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Aquatic Biology
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1.

Spreading

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk observes that spreading decreases the energy of sound as it travels. Energy loss due to spreading is proportional to the square of the distance from the source.
Online
2015; 2011
2.

Sonar

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about sonar, which stands for sound navigation and ranging, the process by which objects (like submarines, for example) are discovered when sound waves are reflected off of them and then detected.
Online
2015; 2011
3.

Early Evidence of Continental Drift

Geophysicist and geologist Tanya Atwater points to the jig-saw puzzle fit of Africa and South America as the most obvious evidence supporting the theory of continental drift.
Online
2015; 2011
4.

Differences Between Oceans and Continents (Part 2)

Geophysicist and geologist Tanya Atwater compares the relatively neat sea floor with continents, which she terms a "mess." She attributes these differences to the predictable and "tidy" process of seafloor spreading, as compared to the crashing together of continental structures.
Online
2015; 2011
5.

Seafloor Spreading: Vine and Matthews

Geophysicist and geologist Tanya Atwater talks about work done by Fred Vine and Drummond Matthews that ultimately provided proof of seafloor spreading by tracking the patterns of magnetic striping on the ocean floor.
Online
2015; 2011
6.

Wegener's Mistakes

Geophysicist and geologist Tanya Atwater talks about mistakes made by Alfred Wegener in formulating his theory of continental drift, some of which created doubt and skepticism among fellow geologists.
Online
2015; 2011
7.

Heard Island Test and Climate Change, the

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about efforts to measure ocean warming through sound in a test done near Heard Island, an area considered unique because sound emanating from that point can theoretically reach every ocean basin on Earth.
Online
2015; 2011
8.

Using Sound to Measure Ocean Warming

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about efforts to measure ocean warming through the use of sound--a process known as dark acoustic thermometry. Professor Munk notes that since the speed of sound increases in the ocean with temperature, the time it takes for a pulse to cross a body of water should diminish as the water gets warmer.
Online
2015; 2011
9.

Wave Prediction and the Normandy Invasion

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about the role wave prediction played in the planning of the Normandy Invasion during World War II. He recalls that the invasion was actually postponed one day because of predictions of unfavorable wave conditions.
Online
2015; 2011
10.

Marine Animals and Sound

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about the use of sound by marine animals. Professor Monk observes that while scientists don't fully understand all the ways marine animals use sound, it is generally believed that animals in the marine environment probably use sound to search for food and mates, as well during the navigation process.
Online
2015; 2011
11.

Seafloor Spreading and Plate Tectonics (Part One)

Geophysicist and geologist Tanya Atwater talks about the role of seafloor spreading and spreading centers in the plate tectonics process.
Online
2015; 2011
12.

Temperature and the Velocity of Sound

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about the relationship between temperature and the velocity of sound, observing that velocity increases with temperature. Because temperature generally increases anywhere from ten to twenty degrees moving up from one kilometer to the surface, so, too, does the speed of sound generally increase closer to the surface.
Online
2015; 2011
13.

Global Warming and Sea Level Change

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about the relationship between global warming and sea level change. Professor Munk points out that, contrary to popular belief, the melting of floating ice does not change sea level. It is the melting of land-based ice masses that contributes to a rise in sea level.
Online
2015; 2011
14.

Shadow Zones

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about shadow zones, which develop in response to surface heating and other geophysical phenomena, and behind which the volume of sound is much lower than in surrounding areas.
Online
2015; 2011
15.

Noise Pollution and Marine Life

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about the impact of sound on marine animals. He discusses the campaign of environmental groups to cut down on noise pollution in the ocean--a campaign which Professor Munk argues resulted in opposition to valuable oceanographic research.
Online
2015; 2011
16.

Scattering

Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about scattering, which occurs as sound bounces off bubbles, suspended particles, organisms, the surface, the bottom, or other objects. Small-scale temperature changes which act like foreign objects can also scatter the sound.
Online
2015; 2011
17.

Seafloor Spreading: Harry Hess

Geophysicist and geologist Tanya Atwater talks about seafloor spreading, an idea first articulated by Harry Hess that many consider to be the linchpin of plate tectonics.
Online
2015; 2011
18.

Differences Between Oceans and Continents (Part One)

Geophysicist and geologist Tanya Atwater talks about the very different ways in which oceans and continents are formed and how each changes over time.
Online
2015; 2011
19.

Seafloor Spreading and Plate Tectonics (Part 2)

Geophysicist and geologist Tanya Atwater talks about the Deep Sea Drilling Project and the confirmation of magnetic reversals that provided strong evidence of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics.
Online
2015; 2011
20.

Alfred Wegener and Continental Drift

Geophysicist and geologist Tanya Atwater discusses the role of Alfred Wegener in bringing together a variety of evidence in support of the theory of continental drift.
Online
2015; 2011