de Gaulle visits the Arc de Triomphe; General Montgomery receives the German surrender at Lundberg; the British fleet enters Copenhagen harbor; General Montgomery and King Christian X ride through the streets of Copenhagen.

United News: Release 189 (1946) Hail Victory in California Rose Festival [electronic resource]

This World War II-era newsreel includes the following segments: 1. The Rose Parade in Pasadena. 2. UN delegate Stettinius, Mrs. Roosevelt, and various senators pose for photographers. 3. Chinese citizens greet General Marshall. 4. Japanese POWs board a ship in California. 5. President Truman speaks about "a year of decisions." 6. General Patton's funeral in Hamm, Luxemburg. 7. The 82nd Airborne Division disembarks in New York. 8. General Homma pleads innocent at a war crimes trial. 9. Skiing and bobsledding in New York.

United News: Release 1004 (1944) Gateway to Victory [electronic resource]

This World War II-era newsreel includes the following segments: 1. The aerial and amphibious assault on the beaches of Normandy. 2. U.S. troops enter Rome under the supervision of General Clark; a mob attacks collaborationists; Pope Pius XII addresses the populace. 3. Allied convoys landing on the Normandy beaches; Generals Eisenhower and Montgomery and Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsey.