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1.

Interview With Charles Sabatier, 1982 [electronic resource]

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Charles Sabatier served in the United States Army in the Vietnam War. Paralyzed by a bullet wound, he spent his post-war life as an activist for the disabled. He discusses his impressions of the Army at the time, and details the events surrounding his injury during the Tet Offensive. He describes his reintegration to American society and the struggles he faced as a veteran of an unpopular war and a disabled person. Mr. Sabatier tells of how his feelings toward the war changed, and how his paralysis changed his view of himself. He concludes with his thoughts on the anti-war movement, and expresses an understanding toward the Vietnamese against whom he fought.
Online
1983
2.

Interview With Douglas Kinnard, 1982 [electronic resource]

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A US Army Brigadier and General who completed two tours in Vietnam, Douglas Kinnard recalls his time in Cambodia and his discovery of what he believed was a common practice of secret bombing against the Cambodians. Kinnard also admits in retrospect that he did not fully understand his enemy or the objectives he set out to fulfill.
Online
1983
3.

Interview With Edward J. Banks, 1982 [electronic resource]

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Edward J. Banks commanded a battalion of Marines in Vietnam. He recalls his first combat mission and discusses the challenges of distinguishing enemy Viet Cong from Vietnamese civilians. He outlines the strategy of "search and destroy" and describes a mission to clear the village of Thuy Bo, a mission later reported as a massacre by the civilians living there.
Online
1983
4.

Interview With Frank (Fred) Hickey, 1981 [electronic resource]

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Fred Hickey, a helicoptor pilot, arrived in Vietnam in 1970. He describes his unit's typical missions and relatively high morale among aviation units. He recalls his frustration over restricted zones where he was unable to respond to enemy fire. He describes an incident of fragging and also recounts a personal experience with racial tension among the soldiers.
Online
1983
5.

Interview With Everett Bumgardner [electronic resource]

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Part 1: Everett Bumgardner, a US Information Agency employee recalls meeting Ngo Dinh Diem and Diem's reaction to the United States and American attitudes to Vietnamese customs and traditions. He describes Americans entering Vietnam and not fully understanding the culture and not having the background or experience to make professional judgments. Bumgardner explains in detail the dynamic between the Americans and Ngo Dinh Diem and the Agroville Program. -- Part 2: US Information Agency employee Bumgardner describes the conditions in the Vietnamese countryside and aspects of the day-to-day life of villagers, including the lack of power held by landlords and the invasion by guerrillas. He discusses how family members left the village to fight, how this changed the dynamic of the villag [...]
Online
1983
6.

Interview With Frank M. White, 1981 [electronic resource]

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Vietnam veteran and former foreign correspondent, Frank White discusses his opinions of General Gracey. He mentions that he was gentlemanly and very gracious. He did not empathize with any particular American group, but rather viewed the Americans as another distraction. White also recounts the attitude of the French when the Vietnamese began to protest the British and American forces and the bloodshed that occurred during the Vietnamese fight for independence. He recalls that once the fighting began, and Marshal Leclerc arrived with his staff, hostility increased and continued until the end. White talks about his meetings with Ho Chi Minh, the torture that he witnessed in South Vietnam and American Policy during the Vietnam War.
Online
1983
7.

Interview With Frank Snepp, 1981 [electronic resource]

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Frank Snepp was the former chief analyst of North Vietnamese strategy for the CIA in Saigon. Snepp recalls the decision of the American forces to pull out of Vietnam. He discusses that Nguyen Van Thieu's cousin, Hoang Duc Nha was the sole member of the South Vietnamese government who did not believe that the Americans would continue to send support and tried to warn Nguyen Van Thieu not to rely on the Americans. He also recalls the corruption within the South Vietnamese government and how the CIA was told not to report any corruption within South Vietnam. Snepp further discusses the evacuation from Vietnam and how it was organized.
Online
1983
8.

Interview With George Cantero, 1981 [electronic resource]

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George Cantero served as a medic in Vietnam. He describes a high level of drug use by American soldiers. He also describes declining morale among the troops as a result of military policies and de-escalation, recounting the "fragging" or attack of a superior officer as one example. Finally, he discusses the withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam and his own return to the United States.
Online
1983
9.

Interview With George W. Ball, 1981 [electronic resource]

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George W. Ball served in the State Department under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, and later as Ambassador to the United Nations. He describes the early Johnson Administration as a period of "drift" when the US was becoming increasingly involved in Vietnam, a trend Ball opposed in numerous memos and meetings. Ball discusses his role as the voice of dissent within the Johnson administration, arguing that they learn from mistakes previously committed by the French in Vietnam. He recalls Johnson as a sympathetic and intelligent man who wanted to end the war but could not afford to lose it.
Online
1983
10.

Interview With Henry Kissinger, 1982 [electronic resource]

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Henry Kissinger's involvement with Vietnam started before he was Nixon's National Security Advisor. While at Harvard, Kissinger was a consultant on foreign policy to both the White House and State Department and in a 1973 peace agreement, Kissinger helped mediate between Washington and Hanoi. In this interview Kissinger recalls the period before he joined the Nixon White House and how he did not question the United States involvement in Vietnam. In 1965, Kissinger travelled to Vietnam and saw that the war was not winnable in the way it was currently being conducted. Moreover, he had doubts as to whether or not South Vietnam could stand on their own once the United States left. He also describes his impression of Le Duc Tho as someone whose goal was to break the morale and spirit of t [...]
Online
1983
11.

Interview With Henry H. Fowler, 1981 [electronic resource]

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Henry H. Fowler was Secretary of the Treasury under President Johnson from 1965 to 1968. He is asked about the economic consequences of a request to send 206,000 troops to Vietnam in early 1968. He argued at the time that fulfilling such a request would cause significant economic problems. He describes President Johnson as believing bringing peace to Southeast Asia was worth the high fiscal cost--and less expensive than allowing communists to dominate that part of the world. Fowler details the machinations of finding money for the war, both in the Congressional appropriations process and in partnering with other countries on issues such as the price of gold. Fowler describes the tensions the president felt in trying to pay for the war at the same time he wanted to fully fund his Grea [...]
Online
1983
12.

Interview With Harry McPherson, 1981 [electronic resource]

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Harry McPherson served as Special Counsel to LBJ from 1965 to 1969 and was Johnson's chief speechwriter from 1966 to 1969. McPherson begins the interview by recalling the conflicted mood at the White House following the Tet Offensive. The optimism found in military cables and official information clashed with televised images showing the nation that the war was resulting in massive loss of human life and that a prisoner could be shot at point-blank range. He also talks about the concerns LBJ had that the Vietnam War might escalate into a world war and that the goal was not to destroy North Vietnam but rather to keep them contained and not overthrow the government in South Vietnam. He ends the interview with a personal sketch of President Johnson, a complex and tragic figure.
Online
1983
13.

Interview With J. Lawton Collins, 1981 [electronic resource]

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Joseph Lawton Collins, a United States Army General, was the United States Ambassador to Vietnam during early US involvement in Vietnam. Collins recalls why President Eisenhower and Secretary Dulles felt that American presence was necessary in Vietnam and how it figured into the United States stance against communism. Collins also describes his arrival in Vietnam and the difficulties in dealing with Diem and Diem's lack of action. Collins confirmed that Diem's brother and sister-in-law were the real government power, that Diem lacked any administrative ability, and that the American aid Diem was receiving was crucial for the survival of that government.
Online
1983
14.

Interview With Hoang Duc Nha [electronic resource]

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Hoang Duc Nha was an American-educated Minister of Information for South Vietnam--and cousin and Special Adviser to President Thieu--until 1974. He lived for three years in the United States in the early 1960s before returning to Vietnam at his mother's request in 1965. He describes finding a dramatically changed country, with a changed government and a large American presence. He offers his impressions of different American leaders, including Presidents Johnson and Nixon. He also recounts many stories surrounding the negotiation of the Paris Peace Accord.
Online
1983
15.

Interview With Jack Hill, 1982 [electronic resource]

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Jack Hill served in the Marines in Vietnam. He describes his first experiences in the country and his work as a point man, watching for booby traps. He describes three days of fighting in the village of Thuy Bo in which his unit took suffered many losses. He responds to allegations that his unit massacred the village of Thuy Bo, explaining that they were ordered to search and destroy.
Online
1983
16.

Interview With J. Vinton (Vint) Lawrence, 1981 [electronic resource]

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A former United States CIA paramilitary officer, Vinton J. Lawrence was stationed in Laos from 1962 to 1966. Lawrence recalls arriving in Vientiane. After the Geneva Convention only two CIA agents were allowed to stay in-country, Lawrence and Tony Poe. Together Lawrence and Poe set up base in Long Cheng and began to work closely with Vang Pao. Lawrence contends that Vang Pao was not a creation of the CIA but rather a trained soldier who had completed officer's school. Lawrence recalls his impression of Vang Pao as a dynamic man and a natural leader. Lawrence also talks about the evolution of Long Cheng from a bucolic place to a overpopulated shanty town. Lawrence recalls his feelings about his time in Laos and his sorrow as to what has happened to its people, who he believes have gon [...]
Online
1983
17.

Interview With Jane Barton, 1981 [electronic resource]

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Jane Barton went to Vietnam with the American Friends' Service Committee to work in a rehabilitation clinic and to observe the treatment of prisoners in Quang Ngai, South Vietnam. She describes evidence of torture and the complicity of the American government. She describes the damages inflicted on Vietnamese civilians by relocation programs and by landmines. Finally, she discusses the negative attitudes of the Vietnamese in her area towards the government of South Vietnam and the American presence.
Online
1983
18.

Interview With John D. Negroponte, 1981 [electronic resource]

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From 1964 to 1968, John Negroponte was Second Secretary in Saigon; from 1968 to 1969, a member of U.S. Delegation to Paris Peace Talks; and from 1970 to 1973, a member of the National Security Council staff. He describes the mood in Paris in 1968 as euphoric, thinking the negotiations for peace with the North Vietnamese would be quick. He discusses President Nixon and Secretary Kissinger's thinking about the negotiations in the context of China and the Soviet Union. He describes the character of Le Duc Tho, who secretly met with Kissinger to help advance the Peace Accords. Negroponte goes into detail about the issue of the withdrawal of North Vietnamese troops from the South. He describes the purpose of the Christmas Bombing of North Vietnam in 1972 and responds to questions about Ni [...]
Online
1983
19.

Interview With John Chancellor, 1982 [electronic resource]

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John Chancellor was a White House press correspondent during the early Johnson administration. In 1965, he became director of Voice of America. Here he describes President Johnson's relationship with the media and his mission at Voice of America. He discusses the challenge of broadcasting America's first "televised war" and describes tension for journalists between covering anti-war activity and amplifying it. He recalls Spiro Agnew's attack on the press. Finally, he describes the stages of war news coverage and the evolving relationship between the press and the government.
Online
1983
20.

Interview With Jonathan F. (Jonathan Fredric) Ladd, 1982 [electronic resource]

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Jonathan Frederic (Fred) Ladd, Colonel of Special Forces in Cambodia from 1970-1972 and a political-military counselor at the United States Embassy in Phnom Penh, explains why he was appointed to the Embassy. Ladd refers to his first impressions of the military situation and of Lon Nol, stating that the Cambodians had an amateurish army, that Lon Nol was dedicated to his country, but that he was not a strong leader. Ladd recalls the infighting that was occurring in Washington and his 1971 request to return to the United States due to his feeling that the situation was out of his control: the Cambodians were becoming discouraged and the conflict was becoming a second Vietnam War.
Online
1983