Item Details

Found in Philip S. Hench Walter Reed Yellow Fever Collection circa 1800-circa 1998 bulk 1863-1974

series
Series III. Walter Reed
inclusive1806/19551806-circa 1955
bulk1874/1936bulk 1874-1936
Digital Repository PIDViU-HUSuva-lib:2223908
Boxbox16-33
17 boxes

Series III. Walter Reed consists of materials that document the life of Walter Reed as well as the work and legacy of the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission. Items in the series date from 1806 to around 1955 with the bulk of the items dating from 1874 to 1936. The series is particularly rich in materials that document the professional and personal life of Walter Reed from 1874 to his death in 1902. These materials include, but are not limited to the following:

    simple
  • correspondence between Walter Reed and members of his immediate family that cover a wide range of topics including Reed's courtship of Emilie Lawrence Reed, family life, Walter Reed's work in the Western United States, and Walter Reed's work in Cuba;
  • military records relating to Walter Reed including military orders for Reed, Reed's performance reviews, and reports of Reed's work for army officials;
  • Walter Reed's correspondence with professional colleagues including members of the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission, military doctors, and medical researchers interested in the study of yellow fever;
  • medical records (e.g. fever charts of experiment participants), military orders, administrative records, reports, and publications documenting the results of the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission's experiments in Cuba;
  • articles announcing the death of Walter Reed;
  • and the shoulder boards from Walter Reed's U.S. Army uniform.

In addition to the above items, Series III. contains materials that document campaigns, spanning from 1902 to 1937, to publicly honor members of the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission and those who participated in the commission's experiments. These materials include, but are not limited to the following:

    simple
  • articles and editorials relating to efforts to memorialize and provide pensions for members of the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission and those who participated in the commission's experiments;
  • biographical sketches of members of the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission and experiment participants;
  • records relating to the Walter Reed Memorial Association (e.g. correspondence, donor lists);
  • copies of Congressional bills and resolutions to honor members of the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission and experiment participants;
  • and letters, reviews, and other materials relating to the production of Sidney Coe Howard's play, Yellow Jack.

Finally, Series III. also consists of materials that document the history of yellow fever during the nineteenth and early twentieth century. These materials include, but are not limited to the following:

    simple
  • items (e.g. correspondence, reports, reviews, and articles) relating to U.S. efforts to eradicate yellow fever in the Panama Canal Zone;
  • materials (e.g. correspondence, reports, and articles) documenting early twentieth century efforts to eradicate yellow fever in Peru;
  • scientific reports and publications related to the study and eradication of yellow fever and malaria;
  • and newspaper articles describing various outbreaks of yellow fever epidemics.

Materials in Series III. are largely arranged in chronological order according to their date of creation.

external
655aataccounts
655aatadvertisements
655aatarticles
655aatbills (legislative records)
655aatbills of sale
655aatbiographies (documents)
655aatblack-and-white prints (prints on paper)
655aatbooklets
655aatbooks
655aatbudgets
655aatbusiness cards
655aatcalendars
655aatcertificates
655aatcharts (graphic documents)
655aatchronologies (lists)
655aatclippings (information artifacts)
655aatcontracts
655aatdaybooks
655aatdeath records
655aatdecrees
655aatdiaries
655aatdrawings (visual works)
655aateditorial cartoons
655aateditorials
655aatenvelopes
655aatessays
655aatexaminations (documents)
655aatexcerpts
655aatextracts
655aatfinancial records
655aatgreeting cards
655aatinterviews
655aatinventories
655aatinvitations
655aatjournals (periodicals)
655aatlectures
655aatletters (correspondence)
655aatletters to the editor
655aatlists (document genres)
655aatmagazines (periodicals)
655aatmanuscripts (document genre)
655aatmedals
655aatmedical records
655aatmemorandums
655aatmilitary records
655aatminutes (administrative records)
655aatmortgages
655aatnewspapers
655aatnotebooks
655aatnotes
655aatoaths
655aatobituaries
655aatpamphlets
655aatphotographs
655aatpostcards
655aatpress releases
655aatproceedings
655aatproclamations
655aatprograms (documents)
655aatquestionnaires
655aatreceipts (financial records)
655aatregisters (lists)
655aatreports
655aatrequisitions
655aatresolutions (administrative records)
655aatreviews
655aatrosters
655aatshort stories
655aatshoulder boards
655aatsketches
655aatspeeches
655aattables (documents)
655aattelegrams
655aattestimonials

Article on yellow fever New Orleans from the New York Herald August 18, 1853

The Yellow Fever--Increasing Mortality--Visit to the Hospital--Appearance of the Sick--The Weather, &c.

Inventory and inspection report of ambulances under the supervision of M.R. Baldwin March 5, 1863

This document reviews the condition of the four horse ambulances of the 1st Division Ambulance Corp.

The History of a Rose, by Emily B. Lawrence 1867

Lawrence writes a story about a rose.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence July 18, 1874

Reed plans to enter the U.S. Army Medical Corps, and gives his rationale. He describes his experiences in the city. He explains his later plans for marriage and his philosophy of life.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence August 12, 1874

Reed informs Lawrence that he is studying for the Medical Corps exam. He describes the exam, and offers his opinion of social engagements.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence September 17, 1874

Reed is exhausted from work. He plans a trip home. His step-mother is curious about his relationship with Emilie Lawrence. He critiques contemporary novels.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence September 28, 1874

Reed seeks permission to call on Emilie Lawrence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence November 23, 1874

Reed is worried that he may be writing Emilie Lawrence too frequently. He is sick but will persevere to take his medical exam.

Materials relating to Walter Reed's appearance before army examination board 1874

Military records and letters of recommendation relating to Walter Reed August 29, 1874

These endorsements and letters of recommendation for Walter Reed relate to his appointment as Assistant Surgeon to the US Army. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Joseph B. Brown September 2, 1874

Reed accepts an invitation to appear before the U.S. Surgeon's Examining Board, and explains that he would have responded sooner had he not contracted a fever. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to the Surgeon General September 2, 1874

Reed acknowledges the receipt of the invitation to appear before Army Medical Examination Board. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence January 9, 1875

Reed expresses his love for his dispersed family, and notes that it has been one year since he met her. Reed will delay taking his medical exam.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence January 20, 1875

Reed lovingly writes to Emilie Lawrence that he will not forget her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence February 3, 1875

Reed writes that he misses her. Reed's step-mother is in Norfolk and may visit Murfeesboro - Emilie Lawrence's hometown. He has received his commission from Army Medical Corps.

Walter Reed - examinations for qualification as army surgeon February 8, 1875

Examination paper on anatomy February 8, 1875

Reed writes a paper on anatomy for qualification as an Army Surgeon. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Examination paper on physiology February 8, 1875

Reed writes a paper on physiology for qualification as an Army Surgeon. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Examination paper on hygiene February 8, 1875

Reed writes a paper on hygiene for qualification as an Army Surgeon. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Autobiography of Walter Reed February 8, 1875

Reed writes an autobiography for the Army Examination Board.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence March 4, 1875

Reed professes his love to Emilie Lawrence, and looks forward to seeing her again.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence March 24, 1875

Reed discusses his future life in the Army and asks Emilie Lawrence to marry him.

Letter fragment from Walter Reed to [Emilie B. Lawrence] circa 1875

Reed inquires if [Emilie Lawrence] is attached, and asks if he may visit her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence April 8, 1875

Reed assures Emilie Lawrence of the sincerity of his feelings. She has not yet given an answer to his marriage proposal.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence May 12, 1875

Reed seeks permission to call on Emilie Lawrence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence May 17, 1875

Reed writes that he has been delayed in Boykins on his way back to New York.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence May 17, 1875

Reed writes that he made a medical call on Emilie Lawrence's relative, Mrs. Vaughan, on his way home to New York. He had been in North Carolina visiting Emilie Lawrence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence May 19, 1875

Reed expresses his devotion to Emilie Lawrence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence May 27, 1875

Reed expresses his devotion to Emilie Lawrence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence June 1, 1875

Reed and Emilie Lawrence are engaged. They anticipate separation for his military assignment.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence June 6, 1875

Reed delights in Emilie Lawrence's love and prays for worthiness.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence June 11, 1875

Reed informs Emilie Lawrence, his fiance, that the question of military leave is at the discretion of the Surgeon General.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence June 15, 1875

Reed has not heard from Emilie Lawrence. He expresses affection for her relative Mrs. Vaughan.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence June 17, 1875

Reed expresses his devotion to Emilie Lawrence. News spreads of their engagement.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence June 21, 1875

Reed has his uniform tailored for a photograph to give to Emilie Lawrence. He makes plans to visit her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence July 1, 1875

Reed expresses his devotion to Emilie Lawrence. He admires her forgiving spirit, and writes her poetry. He writes to her mother to confirm their engagement, and reports that the photograph he had made of himself in uniform will be ready soon.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence July 23, 1875

Reed writes Emilie Lawrence that he is lonely without her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence July 25, 1875

Reed describes to Emilie Lawrence his trip to New York City on a steamer from Portsmouth, Virginia. He relates a story containing a lesson of married life.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence July 27, 1875

Reed describes to Emilie Lawrence the difficulties he undergoes to reach his army post at Willets Point, New York harbor.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence July 29, 1875

Reed gives Emilie Lawrence a description of the U.S. Army base at Willets Point, New York harbor. He describes his duties there as a medical officer.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence August 1, 1875

Reed informs Emilie Lawrence that he has light military duties and an easy command as a medical officer at Willets Point U.S. Army base. He misses her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence August 5, 1875

Reed, in verse, declares his devotion to Emilie Lawrence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence August 8, 1875

Reed assures Emilie Lawrence of his devotion. He describes a visit to New York City to buy her wedding ring.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence August 12, 1875

Reed responds to Emilie Lawrence's teasing. He alludes to their wedding planned for the fall of 1876. He is beginning study of French and German.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence August 16, 1875

Reed reassures Emilie Lawrence of his devotion. He learns she is unhappy, but does not know why.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence August 19, 1875

Reed reassures Emilie Lawrence of his devotion. He admits that she has great influence over him.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence August 19, 1875

Reed misses Emilie Lawrence. He offers a prayer to his deceased natural mother. He also discusses various topics, including medical treatments, a Catholic service, French lessons, and reading.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence August 27, 1875

Reed sends an engagement ring to Emilie Lawrence by express mail.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence August 30, 1875

Reed remains devoted to Emilie Lawrence. He comments on a caricature she has drawn, which includes mosquitos.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence September 3, 1875

Reed describes his activities to Emilie Lawrence: French language studies, reading, and chess. He promises no card playing at her request.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence September 6, 1875

Reed reiterates his devotion to Emilie Lawrence. He describes errands in New York City and his responsibilities at Willet's Point Army Base.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence September 9, 1875

Reed reiterates his devotion to her. He describes a view of the planets by telescope.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence circa September 20, 1875

Reed teases Emilie Lawrence about writing. He reiterates his devotion to her, and makes plans to visit her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence September 23, 1875

Reed pledges to abstain from irony in his future correspondence with Emilie Lawrence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence September 27, 1875

Reed describes his military responsibilities. He assures Emilie Lawrence that she is above all others in his heart.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence September 29, 1875

Reed writes to Emilie Lawrence concerning irony. He notes that there was a delay in receiving her letter.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence October 4, 1875

Reed's visit to Emilie Lawrence is set, but he teases her first.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence October 18, 1875

Reed misses Emilie Lawrence after visiting her. He writes lines of poetry and offers a critique of an Episcopalian minister.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence October 21, 1875

Reed expresses his devotion to Emilie Lawrence. He expects a permanent military assignment in the spring.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence October 25, 1875

Reed takes a carriage ride to see the fall colors.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence October 29, 1875

Reed makes a visit to a doctor's family. An army general gives him word on his future assignment.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence October 31, 1875

Emilie Lawrence visits Norfolk and Reed teases her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence November 11, 1875

Reed reiterates his devotion to Emilie Lawrence. He describes his responsibilities and notes that General Humphreys, Chief of the Army Corps of Engineers, arrives at the base for a dinner.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence November 15, 1875

Reed relates to Emilie Lawrence details of his brother's visit.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence November 17, 1875

Reed describes a dinner given for General Humphreys, Chief of the Army Corps of Engineers. He also describes city sights seen with his brother. He gives a defense of army life and teases her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence November 22, 1875

Reed describes athletic events and a tournament. He comments on jealousy.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence November 29, 1875

Reed makes a statement on irony in the letters he and Emilie Lawrence send each other.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence December 9, 1875

Reed assures Emilie Lawrence of his devotion, and he apologizes for the ironic tone which offended her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence December 13, 1875

Reed writes that he has not heard from her, and he feels dejected. He attends a reception with a heavy heart.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence December 13, 1875

Reed learns that Emilie Lawrence is nursing her nephew who has typhoid fever. He expresses concern for her health, and apologizes for his sad letter earlier today.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence December 14, 1875

Reed expresses his anxiety for Emilie Lawrence's health. He reiterates his devotion to her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence December 16, 1875

Reed reiterates his devotion to Emilie Lawrence. He expresses his hope for the future.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence December 20, 1875

Reed learns of the death of Emilie Lawrence's nephew. He meditates on Christian duty and on life's purpose for him.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence December 22, 1875

Reed visits New York City, where he buys Emilie Lawrence a book. He is concerned for her health.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence December 29, 1875

Reed reaffirms his feelings for Emilie Lawrence. He describes the physician's lot, and inquires about the new Murfreesboro newspaper and their friends Miss Peace and Mr. Sharpe.

Certification of Walter Reed's passing of army examinations and his appointment as assistant surgeon July 10, 1880

Army Medical Board Certificate for Walter Reed February 8, 1875

Reed's Army Medical Board Certificate gives his personal information and includes the names of the Board members. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Joseph B. Brown to the Surgeon General February 12, 1875

Brown recommends Reed's appointment as Assistant Surgeon, US Army, but notes that Reed's acquaintance with general literature and science is not up to the expected standard. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to C. H. Crane February 18, 1875

Reed declines an appointment as Acting Assistant Surgeon, United States Army. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Cards from Walter Reed requesting to call on Emilie B. Lawrence circa 1875

Cards from Walter Reed requesting permission to call on Emilie B. Lawrence  circa 1875

In these two cards, Reed requests permission to call on Lawrence.

Note from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrencecirca 1875

Reed requests that Lawrence stay at home so he can visit her in the evening.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence January 6, 1876

Reed relates that he is compiling statistics and writing a report for 1875.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence January 10, 1876

Reed teases Emilie Lawrence about a rumor of her impending marriage. He plans a visit to see her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence January 13, 1876

Reed teases Emilie Lawrence about not writing and about attentions from Professor Sharpe. He discusses small pox cases among children on the post.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence January 17, 1876

Reed has received no letter from her, but offers a meditation on patience.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence January 24, 1876

Reed must postpone his visit to see her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence January 27, 1876

Reed writes of visitors to the Willet's Point base and his treatment of the sick.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence February 7, 1876

Reed describes sleigh rides he has taken with the ladies of the army base at Willet's Point. He teases Emilie Lawrence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence February 11, 1876

Reed reiterates his devotion to Emilie Lawrence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence February 16, 1876

Reed arranges a visit to Norfolk and Murfreesboro. He describes social events at the army base at Willet's Point.

Correspondence relating to the commissioning and assignment of Walter Reed in the U.S. Army February 2, 1876

Letter from Walter Reed to the Adjutant General February 17, 1876

Reed acknowledges the receipt of his commission as Assistant Surgeon, U.S. Army, February 17, 1876.

Letter from Walter Reed to the Surgeon General June 30, 1876

Reed reports that he has taken up his temporary assignment at his posting at Fort Yuma, California.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence February 22, 1876

Reed writes Emilie Lawrence to expect his impending arrival

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence March 4, 1876

Reed misses Emilie Lawrence. He is thankful for the time spent with her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence March 6, 1876

Reed visits a sick friend in Brooklyn. He was impressed with Baltimore on his trip home.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence March 9, 1876

Reed teases Emilie Lawrence that his finger was injured by her. He describes cases of measles at the base.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence March 13, 1876

Reed has not heard from Emilie Lawrence. He tells her he misses her, and reports on cases of measles at the base.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence March 20, 1876

Reed misses Emilie Lawrence. He resolves to be a better Christian.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence March 28, 1876

Reed remarks on the ingratitude of patients. He informs Emilie Lawrence that he will be in a play.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence March 30, 1876

Reed studies Emilie Lawrence's French grammar. He assures her of his devotion. He visits Central Park, New York City.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence April 3, 1876

The Army post expects a visit from Gen. William T. Sherman and the Secretary of War. Reed anticipates his upcoming marriage to Emilie Lawrence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence March 6, 1876

Reed describes the visit of dignitaries - including General William T. Sherman - to the post at Willet's Point.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence April 10, 1876

Reed awaits his new orders. His replacement has arrived.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie B. Lawrence April 13, 1876

Reed is ordered to San Francisco. He will visit Emilie Lawrence with a “startling request.”

Inspection report from J. C. McKee to the Surgeon General 1877

McKee reports to the Surgeon General that Reed has his hospital in “most excellent condition.” He also mentions Reed's personal qualities that have won him the confidence of all. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Comments Walter Reed made in 1877 about life in the west published in Walter Reed and Yellow Fever, by Howard A. Kelly1906

From Walter Reed and Yellow Fever by Howard A. Kelly, Chapter II, 'Frontier life' (1876-1889), pages 25-29, 32-34

Letter from James C. McKee to the Surgeon General March 17, 1879

McKee approves Reed's request for a month's leave of absence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed April 21, 1879

Emilie Lawrence Reed and her young son, Walter Lawrence Reed, begin a trip east from Arizona.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed April 23, 1879

Reed waits for Mrs. Compton in order to accompany her to an Army post. He misses his wife and son, and asks his wife to hire a nurse for their son.

Letter from Walter Reed to [Emilie Lawrence Reed] April 26, 1879

Reed describes a trip to Santa Fe, New Mexico. He hears news of Emilie Lawrence Reed from a train conductor.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed April 29, 1879

Reed writes that he received her letter to him.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed April 30, 1879

Reed continues his trip back to Fort Apache, Arizona. He has not heard from her lately.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 6, 1879

Reed's trip to Fort Apache, Arizona continues. He describes a river crossing. Col. Compton, post commander, travels out to meet Reed and Mrs. Compton.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 15, 1879

Reed arrives at Fort Apache. He describes his house, and relays news of their friends. He studies Spanish.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 22, 1879

Reed hopes that his wife's health improves. He offers news of colleagues at Fort Apache and hopes for an assignment back east. He has received no letter from her.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 25, 1879

Reed describes a carriage ride. He responds to a letter from Emilie Lawrence Reed, giving her financial advice and offering news of acquaintances.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 31, 1879

Reed describes enlisting Indian scouts and camping in the wilderness.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 3, 1879

Reed writes that he appreciates Emilie Lawrence Reed's sacrifices. His son will be 18 months old on June 4, 1879. He sends his love and misses them.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 23, 1879

Reed teases Emilie Lawrence Reed. He offers news from the base. He is glad to hear that she is feeling better.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 5, 1879

Reed has photographs of his wife and son, and asks if they remember him. He gives news of their acquaintances and his Spanish studies.

Letter fragment from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 9, 1879

Reed describes a Native American at the fort, as well as his house and garden. Life on the base is dull, so he anticipates a new home with his wife and son.

Letter fragment from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 21 July 21, 1879

Reed writes about finances, promising to send money to her. She wants him to get an eastern assignment. He gives news about acquaintances.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 25, 1879

Reed has heard no word from Emilie Lawrence Reed regarding a necklace he sent her. He studies Spanish, and will take the medical exam when he returns. He gives news of the post commissary and their acquaintances.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed September 8, 1879

Reed's letter to his wife includes his thoughts on scouting, his work to get the hospital property ready for inspection, an upcoming court martial, and his side-whiskers.

Letter from Walter Reed to [Dorsey M. McPherson] September 29, 1879

Reed writes that he has heard rumors that [McPherson] wishes to have his commission annulled. Reed disapproves of this.

Letter from Walter Reed to [Dorsey M. McPherson] October 1, 1879

Reed teases McPherson concerning military reports and life in the field.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson October 7, 1879

Reed teases McPherson, and writes about debts, pay, and military assignments.

Letter fragment from Walter Reed to [Dorsey M. McPherson] October 20, 1879

Reed learns that McPherson will return to Fort Apache. Reed refers to other soldiers, and teases McPherson.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed October 27, 1879

Reed hopes his son remembers him. Reed learns he will not have an assignment to Fort Thomas. He notes that the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad is moving closer to Fort Apache. He writes about finances and military personnel.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 8, 1879

Reed is glad Emilie and their son made it safely to Norfolk. He describes his friend Cruse as well as several women who have been kind to him. He encourages his wife to have her photograph taken and to attend the theater.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 16, 1879

Reed corrects Emilie Lawrence Reed's misapprehension about the date of his reassignment. He expects to return east by June 30.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 23, 1879

Reed is concerned about his son's illness. He observes a beautiful snowfall, and gives details about a hunting trip on which Native Americans accompany him.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson January 13, 1880

Reed writes about military companies and scouting duty. He states he does not want his wife at the post if he must go out on scouting duty.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson January 28, 1880

Reed forwards mail to McPherson. Reed contemplates having his wife and son return west.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson February 4, 1880

Reed explains how he forgot to mail McPherson's letter and is holding his mail for him. Reed's family will not rejoin him.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson February 18, 1880

Reed has clothing sent to McPherson. McPherson testifies in U.S. vs. McGowan. Reed writes concerning medical matters.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson February 27, 1880

Reed writes of a post controversy regarding officers' duties and conduct.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson April 2, 1880

Reed writes about lost dental tools. He comments on McPherson's scouting assignment and the resolution of a controversy concerning insubordination. He gives post news.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson June 18, 1880

Reed is glad McPherson arrived safely back at the post. He comments on their new roommate. Reed's wife is sick.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson July 10, 1880

McPherson is sick and resting. Reed is studying for a medical exam.

Letter fragment from [Walter Reed] to [Dorsey M. McPherson] circa 1880

Reed teases McPherson and writes that he cannot take more leave to be McPherson's best man. Reed will travel to Warrenton, Virginia and to White Sulphur Springs.

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1880

Letter from C. H. Crane to Walter Reed May 26, 1880

Crane informs Reed the Surgeon General will approve his request for a leave of absence.

Letter from Walter Reed to the Adjutant General May 27, 1880

Reed requests one month of leave with permission to apply for an extension of two months. Several endorsements of the request dated May 27, 1880 to June 5, 1880 are included.

Letter from Walter Reed to the Adjutant General June 29, 1880

Walter Reed requests and is granted a one-month extension to his leave of absence.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson April 3, 1880

Reed describes his departure from Arizona, and the confusion in getting his next permanent assignment. He awaits McPherson's visit.

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1882

Letter from Joseph B. Brown to the Surgeon General March 23, 1882

Brown reports to the Surgeon General that the Board has examined Reed and considers him qualified for a promotion, with the proviso that he continues his studies in Physics. A second letter written on March 24, 1882 by C. H. Crane informs Reed of the outcome of the examination. The letters are accompanied by an endorsement.

Letter from Walter Reed to C. H. Crane November 10, 1882

Reed requests that his orders be ready for him by November 14, 1882. A note from the Surgeon General encourages speedy processing of the request. The resulting orders re-assign Reed from the Department of the East to the Department of the Platte.

Letter from O. O. Howard to the Adjutant General December 14, 1882

Howard requests that Reed be assigned to the hospital under his command, due to his steward's disability and the limitations of the Medical Director. The Adjutant General's office denies the request. Included are an endorsement of the request and a document specifying its removal.

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1885

Letter from Walter Reed to the Surgeon General January 31, 1885

Reed reports that he has taken up his assigned post as Post Surgeon, Fort Robinson, Nebraska.

Letters from Walter Reed relating to military service September 23, 1885

Reed has requested four weeks of leave. His commanding officer has asked for an officer to replace him in his absence, but the request for replacement is denied.

Letter from Walter Reed to the Adjutant General December 8, 1885

Reed requests and is granted a one-month extension to the leave of absence he was granted on November 18, 1885.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson December 26, 1885

Reed is coming to Washington to apply for a leave extension. He plans to visit Florida, and then to visit New York City for coursework.

Letter from Walter Reed to Dorsey M. McPherson April 13, 1886

Reed describes patients with erysipelas and double pneumonia. McPherson is to enter the Marine hospital service.

Sanitation report by Walter Reed May 31, 1887

This report gives the sanitary conditions of the officers' quarters, yard, barracks, guardhouse, post hospital, and water at Fort Robinson. It also reports on rations and clothing.

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1887

Letter from C[harles] R. G[reenleaf] to Walter Reed July 1, 1887

The original draft of Greenleaf's letter informs Reed that the treating of several pension cases each month does not warrant his being excused from performing that duty.

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1890

Efficiency report for Walter Reed May 1, 1890

Kellogg states that Reed is a man of marked ability. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed July 1890-August 1890

Reed requests a four-month leave of absence to attend to business matters and for pursuing special studies in his profession. Military endorsements and approval of Reed's leave are dated July 7, 1890 to August 18, 1890. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military records relating to Walter Reed July 1890-August 1890

Sutherland asks Reed if a local physician can be employed to provide medical care to the garrison and Indian prisoners during Reed's leave of absence. The letter and military endorsements are dated from July 18, 1890 to August 18, 1890. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1891

Military orders for Walter Reed March 30, 1891

The endorsement informs Reed that he did not lose his right to commutation of quarters while on a temporary leave of absence. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed September 19, 1891

Reed wants to know if his baggage can be shipped from Mt. Vernon Barracks to Fort Snelling, Minnesota. The document is dated September 19, 1891 and September 21, 1891. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed November 17, 1891

Mason requests that Reed be appointed to the examining board at Fort Snelling. The letter, endorsement, and approval are dated from November 17, 1891 to November 23, 1891. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1892

United States Army efficiency report for Walter Reed January 21, 1892

Colonel Edwin C. Mason rates Reed's characteristics as very good and excellent. However, under scientific attainments Mason writes, “nothing special.” [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report of departure by Walter Reed for the United States Army April 1, 1892

The slip states that Reed is accompanying two companies as a medical officer to the Sisseton and Wappeton Indian Reservation. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Photocopy of letter and attached military orders relating to Walter Reed August 1892

C.H. Alden requests that Walter Reed be ordered to St. Paul, Minnesota, to provide medical care to officers, enlisted men, and families as well as to examine recruits. The letter, endorsements, and resulting order are dated from August 1, 1892 to August 18, 1892. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to [C.B. Byrne] March 7, 1893

Reed writes about studies leading to a paper on cholera vaccination. He also gives instructions for staining tubercle bacilli.

Letter from Walter Reed to Theobald Smith December 5, 1893

Reed requests the address of a fermentation tube manufacturer, as well as a copy of Smith's paper.

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1893

Military orders for Walter Reed April 22, 1893

Sutherland states that he has given permission for Reed to purchase extra medical supplies for Fort Yates, North Dakota, where much sickness had been reported. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military records relating to Walter Reed's promotion to the rank of Major August 22, 1893-December 11, 1893

These papers relate to the promotion of Reed from Captain and Assistant Surgeon to Major and Surgeon. They are dated from August 22, 1893 to December 11, 1893. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military records relating to Walter Reed's assignment as Curator of the Army Medical Museum September 14, 1893-December 26, 1893

These endorsements and letters relate to Reed's assignment to the Surgeon General's Office as Curator of the Army Medical Museum. Reed's oath of office regarding his promotion to Surgeon and Major is included in these documents dated from September 8, 1893 to December 26, 1893. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to [William C.] Borden March 15, 1894

Reed congratulates Borden on his paper about the fat cell.

"A Précis of the United States Quarantine Regulations for Domestic Ports with Reference to Preventing the Introduction of Yellow Fever into the United States", Yellow Fever: Its Nature, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prophylaxis, and quarantine regulations relating thereto by Preston H. Bailhache circa 1898

These regulations describe the inspection, quarantine, and disinfection procedures to be implemented at ports to prevent the introduction of yellow fever into the United States. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

"Therapeutic Treatment of Yellow Fever", Annual Report of the Marine-Hospital Service, by Henry Downes Geddings 1894

Geddings' discussion of the treatment of yellow fever includes baths, purgatives, coal-tar products, cocaine, carbonated beverages, perchloride of iron, ice, counter-irritation, tisane of orange leaves, enemas, and quinine. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Issue of Harper's Weekly April 13, 1894

Contains photographs and articles relating to Cuba.

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1895

Military orders for Walter Reed March 27, 1895

Sternberg requests that Forwood, Winne, Reed, and Perley be sent as delegates to the American Medical Association meeting in Baltimore, Maryland, Mary 7-10, 1895. The letter, endorsements, and special orders are dated March 27, 1895 to March 30, 1895. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed March 28, 1895

Sternberg asks for a Board of Medical Officers consisting of Forwood, Reed, and Cabell to examine officers for promotion, March 28, 1895. The special order approving the request is dated March 30, 1895. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

United States Army efficiency report for Walter Reed June 30, 1895

Sternberg notes that Reed is especially well qualified for his present duties as Curator of the Army Medical Museum, has excellent scientific attainments, and is an excellent pathologist. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Jefferson Randolph Kean August 10, 1896

Reed writes concerning experimentation. He describes his return from Key West, and mosquito attacks.

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1896

Military orders for Walter Reed July 22, 1896

Sternberg requests that Reed be ordered to Key West, Florida, for Medical Department business, and then to return to Washington, D.C. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

United States Army efficiency report for Walter Reed June 30, 1896

Sternberg states that Reed is an excellent medical officer and zealous student of medical science as well as an expert pathologist and bacteriologist. The reports are dated June 30, 1896 and July 3, 1896. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Post-Epidemic Disinfection October 11, 1897

This circular letter gives disinfection instructions to be instigated after a yellow fever epidemic. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Yellow fever mortality Rate report prepared by Jesus Pardinas for Henry Rose Carter circa 1900

Deaths of yellow fever in the city of Havana in military and civilians between 1871 and 1900.

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Stanford E. Chaille February 15, 1898

Sternberg writes about yellow fever infection from soiled linen and flies. He proposes measures for disinfection and quarantine to control epidemics.

Letter from Walter Reed to Jefferson Randolph Kean April 23, 1898

Reed writes about field service in the Spanish War. He worries over his son's enlistment plans. Sternberg has proposed keeping all non-immune medical officers out of Cuba.

Military order for Aristides Agramonte May 3, 1898

George Miller Sternberg assigns Agramonte to the pathological lab of the Surgeon General's Office.

Letter from Lawrence Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 21, 1898

Lawrence Reed assures his mother that he is well.

Letter from Walter Reed to George Miller Sternberg July 5, 1898

Reed informs Sternberg that Edward Mason Parker is a most competent physician. [Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine]

Military orders for Walter Reed August 18, 1898

These special orders include a section appointing Reed, Vaughan, and Shakespeare to a board for the purpose of investigating the cause of the prevalence of typhoid fever in U.S. military camps. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to James Carroll September 9, 1898

Reed suggests several methods to determine whether patients have typhoid or malarial remittent fever. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Fitzhugh Lee to Walter Reed September 27, 1898

Lee presents Reed with a corps badge for sanitary inspection services.

Letter from Lawrence Reed to Walter Reed October 23, 1898

Lawrence Reed expresses his feelings about leaving Camp Onward. He will make lieutenant in a year.

Letter from Lawrence Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed October 27, 1898

Lawrence Reed requests items from home. He expects to be shipped out soon.

Letter from Lawrence Reed to Walter Reed November 8, 1898

Lawrence Reed says he will be sent to Cuba with his military unit.

Letter from Lawrence Reed to Walter Reed November 22, 1898

Lawrence Reed will leave for Cuba tomorrow.

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte November 24, 1898

Sternberg recommends that Agramonte proceed to Havana to study the cause and prevention of yellow fever. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Lawrence Reed to Walter Reed November 28, 1898

Lawrence Reed arrives safely at Camp Onward.

Letter from Lawrence Reed to Walter Reed December 9, 1898

Reed describes his life in the military and a social outing.

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1898

Military orders for Walter Reed July 29, 1898

Sternberg recommends that Reed be sent to investigate the administration of five general hospitals and division field hospitals. Endorsements and the special orders giving approval are included and dated July 30, 1898. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report by Walter Reed and George A. Hopkins for the Adjutant General of the United States Army July 31, 1898

Reed and Hopkins report on their inspection of the 1st and 2nd Division Hospitals at Camp Alger. They recommend additional tents and obtaining the services of two contract surgeons. The documents are dated July 31, 1898 and August 6, 1898. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed September 11, 1898

Corbin authorizes Reed and members of his board to stop at Knoxville. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Telegram from Charles Lockhart August 5

The authors urge that the American Line from Santiago transport soldiers to the North. Attached to the telegram is a note dated August 4, 1898. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Walter Reed January 1, 1899

Lawrence Reed writes, en route to Cuba, that he will land tomorrow.

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Walter Reed January 6, 1899

Reed writes about his life in the military. He did not receive his mother's Christmas letter. He wants to save some money and send them some gifts from Havana.

Letter from Leonard Wood to Walter Reed January 27, 1899

Wood regrets missing a visit with Reed before leaving Washington for Cuba. He has seen Reed's son in Havana and reports that he is doing well.

Monthly sanitary report from the hospital at Columbia Barracks, Havana, Cuba March 31, 1899

This report lists camp conditions and the buildings that have been completed for the military hospital in Havana, Cuba.

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to George Miller Sternberg April 17, 1899

Agramonte informs Sternberg that during the past several weeks there have been very few cases of yellow fever from which he could obtain material for research. Attached to the letter is a note by Truby stating that Agramonte and Carroll assisted Reed in the lab in 1898.

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to the Adjutant General April 19, 1899

Sternberg recommends that Reed go to Havana, Cuba, to make a sanitary inspection of the camps, barracks, and hospitals near Puerto Principe, with particular attention to the prevalence of typhoid fever.

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Walter Reed April 19, 1899

Sternberg directs Reed to inspect the camps, barracks, and hospitals occupied by U.S. troops in the vicinity of Puerto Principe, Cuba, and to make any necessary recommendations for improvement. He is to report on the prevalence of typhoid or other infectious diseases.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed April 25, 1899

Reed writes that he visited the Vedado Post to see their son. Lawrence Reed was given a 24 hour leave to go to Havana with him.

Letter fragment from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa April 29, 1899

Reed writes about his vacation and relates his plans to go to Puerto Principe.

"Mosquitoes Considered as Transmitters of Yellow Fever and Malaria", Medical Record: A Weekly Journal of Medicine and Surgery, by Carlos J. Finlay May 27, 1899

Finlay discusses the theory that mosquitoes can transmit malaria and yellow fever. To bolster his case he describes Koch's work with the tick that transmits Texas Fever. He writes about the effect of temperature on mosquitoes, and suggests that measures be taken to eliminate mosquitoes and prevent their entry into houses.

Military orders for Albert E. Truby May 3, 1899

Truby is appointed to a general court-martial.

Military orders for Albert E. Truby June 2, 1899

Truby is assigned to the hospital ship Terry.

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to George Miller Sternberg June 17, 1899

Agramonte describes his work with yellow fever. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Leonard Wood to Walter Reed July 1, 1899

Wood is sorry to have missed Reed.

Letter from Leonard Wood to Francis V. Greene July 12, 1899

Wood provides news of a yellow fever epidemic among American troops.

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to George Miller Sternberg August 15, 1899

Agramonte reports on his study of yellow fever from a bacteriological standpoint while at Santiago. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Leonard Wood to Francis V. Greene August 16, 1899

Wood writes concerning the appointment of the Secretary of War. He describes actions taken by the military to avoid yellow fever.

Military orders for Albert E. Truby August 20, 1899

Truby is relieved from the Eighth Infantry; he is to report to the post surgeon for duty.

Military orders for Jefferson Randolph Kean August 24, 1899

Kean, Brewer, and Truby are appointed to investigate the loss of medical supplies at Columbia barracks.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed September 9, 1899

Reed writes that he misses her and that he is imagining how beautiful things are back at home. He mentions the Dreyfuss Affair and says the journalists believe France is close to revolution.

Letter from P.S. Rossiter to the Surgeon General October 1, 1899

Rossiter reports on the recent epidemic of yellow fever at Cabana Fortress in Havana. He describes the patients and their symptoms as well as the disinfection of clothing, bedding, and property.

Letter from Walter Reed to Theobald Smith October 18, 1899

Reed writes about an experiment with pigs and work involving the bacillus icteroides.

Report of Camp Columbia fever epidemic by Najeem M. Saleeby with letters December 15, 1899

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Philip Showalter Hench May 16, 1942

Kean discusses Najieb M. Saleeby's report [01942002] and states that the epidemic as reported by Saleeby was either Dengue or Pappataci fever.

Camp Columbia Fever Epidemic, by Najeem M. Saleeby December 15, 1899

Saleeby describes in detail a fever epidemic at Columbia Barracks, Cuba. He asks for the Surgeon General's opinion on the diagnosis. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from J. F. Siler to Jefferson Randolph Kean May 20, 1942

Siler has read Saleeby's report on the 1899 fever epidemic at Columbia Barracks and is sure that it was dengue fever.

Letter from Guy Charles Moore Godfrey to Jefferson Randolph Kean December 19, 1899

Godfrey writes a confidential letter requesting the reassignment of Dr. Alden and Dr. Jackson, who do not work well with him.

Letter to Aristides Agramonte from the Assistant Surgeon General December 29, 1899

Agramonte is informed that his contract as contract surgeon with the U.S. Army will be annulled on January 15, 1900. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1899

Military orders for Walter Reed April 19, 1899

Sternberg recommends that Reed be directed to proceed to Havana to make a sanitary inspection of the camps, barracks, and hospitals in the area of Puerto Principe. Reed is also supposed to report on the causes of the prevalence of typhoid fever. Additional letters, endorsement and special orders relating to this recommendation are included. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Surgeon General's Office record card for Walter Reed 1899

Krassin inquires about the reported death of Reed in Cuba. A request is made for Reed to serve as a member of a board. A note dated July 17, 1900 states that Reed forwarded an efficiency report. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed September 26, 1899

Reed is directed to proceed from Washington, D.C. to Fort Thomas, Kentucky. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Statistics of Births, Marriages, Deaths, Immigration, and Yellow Fever from 1890 to 1899 [in Havana, Cuba] 1899

In addition to the topics mentioned in the title, this report by Davis, the Chief Sanitary Officer in Havana, Cuba, includes a sanitary report and the number of cases of infectious diseases. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

"Life-History of the Parasites of Malaria", Nature 1901

Ross discusses the parasites that cause malarial fevers. A note on the article indicates that it was published in Nature in 1901.

Memoranda relating to a round robin letter from General William R. Shafter April 15, 1899

These five memorandums concern a missing letter, called the “Round Robin letter,” in which the 5th Army Corps general officers recommended that the Army be pulled from Cuba and sent north. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Calvin DeWitt January 8, 1900

Sternberg stops the annulment of Agramonte's contract. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from William H. Welch to George Miller Sternberg January 12, 1900

Welch gives a recommendation for Jesse W. Lazear. Included is a handwritten note by Truby.

Letter from Walter Reed to L.O. Howard January 13, 1900

Letter from Walter Reed to L. O. Howard January 13, 1900

Reed states that the mosquito theory for the propagation of yellow fever is a fact, not a theory. Reed's postscript gives credit to Kean for cleaning measures against the mosquito. [Reed mistakes the year, it should be 1901, not 1900.]

Transcription of letter from Walter Reed to L. O. Howard January 13, 1900

Reed states that the mosquito theory for the propagation of yellow fever is a fact, not a theory. Reed's postscript gives credit to Kean for cleaning measures against the mosquito. [Reed mistakes the year, it should be 1901, not 1900.]

Military orders for John H. Andrus February 3, 1900

Special Orders #17 transfers Andrus to the Hospital Corps. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed March 2, 1900

Special Orders #51 orders Reed to Tampa, Florida and then back to Havana, Cuba on business pertaining to an investigation of electrozone as a disinfectant and germicide. Included is a handwritten note by Truby. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Calvin DeWitt March 2, 1900

Sternberg terminates Agramonte's contract. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders regarding spread of yellow fever in Cuba March 5, 1900

These orders guard against the introduction and spread of yellow fever. The symptoms of yellow fever are clearly outlined.

Letter from L. O. Howard to Walter Reed April 19, 1900

Howard inquires about the whereabouts of the mosquitoes Lazear sent up from Cuba. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report from Walter Reed to the Surgeon General April 20, 1900

Reed reports about his investigation of electrozone in Havana, Cuba. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Valery Havard April 23, 1900

Havard is announced as Chief Surgeon of the Division. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report of Vital Statistics of Havana for April 1900, by William Crawford Gorgas April 1900

Selected pages of the report give statistics regarding deaths in Havana. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from L. O. Howard to Walter Reed May 12, 1900

Howard discusses his work with different types of mosquitoes. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Aristides Agramonte May 14, 1900

Sternberg asks Agramonte to settle a question whether the infectious agent of yellow fever is present in the blood. Sternberg also includes an excerpt of his report on Ruiz, which should help Agramonte's experiments. Included is a handwritten note by Truby. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to L. O. Howard May 14, 1900

Reed is unable to help Howard with his mosquito investigation. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte May 23, 1900

Special Orders #74 relieves Agramonte from his duty as Acting Assistant Surgeon in Havana and transfers him to the Division Laboratory. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed and James Carroll May 23, 1900

Sternberg orders Reed and Carroll to Camp Columbia, Cuba for the investigation of infectious diseases, especially yellow fever. This requires the establishment of a Medical Board. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders regarding the appointment of a board to study infectious diseases in Cuba May 24, 1900

Special Orders #122 establishes the Medical Board, consisting of Reed, Carroll, Lazear, and Agramonte, at Camp Columbia, Cuba for the investigation of infectious diseases. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed and James Carroll May 24, 1900

Walter Reed and James Carroll sent to Cuba for study of infectious diseases.

Report from Alexander N. Stark to the Adjutant General May 28, 1900

Stark reports of yellow fever cases at Columbia Barracks, Cuba. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Walter Reed May 29, 1900

Sternberg instructs Reed on the numerous experiments he should conduct in the investigation of infectious diseases. Also included are notes by Hench and Truby expressing their personal views of Sternberg's instructions. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to the Surgeon General June 1, 1900

Reed acknowledges the receipt of a check for $50.00 for use in the Medical Board's research.

Military orders for John S. Neate June 4, 1900

Special Orders #130 transfers Neate to Quemados de Marianao, Cuba to report to Reed. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military records relating to sanitation and yellow fever at Columbia Barracks. June 5, 1899

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to the Adjutant General June 5, 1900

Kean provides reasons for infection of yellow fever at Columbia Barracks and possible ways to prevent spread of disease. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders regarding Columbia Barracks June 7, 1900

Orders with endorsements request disinfectants for Columbia Barracks. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military records relating to U.S. troops in Quemados de Marianao, CubaJune 6, 1899

Letter from Alexander N. Stark to the Adjutant General June 6, 1900

Stark requests that no individual affiliated with Columbia Barracks be permitted to enter a saloon where yellow fever broke out. Endorsements are dated June 6 to June 8, 1900.

Letter from Alexander N. Stark to the Adjutant General June 6, 1900

Stark requests that no individual affiliated with Columbia Barracks be permitted to enter the town of Quemados de Marianao, Cuba.

Military orders regarding Columbia Barracks June 5, 1900

These endorsements regard the relationship between the laundry facilities and the spread of yellow fever at Columbia Barracks.

The Fever That was Epidemic in This Post Last Fall, by Najeem M. Saleeby [Columbia Barracks, Havana, Cuba] June 6, 1900

Saleeby writes about the epidemic that afflicted Columbia Barracks in late 1899 and describes the symptoms of the disease.

Military orders regarding Columbia Barracks June 9, 1900

Stark responds with a facetious remark to a request for carbolic acid for sanitary purposes at Columbia Barracks. Endorsements are dated June 9 to June 15, 1900. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report from Alexander N. Stark to the Surgeon General June 15, 1900

Stark gives a detailed report on the outbreak of yellow fever in Quemados de Marianao, Cuba and Columbia Barracks, Cuba. Stark claims that Mrs. Henry S. King is the first case of yellow fever. A Medical Board with Ames, Lazear, and three Cubans is created to investigate the outbreak. Stark highly commends the doctors and staff at Post Hospital. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report from Valery Havard to the Adjutant General June 18, 1900

Havard details the outbreak of yellow fever in Quemados de Marianao, Cuba in May 1900. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Valery Havard to the Surgeon General June 19, 1900

Havard amends the yellow fever report sent June 18, 1900 to change the mortality count. A map is included of the town of Quemados de Marianao. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Resume of Frank H. Edmunds June 18, 1899

The military career of Edmunds' is outlined until his death from yellow fever on June 18, 1899. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Record of Jefferson Randolph Kean's case of yellow fever circa 1900

This document records Kean's pulse, temperature, urine, stool, diet, medicine and remarks during his bout with yellow fever.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 25, 1900

Reed and Carroll are on board the Sedgewick, bound for Cuba.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 25, 1900

Reed sees the wreck of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana harbor and gives his opinion of the sinking.

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte June 27, 1900

Special Orders #97 orders Agramonte to Santa Clara, Cuba on sanitary duty. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 27, 1900

Reed is impressed with the shower installed at his quarters. He responds to family news and is pleased that his son has passed an examination to further his military career.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa June 27, 1897

Reed details recent happenings around the base in Cuba. He sends his love to family and friends.

Military orders for John S. Neate July 1, 1900

Special Orders #101 assigns Neate to duty in Havana, Cuba. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Honorable discharge certificate for John J. Moran July 2, 1900

Moran is honorably discharged from the Army of the United States, with permission to re-enlist.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 2, 1900

Reed provides instructions to Emilie Lawrence Reed for garden work at Keewaydin, their Pennsylvania mountain home. He reports that their son, Lawrence, is well.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 2, 1900

Reed gives instructions on gardening at Keewaydin. He also discusses financial affairs.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 4, 1900

Reed makes plans for the Fourth of July, and he describes Cuban flowers.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 7, 1900

Reed describes his laboratory, the hot weather and mosquitoes. He reviews work to be done at Keewaydin.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 8, 1900

Reed reassures Emilie Lawrence Reed about yellow fever, claiming there is no danger. He writes about work done at Keewaydin and explains how he is organizing his laboratory.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 13, 1900

Reed provides a description of his quarters at Camp Columbia and relates the typical schedule of his day. He laments the lack of rain for Emilie Lawrence Reed's garden. He discusses finances and political trouble in China.

Report from Rafael T. Echeverria to the Adjutant General July 16, 1900

Echeverria reports of medical activity in Marianao di Quemados de Marianao for the week ending July 14th, 1900. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 19, 1900

Reed comments about the family. He writes about the English physicians Durham and Meyers, who are studying yellow fever.

Report from Valery Havard to the Adjutant General July 20, 1900

Havard reports on Electrozone Plant in Havana, Cuba. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 20, 1900

Reed sees their son, Lawrence, in Havana. He enjoys a meal given for the English physicians. He discusses China news, and relays information about a transport from the States.

Military orders regarding yellow fever damages July 21, 1900

Special Orders #65 establishes various boards to investigate damages due to the outbreak of yellow fever . [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 23, 1900

Reed is delighted to hear about the rain at Keewaydin. He teases Emilie Lawrence Reed and discusses gardening at Keewaydin. He says their son, Lawrence, is impatient for his officer's commission.

Letter from Alexander N. Stark to Robert P. Cooke July 24, 1900

Stark reprimands Cooke for his handling of a yellow fever outbreak at Pinar del Rio.

Letter from Walter Reed to George Miller Sternberg July 24, 1900

Reed is astonished that yellow fever remains unrecognized at Pinar del Rio. He recommends measures taken to avoid an epidemic, and the use of human experimentation to study the disease.

Letter from Alexander N. Stark to Guy Charles Moore Godfrey July 24, 1900

Stark reprimands Godfrey for failing to properly handle a yellow fever outbreak at Pinar del Rio.

Letter from Alexander N. Stark to James F. Presnell July 24, 1900

Stark reprimands Presnell for failing to properly handle a yellow fever outbreak at Pinar del Rio.

Letter from Alexander N. Stark to Auguste A. Nouel July 24, 1900

Stark reprimands Nouel for failing to properly handle a yellow fever outbreak at Pinar del Rio.

Letter from Walter Reed to Blossom [Emilie M.] Reed July 25, 1900

Reed teases his daughter Blossom Reed. He expects to leave Cuba on August 1 or 2.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 27, 1900

Reed teases Emilie Lawrence Reed. He expects to see her August.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 27, 1900

Reed describes the weather in Cuba. He teases Emilie Lawrence Reed, and anticipates his arrival home.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 29, 1900

Reed relates his plans for Keewaydin concerning the garden, a summer house, and a new house. He has seen their son, Lawrence, and reports that he is well, but he as yet has no commission.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 30, 1900

Reed's baggage has to be disinfected for “Yellow Jack” before he leaves for the States. He believes this to be an absurd formality. Reed wants to install a shower at the renovated Keewaydin house.

Report from William M. Black to the Adjutant General July 30, 1900

Black responds to Reed's report on the Electrozone Plant in Havana, Cuba and wants to correct errors. He includes two reports by G. C. Rowe entitled “Review of the Most Salient Points of Dr. Reed's Report” and “Electrozone Plant.” [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Jesse W. Lazear July 30, 1900

Lazear is ordered to proceed to Pinar Del Rio to collect pathological material on the recent yellow fever outbreak.

Report from Walter Reed to the Adjutant General July 31, 1900

Reed reports his duties for the month of July 1900 as President of the Board of Officers investigating infectious diseases and yellow fever. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report from Alexander N. Stark to the Surgeon General July 31, 1900

Stark takes over duties as Chief Sanitary Officer after Kean is taken ill by yellow fever. Stark describes his preventative measures against the spreading of the disease. He commends numerous individuals for their help in the epidemic. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 2, 1900

Reed writes that he is on his way home to the United States.

Military orders for Albert E. Truby August 8, 1900

Smith grants a leave of absence to Truby for several days.

Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 10, 1900-August 16, 1900

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 10, 1900

Lawrence Reed expresses excitement about receiving his commission. He is assigned to the 10th Infantry in Cuba and fears he will not be able to visit home. Lawrence wants his father to send him a sword.

Telegram from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 16, 1900

Lawrence Reed informs his mother of his new post at Rowell Barracks.

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 12, 1900

Lawrence Reed writes that he is not certain where he will be sent next. He asks her to remind Walter Reed about his sword.

Report from William Crawford Gorgas to the Surgeon General August 14, 1900

Gorgas details the yearly deaths caused by yellow fever in the month of July, and states that the sanitary conditions for July 1900 are better than any time in the past ten years. His report includes two charts of deaths in Havana: “Deaths by Months for the Years 1890 to 1900” and “Arrivals and Departures of Passengers at Havana.”

Letter from Walter Reed to L. O. Howard August 14, 1900

Reed is sending Howard specimens of mosquitoes from Lazear and is planning on seeing Howard in a few days. Included is a listing of the types of mosquitoes. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to L. O. Howard August 24, 1900

Reed sends Howard more specimens of mosquitoes that Lazear collected in Cuba. Reed is anxious to know the results. Included is a list of the types of mosquitoes collected. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report from J. F. Dunshie to the Chief Surgeon August 25, 1900

Dunshie lists the cases of yellow fever at Guanajay Barracks and reports about the precautionary methods taken to prevent the spread of the disease. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report from J. F. Dunshie to the Chief Surgeon August 25, 1900

Dunshie lists the cases of yellow fever at Guanajay Barracks, Cuba. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 26, 1900

Lawrence Reed is well situated in his new company. He thanks his mother for the gift of an officer's sword.

Letter from L. O. Howard to Walter Reed August 27, 1900

Howard informs Reed that Dr. Coquillett identified the species of the mosquitoes that Lazear collected. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Contract with a Aristides Agramonte for service as a contract surgeon in the United States Army September 1, 1900

Agramonte signs this contract which enables him to perform the duties of a medical officer under Army Regulations. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Telegram from Leonard Wood to the War Department September 3, 1900

Wood reports on that there are more yellow fever cases in Havana than the year before because of the great influx of non-immune Spanish immigrants.

Letter from Walter Reed to E.A. de Schweinitz September 6, 1900

Reed offers advice to de Schweinitz concerning the examination of medical students. Reed has learned of Carroll's illness in Cuba.

Telegram from Jefferson Randolph Kean to [Walter Wyman] September 7, 1900

Kean reports to Surgeon General [Wyman] that Carroll's condition has improved.

Letter from Walter Reed to Jennie Carroll September 7, 1900

Reed notifies Jennie Carroll of James Carroll's improved condition.

Fever chart for William H. Dean September 7, 1900

The fever chart has a notation written by Ames stating that Dean is the same as X.Y.Z.

"Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine: Yellow Fever Expedition", The British Medical Journal, by Herbert E. Durham and Walter Myers September 8, 1900

Durham and Myers discuss the investigation of yellow fever by the American commission in Cuba and the perplexing nature of the disease.

Military orders for Albert E. Truby September 18, 1900

Truby is ordered to Quemados de Marianao, Cuba, for assignment.

Transcript of letter from James Carroll to Jennie Carroll September 23, 1900

Carroll informs his wife that he is recovering from yellow fever and now is comforted that he will be immune from the terrors of the disease. He also explains that Lazear is very ill and predicts an even chance for his recovery.

Letter from Walter Reed to James Carroll September 24, 1900

Reed discusses the mosquito as the vector for yellow fever and the amount of evidence necessary to prove this hypothesis.

Letter from Walter Reed to Jefferson Randolph Kean September 25, 1900

Reed discusses the probability of a mosquito vector for yellow fever. He regrets his absence from Cuba. He will not experiment on himself, and anticipates a publication on the etiology of the disease.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed September 30, 1900

Reed describes his voyage to Havana, during which he gives medical care to a child. Emilie Lawrence Reed would not accompany Reed to Cuba, and did not want him to go.

Letter from Simon Flexner to Emilie Lawrence Reed October 1, 1901

Flexner reassures Emilie Lawrence Reed of her husband's safety and offers his assistance to her.

Telegram from Edward Settle Godfrey to the Commanding Officer October 3, 1900

Godfrey requests a wagon to pick up the baggage of the arriving medical officers. Included is a handwritten note by Truby. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to L. O. Howard October 4, 1900

Reed would like one of his assistants, Williamson, to study a specimen of mosquito. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Walter Reed October 6, 1900

Sternberg requests the return of a medical journal, and makes reference to an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association. He asks for notification on Reed's progress.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed October 6, 1900

Reed assures Emilie Lawrence Reed of his safety. He explains the circumstances of Jesse Lazear's death.

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa October 7, 1900

Reed hopes that he won't have to wait as long as his friend to get married. He really needs a new bed, and requests that Emilie Lawrence Reed tell Walter Reed.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed October 9, 1900

Reed teases Emilie Lawrence Reed and Blossom Reed. He writes that Carroll is on a month's leave. He describes cases of dysentery.

Telegram from Walter Reed to the War Department October 12, 1900

Reed wants to meet a delegate from the Public Health Association.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed October 13, 1900

Reed returns to Washington for a meeting with the Surgeon General. He will continue on to Indianapolis for the American Public Health meeting. On November 1, Reed will leave for Cuba.

Military orders to commanding officers of the United States Army in Western Cuba October 15, 1900

Circular Order #8 includes Kean's letter of October 13. Kean states in his communication that the mosquito is responsible for the transmission of malaria and filarial infections, and more than likely yellow fever. He recommends a course of action for all posts in the eradication of mosquitoes. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military records relating to the death of Matthew R. Peterson October 18, 1900

Military orders regarding Matthew Peterson October 18, 1900

General Orders #27 announces the death of Peterson and documents his military career. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from George L. Goodale to the Adjutant General October 18, 1900

Goodale describes Peterson's burial at Grave 146, Post Cemetery, Columbia Barracks, Cuba. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to the Adjutant General October 19, 1900

Sternberg recommends that Reed act as a delegate for the Army at the meeting of the American Public Health Association in Indianapolis in order to convey pertinent information on yellow fever.

Military orders for Walter Reed October 29, 1900

Reed is told to return to Washington, D.C. after the conference instead of returning directly to Cuba.

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa October 21, 1900

Lawrence Reed describes surveying and map making. He relates the news of Major Patterson's death and his wife's suicide.

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Walter Reed October 23, 1900

Sternberg informs Reed that Gould will publish Reed's paper in the Philadelphia Medical Journal. Included is a note by Truby.

"Official Report of the Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting" of the Public Health Association October 23, 1900

This report lists the minutes of the meeting at the Public Health Meeting, Indianapolis, Indiana. The First Day, Afternoon Session includes numerous papers on infectious disease and yellow fever, with a paper by Walter Reed. Included is a note by Hench.

Letter from L. O. Howard to James Carroll October 25, 1900

Howard informs Carroll the mosquito he sent him from Cuba has been identified as a species described from Brazil. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders regarding the death of Frederick M. Page October 26, 1900

General Orders #28 announces the death of Page and documents his military career. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from William Ludlow to Leonard Wood October 27, 1900

Ludlow responds to Wood's accusation that data was concealed regarding the number of cases of yellow fever in Havana.[Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from William Ludlow to the Adjutant General October 27, 1900

Ludlow defends his position against Wood's charges of concealing facts about yellow fever in Havana. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

"Report of Committee on the Etiology of Yellow Fever", Proceedings of the American Public Health Association October 1900

Horlbeck concludes in this report to the American Public Health Association that the bacillus icteroides, discovered by Sanarelli, is the cause of yellow fever.

Report from Walter Reed to the Adjutant General October 31, 1900

Reed reports his duties for the month of October 1900.

Military orders for James Carroll October 1900

Military orders for James Carroll October 10, 1900

Special Orders #178 grants Carroll a leave of absence. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for James Carroll October 20, 1900

Special Orders #247 grants Carroll an extension to his leave of absence. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

"Ninth Report on the Yellow Fever on the Coast of the Mexican Gulf, Being From the 22nd to the 26th of October, 1900" October 22, 1900-October 26, 1900

Liceaga summarizes the cases of yellow fever that have been observed on the Gulf Coast of Mexico and the measures taken to prevent the spread of the disease.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 3, 1900

Reed will leave New York for Havana soon.

Letter from Leonard Wood to the Editor of The New York Evening Post November 3, 1900

Wood claims that the New York Sun misconstrued his statements regarding yellow fever, and he wants those errors to be corrected. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Leonard Wood to the Editor of The New York Sun November 3, 1900

Wood rebuts an accusation that Officers concealed outbreaks of yellow fever in Havana.

Letter from Leonard Wood to William Ludlow November 3, 1900

Wood states that he never accused Ludlow of concealing information, but that newspapers have misconstrued his statements, through false deductions and inferences. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 4, 1900

Lawrence Reed anticipates his father's return to Cuba. He comments on rumors of reassignment, yellow fever cases, and packages from home.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 5, 1900

Reed describes his voyage to Cuba. He also comments on the upcoming presidential election in the United States.

Letter from L. O. Howard to James Carroll November 8, 1900

Howard provides information to Carroll about a certain species of mosquito. Howard then asks Carroll to catch a species of mosquito for his own research, which is believed to have migrated to Cuba in slave ships years ago. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 8, 1900

Reed remarks on Bryan's defeat in the United States presidential election. He describes various people at the camp. He discusses his work on yellow fever, including the possibility of human experimentation.

Report from Walter Reed to the Adjutant General November 10, 1900

Reed reports his duties for the month of September 1900.

Transcription of letter from Mabel H. Lazear to James Carroll November 10, 1900

Lazear wants to know the circumstances behind her husband's death of yellow fever. She has a hard time believing that her husband allowed an infected mosquito to bite his hand. She thanks Carroll for sending her the money orders.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 11, 1900

Reed settles into camp life, and observes a malaria case. He discusses finances, and notes that Carroll has returned to Cuba from the United States.

Letter from Walter Reed to L. O. Howard November 11, 1900

Reed asks Howard to resolve issues around a certain species of mosquito, the C. fasciatus. Reed is apologetic for asking such an obvious question.

Letter from James Carroll to L. O. Howard November 15, 1900

Carroll thanks Howard for all the information he has sent him regarding the different markings of the mosquito, and gladly volunteers to collect any specimen that Howard needs for his research. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Receipt for disbursing officer's credit for the yellow fever experiment at Camp Lazear November 15, 1900

This is a Cuban Treasury Deposit receipt for the expenses of the yellow fever experiments at Camp Lazear.

Letter from Walter Reed to L. O. Howard November 16, 1900

Reed goes into great detail about the markings of the C. fasciatus and C. taeniatus species of mosquito. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from L. O. Howard to Walter Reed November 16, 1900

Howard tries to resolve Reed's questions about the markings of the mosquitoes, but also states that there is still work to be done in the identifying process. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Roster: American volunteers for experimental yellow fever November 16, 1900

This is a list of the names, dates, and hometowns of the American volunteers and also lists the individuals who recruited them for the yellow fever experiments.

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Walter Reed November 17, 1900

Sternberg forwards Reed's paper for peer review. He agrees that the inoculation experiments must continue in order to provide scientific proof. He recommends that a search for the yellow fever parasite should begin.

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 17, 1900

Lawrence Reed describes a baseball game and gives news from the base. He asks his mother to ship a package to him.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 18, 1900

Reed writes that he has found mosquitoes and volunteers for his experiments, and will now proceed with the laboratory work. He comments on newspaper reports about yellow fever.

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 19, 1900

Lawrence Reed describes his quarters and asks his mother to send him reading material. He sends cash to his sister, Blossom, and warns her to be careful when she is out in public.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 20, 1900

Reed reports that the experimental camp is nearing completion. He notes the effect of cool weather on yellow fever cases and suggests the mosquito as a vector for the disease.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 21, 1900

Reed is sympathetic to his wife's case of gout. He remarks on a bill to Johnnie Moore for work at the Keewaydin house.

Articles on yellow fever November 21, 1900

"La Fiebre Amarilla Inoculada a los Inmigrantes Espanoles por Medio de Mosquitos!", La Discusion November 21, 1900

This article, taken from La Discusion (November 21, 1900 - page 2a), criticizes human experimentation by the Yellow Fever Commission as being primarily carried out on recent immigrants.

"Inoculacion por los Mosquitos - Entrevista con el Consul Espanol", La Discusion November 22, 1900

In this article, taken from La Discusion (November 22, 1900 - page 1), the Spanish ambassador is interviewed regarding the rumor of human experimentation by the Yellow Fever Commission.

English translation [from Spanish] of part of article: "Spanish Immigrants Inoculated with Yellow Fever by Means of Mosquitos", La Discusion November 21, 1900

This is a translation of an article, originally appearing in “La Discusion” (November 21, 1900 - page 2a), in which the rumor of human experimentation is discussed and criticized.

Letter from L. O. Howard to Walter Reed November 21, 1900

Howard identifies the mosquito Reed is working as the Culex fasciatus. Howard appreciates answering Reed's questions and considers it a privilege. He then acknowledges receipt of Reed's report and informs Reed of his own upcoming publication. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 22, 1900

Reed expresses concern for his wife's gout, but he also teases her. He relates a newspaper controversy over the yellow fever experiments, particularly concerning the American and Spanish volunteers, and consent forms.

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 25, 1900

Lawrence Reed writes about post news, correspondence from the United States, and his rank. He notes that Truby is to be post surgeon and believes this will be a favorable change.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 25, 1900

Reed is concerned about his wife's health, but teases her. He discusses work at Keewaydin, and comments on their son's class rank.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 27, 1900

Reed mentions the houses constructed at the experimental camp. He describes the experimentation methods and plans. He anticipates a trip to Keewaydin in May.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed and Blossom Reed November 30, 1900

Reed expresses empathy for his wife's gout. He writes that the experimental camp is almost completed and will soon be ready for work.

Form from the Finance Department of the Island of Cuba November 12, 1900

The form requests $5000 payable from Customs receipts for sanitary work in Cuba.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 2, 1900

Reed describes methods of experimentation and the progress of the work at Camp Lazear.

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 4, 1900

Lawrence Reed gives post news and notes Truby's comments concerning the yellow fever experiments. He inquires if she will visit at Christmas. He turns twenty-three tomorrow.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 4, 1900

Reed gives an assessment of the criticism directed at the experimental project. He believes that it is unfounded.

Letter from [Carlos Rolff?] to Jefferson Randolph Kean December 6, 1900

The writer requests a receipt for blank checks forwarded to Kean.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 6, 1900

Reed writes of Emilie Lawrence Reed's health. He discusses finances and plans for their house at Keewaydin. He expresses concern over the experiments since they have not yet achieved positive results.

Letter fragment to from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 9, 1900

Reed announces the first proven case of yellow fever from a mosquito bite. The diagnosis of the case will be tested by experts.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 11, 1900

Reed writes about the possibility of Emilie Lawrence Reed coming to Cuba. He also describes the visit of the examining board from Havana, and records responses to the mosquito theory.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to Henry Rose Carter December 13, 1900

Reed's experiments have convinced Gorgas that the mosquito theory is valid. Gorgas discusses the implications for sanitation and non-immune troops.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 13, 1900

Emilie Lawrence Reed will not visit Cuba. Reed discusses additional research questions, including the larvae of infected mosquitoes. The experiment involving the injection of infected blood was successful.

Letter from Leonard Wood to the Adjutant General December 13, 1900

Wood explains that Cuba is largely free from epidemic or contagious diseases and he suggests that commercial relations to be resumed with the island. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 14, 1900

Lawrence Reed describes a wedding at the base. His friend Cooke will visit Emilie Lawrence Reed.

Telegram from Walter Reed to the War Department December 15, 1900

Reed states that cases of yellow fever are diagnosed and confirmed from his experiments, which proves the mosquito theory.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 16, 1900

Reed writes that he cannot return home. He describes the enthusiastic response to the experiments, and he prepares a paper for the Pan-American Medical Congress.

Telegram from Walter Reed to the War Department December 16, 1900

Reed reports that there are four diagnosed cases of yellow fever within the period of incubation.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 18, 1900

Reed reports that sixteen Cuban physicians have visited to confirm the experimental yellow fever cases. He responds to Washington social news.

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Walter Reed December 19, 1900

Sternberg congratulates Reed on the success of his experiments. He hopes Reed can identify the parasite, and thinks it would be desirable to conduct experiments that would involve inoculation with blood from yellow fever cases.

Military orders regarding precautionary measures against mosquitoes December 21, 1900

General Orders #6 states that the mosquito is responsible for malaria, yellow fever, and filarial infection, and that all military posts should take every precaution to eradicate the mosquito. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 23, 1900

Reed describes a dinner given for Finlay and the general acceptance of the mosquito theory. He will continue tests involving infected clothing.

Fever chart A for John J. Moran December 24, 1900

Fever chart A ends on January 2, 1901.

Letter fragment from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa December 25, 1900

Reed provides a description of the experiment buildings at Camp Lazear and the method of mosquito inoculation.

Letter fragment from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 28, 1900

Reed describes the round of holiday parties, including one at the governor's palace, in Havana. He injects blood from the last yellow fever patient into a volunteer.

Letter fragment from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa January 1, 1901

Reed writes that the yellow fever experiments have answered his prayers to do some good for mankind.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to the Treasurer of Cuba December 29, 1900

Kean acknowledges the receipt of blank official checks.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 30, 1900

Reed writes about Emilie Lawrence Reed's recovery, as well as his toothache. He discusses financial matters, including expenditures at Keewaydin. His last yellow fever patient is recovering.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 31, 1900

This is the famous New Year's Eve letter. Reed's toothache requires cocaine treatment. Reed comments on La Roche's Yellow Fever (1853), and his own role in the historic discovery. He hears taps sound for the old year, and celebrations for New Year's Day. He requests orders to return to the United States in six weeks.

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 31, 1900

Lawrence Reed gives his thoughts regarding his father's success in the yellow fever experiments. He makes plans for a visit to a Cuban sugar plantation.

"Memorandum of the Misstatements Attributed to General Wood in Published Interviews and Made by Him in Formal Communications", by William Ludlow December 1900

Ludlow states he never concealed the yellow fever statistics, but that they were actually available to the public at all times. Ludlow then criticizes Wood for not giving accurate information to the newspapers. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Special orders for army officers and medical men in Cuba 1900

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte October 23, 1900

Special Orders #188 directs Agramonte to Quemados de Marianao, Cuba. A handwritten note by Hench states his contention that Agramonte did not do any mosquito work for Lazear or Reed until Camp Lazear was operational. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed August 6, 1900

Special Orders #183 grants commission to Reed. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for A. S. Pinto October 4, 1900

Special Orders #59 grants Pinto a leave of absence. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Resolution by the Board of Trustees of The Johns Hopkins Hospital concerning Jesse W. Lazear December 11, 1900

The Johns Hopkins Hospital trustees petition Congress for a pension for Mabel Lazear.

Aristides Agramonte's record of mosquito bites and resulting cases of yellow fever in Cuba 1900

Table shows relationships between yellow fever infections and mosquito bites for a small sample group in Cuba.

Materials relating to U.S. Army yellow fever fatalities in Cuba 1900

Reports of U.S. fatalities in Cuba June 1900

Telegrams to the War Department report deaths caused by yellow fever from May 8 to May 30, 1900. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Reports of U.S. fatalities in Cuba June 1900

Telegrams to the War Department report deaths from June 1 to June 10, 1900, some by yellow fever. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Reports of U.S. fatalities in Cuba June 1900

Telegrams to the War Department report individual deaths, including those from yellow fever, from June 10 to June 20, 1900. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Mortuary Record for Yellow Fever in Havana 1884-1900 circa 1900

The author analyzes the death rates of Cubans from malaria and yellow fever.

Military records for Walter Reed 1900

Report for Walter Reed June 30, 1900

Reed writes his efficiency report for the period, June 30, 1899 to June 30, 1900. Both Sternberg and Baldwin officially endorse Reed's report. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Surgeon General's Office Report Card for Walter Reed 1900

These excerpts detail orders for Reed to give talks at various health conferences. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed October 19, 1900

Reed is recommended to be a delegate at the meeting of the American Public Health Association in Indianapolis to give important information about the cause and prevention of yellow fever. Special Orders #246 is included. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Fragment of the Lazear-Reed research notebook [photocopy] 1900

This copy of the notebook fragment was ordered from the New York Academy of Medicine.

Circulars and military orders concerning detection of yellow fever and prevention of disease 1900

Military orders for John S. Morris November 14, 1900

These Special Orders #83 detail Forbes, Morris, Kissinger, and Ames to report to Walter Reed at Columbia Barracks. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders regarding precautionary measures against mosquitoes December 21, 1900

General Orders #6 states that the mosquito is responsible for malaria, yellow fever, and filarial infection, and that all military posts should take every precaution to eradicate the mosquito. A handwritten note states that Kean wrote up this order in the absence of Havard. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Aristides Agramonte's record of mosquito bites and resulting cases of yellow fever in Cuba 1900

Table shows relationships between yellow fever infections and mosquito bites for a small sample group in Cuba.

Military orders relating to military and medical figures in Cuba 1900

Military orders regarding mutiny at Columbia Barracks October 16, 1900

Special Orders #182 sentences Ryan, Jones, Gelhardt, and Lust to hard labor for joining in a mutiny. Included are notes by Hench. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders detailing men to experimental sanitary camp at Columbia Barracks November 10, 1900

Special Orders #81 recommends that eight privates be detailed for temporary duty at the experimental sanitary camp at Columbia Barracks and report to Reed. Included is a note written by Truby. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders regarding changes of station in Cuba November 20, 1900

Special Orders #4 details the changes of station for surgeons in Cuba. Included is a note written by Truby. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Articles sent to Philip Showalter Hench by Maria Teresa Rojas 1900

Translation of an article from The Lucha November 1, 1900

This article describes new cases of yellow fever and recent deaths from yellow fever.

Translation of an article from The Lucha November 5, 1900

This article describes new cases of yellow fever and recent deaths from yellow fever.

Translation of an article from The Lucha November 2, 1900

This article mentions the interest in yellow fever by the press.

Personal reports from Aristides Agramonte with notes by Albert E. Truby 1900

These reports describe Agramonte's duties and leaves of absences for the months September to November 1900. Included are notes written by Truby. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Aristides Agramonte's record of mosquito bites and resulting cases of yellow fever in Cuba 1900

Table shows relationships between yellow fever infections and mosquito bites for a small sample group in Cuba.

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte 1900

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte September 21, 1900

Special Orders #164 grants Agramonte a leave of absence. He is also granted an extension. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte April 25, 1900

Special Orders #69 assigns Agramonte to the Department Laboratory. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte July 17, 1900

Special Orders #69 orders Agramonte to Pinar del Rio to investigate cases of pernicious fever. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders and circulars concerning military and medical men in Cuba 1900

Military orders for Rafael T. Echeverria and Roger Post Ames January 20, 1900

In Special Orders #11, Echeverria and Ames are appointed to a board of officers to qualify men for the position of hospital steward. Included is a note written by [Hench]. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for enlisted men reporting to Quemados February 19, 1900

Special Orders #24 directs enlisted men to Quemados, Cuba. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Valery Havard April 3, 1900

Special Orders #44 directs surgeons and hospital stewards to various posts. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

U.S. Army captain's shoulder board worn by Walter Reed circa 1900

Presented to Philip Showalter Hench from Blossom Reed, December 16, 1943.

Military orders for Walter Reed 1901

Military orders for Walter Reed January 18, 1901

Sternberg orders Reed to proceed to Washington, D.C. from Havana, Cuba, in order to continue his investigation into yellow fever at the Army Medical Museum in Washington, D.C. The letter and order are dated January 17 and January 18, 1901. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to the Adjutant General January 31, 1901

Reed reports he is on duty at Columbia Barracks, Cuba for January 1901. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed February 14, 1901

Special Orders #38 specifies Walter Reed as a member of the board of medical officers for the examination of candidates for admission to the Medical Corps of the Army. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from [L.H.] Mattingly to Jefferson Randolph Kean January 3, 1901

Mattingly acknowledges receiving Kean's note of purchases.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed January 3, 1901

Reed mentions the sixth case of experimental yellow fever, and that volunteers have gone thirty-five days without contracting yellow fever in the infected clothing test. He describes the condition of a yellow fever case and an experiment with blood injection.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed January 5, 1901

Reassures her; date of his return; safety of experiments; difficulties attendant on her visiting; he will return soon, in about five weeks.

Letter from L. O. Howard to Walter Reed January 5, 1901

Howard forwards to Reed a suggestion from Woldert regarding experimentation on mosquitoes. The actual suggestion, which was originally enclosed, is not included. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed January 7, 1901

Reed discusses finances, and Emilie Lawrence Reed's loneliness. He reviews logistical questions regarding her possible visit to Cuba, and teases her.

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed January 7, 1900

Lawrence Reed describes New Year's parties at two Cuban sugar plantations. He laments Bessie's marriage.

Letters from George Miller Sternberg to James Daly and Walter Reed January 8, 1901

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to James Daly January 8, 1901

Sternberg writes about the importance of scientific investigation.

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Walter Reed January 8, 1901

Sternberg orders Reed to return to Washington. He also discusses Carroll's planned promotion and the necessity of Carroll's continued assignment in Cuba.

Letter from L. O. Howard to Walter Reed January 10, 1901

Howard informs Reed that Woldert recommends using kerosene to eradicate mosquitoes, and includes a postscript regarding the genus of the yellow fever mosquito. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed January 11, 1900

Reed discusses finances and his plans for Keewaydin. He describes a visit inland and jokes about his weight.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to the Adjutant General January 12, 1901

Gorgas encloses and explains a map of the cases of yellow fever in the City of Havana for the year 1900. Two endorsements are included, January 14 and January 22, 1901. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Lawrence [Walter L.] Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa January 14, 1901

Lawrence Reed responds to family news. His friend Cooke visits Washington.

Letter from Walter Reed to L. O. Howard January 15, 1901

Reed thanks Howard for sending him Woldert's suggestion about how best to use kerosene in eradicating mosquitoes, and asks for more information concerning the genus of the yellow fever mosquito. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from L. O. Howard to Walter Reed January 17, 1901

Howard congratulates Reed on the success of his work and mentions he will quote Reed's work favorably in his upcoming lectures. He asks Reed to use care in saying anything about his connection with the kerosene remedy. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed January 17, 1901

Sternberg recommends that Reed be sent back to Washington, D.C. from Havana, Cuba, in order to continue his investigation into yellow fever at the Army Medical Museum. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Harry Frederick Jackson to Chauncey B. Baker January 17, 1901

Jackson lists all the properties that make up the Post of Columbia Barracks, along with their rental information. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed January 18, 1901

Reed discusses the army reorganization bill. He has finished his paper and remarks that the last experimental yellow fever cases are recovering.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed January 21, 1901

Reed teases Emilie Lawrence Reed. She complains about the appearance of their house in Washington.

Letter from Hugh L. Scott to Harry Frederick Jackson January 21, 1901

Scott informs Jackson that a $2 per diem allowance has been approved for Reed and for Carroll. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from L. O. Howard to Walter Reed January 22, 1901

Howard indicates that he is not certain of the grounds for believing that there is another species of mosquito to be considered, but he makes a guess, and agrees that the distinction is important to Reed's work. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Jefferson Randolph Kean January 26, 1901

Special orders #22 specify that Kean is to travel to Washington, D.C. for an examination for promotion, and then to return to his post at Quemados, Cuba, when no longer required by the board. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed January 27, 1901

Reed teases Emilie Lawrence Reed. His colleague McConnell will be visiting her. Reed mentions a drawing of mosquitos.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed February 3, 1901

Reed teases Emilie Lawrence Reed. He will be leaving for Cuba in a week. Lawrence Reed's battalion has been ordered to move, either to the United States or to the Philippines, and he mentions that Lawrence has a Cuban girlfriend.

Military orders for John R. Kissinger February 4, 1901

Reed gives permission for Kissinger to leave Camp Lazear for a visit to Havana from 6 AM until 5 PM on February 4, 1901.

Letter from James Carroll to L. O. Howard February 10, 1901

Carroll notifies Howard that he is sending him a bumblebee, and he regrets that there are no flies available to send, as the place where he is has been completely sewered and disinfected. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from L. O. Howard to James Carroll February 14, 1901

Howard identifies the bee that Carroll had sent to him earlier, giving specifics about its range and habits. He looks forward to talking with Carroll and Reed about the success of the yellow fever experiments, and wishes them success in identifying the organism that causes yellow fever. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to James Carroll February 16, 1901

Reed arrives in Washington. He discusses an article for the Journal of the American Medical Association and comments on the editor's changes. No promotion for Carroll is forthcoming.

Letter from George M. Kober to Howard A. Kelly February 20, 1901

Kober sends Kelly extracts of a report, written by himself, entitled “Flies in the transmission of Typhoid”

Letter from Walter Reed to Henry Rose Carter February 26, 1901

Reed appreciates Carter's support. He admires Carter's work in Mississippi.

List of Patients Suffering from Epidemic Diseases: Experimental Yellow Fever December 1900

Fourteen patients are listed by name, place of birth, dates of illness and other details, for Camp Lazear, Columbia Barracks, Cuba.

Letter from Walter Reed to Henry Rose Carter April 3, 1901

Reed sends a reprint that Carter has requested, along with some other literature. He expresses interest in reading two articles, written by Carter, that have been recently published.

Bill of Sale: Compra Venta de Parte de Finca Rustica April 20, 1901

This notarial document describes the purchase, by Ramon Gonzalez y Socorro, of the rural estate - called “Varona” or “Pineda” - owned by D. Ignacio Gonzalez Pinera y Santa Cruz. The estate is located at the edge of Marianao near the Columbia Barracks.

Military orders regarding measures to prevent the spread of yellow fever and malaria at military bases April 27, 1901

In Circular #5, Scott specifies how to prevent the spread of yellow fever and malaria at military posts by controlling mosquitoes, and instructs physicians how to monitor possible yellow fever patients.

Correspondence between George Jones and Gibson Brothers April 6, 1901

Letter from George A. Jones to the Gibson Bros. April 26, 1901

The Surgeon General accepts the estimate the Gibson Bros. will charge for publishing 300 copies of the pamphlet, “The Etiology of Yellow Fever.”

Letter from the Gibson Bros. to George A. Jones April 26, 1901

Gibson Bros. informs Jones that the cost for “The Etiology of Yellow Fever” pamphlets will be $46.00.

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to Aristides Agramonte May 10, 1901

Sternberg requests personal information from Agramonte, which Agramonte supplies on the lower half of the page before he returns the letter to Sternberg.

Letter from the Surgeon General to Lord Julian Pauncefote May 14, 1901

The Surgeon General forwards to Lord Julian Pauncefote twenty copies of the Report on the Etiology of Yellow Fever.

Letter from Valery Havard to the Surgeon General May 16, 1901

Havard requests information as to whether Agramonte has been relieved of his duties with the investigation, or whether he is available to assist the needs of his department as bacteriologist.

Letter from Lord Julian Pauncefote to George Miller Sternberg May 16, 1901

Pauncefote thanks the Surgeon General for sending to him the copies of the Report on the Etiology of Yellow Fever.

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to the Adjutant General May 21, 1901

Sternberg recommends to the Adjutant General that Agramonte be relieved of his current duty and be directed to report to the commanding general, Department of Cuba, for re-assignment. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Communications and military orders regarding the removal of Aristides Agramonte from board to investigate infectious diseases in Cuba May 21, 1901

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte May 21, 1901

Special Orders #118 relieves Agramonte from duty as a member of the board of medical officers investigating infectious diseases. He is ordered to report to the commanding general, Department of Cuba, for assignment to duty.

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte May 21, 1901

Agramonte is relieved of his duties as a member board to investigate infectious diseases and is reassigned to duty in charge of the Department Laboratory at Municipal Hospital and microscopical and bacteriological work at Las Animas Hospital. Endorsements are dated May 21 through May 28, 1901. Special Orders #118 is included. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Certifications of Hospital Admission May 30, 1901

Certification of hospital admission for John J. Moran May 30, 1901

Ames certifies that Moran was diagnosed with yellow fever and was admitted to the Post Hospital on December 25, 1900 and was discharged on January 7, 1901. Members of the Yellow Fever Board also signed the certificate.

Letter from John Hay to the Secretary of War May 31, 1901

On behalf of the Department of State, Hay requests two copies of Sternberg's circular on yellow fever for the Portuguese Minister.

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to the Secretary of State June 3, 1901

Sternberg sends two copies of “The Etiology of Yellow Fever” to the Secretary of State for transmission to the Portuguese Minister.

Letter from the Assistant Secretary of War to the [Portuguese Minister] June 4, 1901

The Assistant Secretary of War sends two copies of “The Etiology of Yellow Fever.”

Letter from Walter Reed to Jefferson Randolph Kean June 5, 1901

Reed considers Durham's work on a bacillus. Although there is no work for the Yellow Fever Board in Cuba at present, he advises Kean to maintain Camp Lazear. Reed discusses immunization against yellow fever.

Letter from S. M. Sparkman to George Miller Sternberg June 5, 1901

Sparkman requests fifteen to twenty copies of “The Etiology of Yellow Fever” from Sternberg.

Letter from [George Miller Sternberg] to S. M. Sparkman June 7, 1901

Sternberg sends Sparkmen ten copies of “The Etiology of Yellow Fever.”

Letter from S. M. Sparkman to George Miller Sternberg June 8, 1901

Sparkman requests 150 to 200 copies of “The Etiology of Yellow Fever” for distribution. He believes several thousand copies should be distributed to southern States.

Letter from George Miller Sternberg to S. M. Sparkman June 11, 1901

Sternberg can only spare a few more copies of “The Etiology of Yellow Fever” and does not have the authority to print several thousand copies. He proposes that Sparkman introduce a bill to Congress in order to print additional copies.

Letter from S. M. Sparkman to George Miller Sternberg June 13, 1901

Sparkman encourages the printing of several thousand copies of “The Etiology of Yellow Fever” so that the people of the Gulf Coast can be informed of the mosquito theory. Sparkman realizes that it is very important that the yellow fever issue be cleared up, as there are numerous variant theories about the cause of yellow fever.

Memorandum from Valery Havard to the Adjutant General June 19, 1901

Havard assigns duties for Agramonte at Columbia Barracks. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from A. H. Glennan to the Adjutant General June 25, 1901

Glennan reveals the costs of the new disinfecting building for the Shore Plant for the upcoming six months. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from L. O. Howard to James Carroll July 5, 1901

Howard thanks Carroll for the fresh mosquito eggs. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for the Cuban People July 9, 1901

Circular #2, written in both English and Spanish, shows that the mosquito is responsible for the spread of disease, in particular yellow fever. The author outlines the necessary precautions that must be taken to prevent the spread of diseases by the mosquito. A summary of other Circulars regarding the spread of diseases is also included. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Theobald Smith July 19, 1901

Reed discusses cultures of Bacillus Icteroides. He will send the cultures to Smith.

Report from Valery Havard to the Adjutant General July 22, 1901

Havard reports on the health situation of the troops in Cuba for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901.

Military orders for Thomas M. England July 31, 1901

Special Orders #164 promotes England to Acting Hospital Steward at Hamilton Barracks. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letters and military orders relating to Philippi Caldas and his yellow fever serusJuly 1901-August 1901

Military orders regarding Philippi Caldas and Angel Bellingaghi August 1, 1901

These letters and supporting documents concern the request by Caldas and Bellingaghi to demonstrate their yellow fever serum. Included are translations from original Spanish letters and recommendations from Caldas and Tellez. Havard requests a medical commission to examine these claims. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders regarding Philippe Caldas August, 1901

Havard introduces Caldas, a Brazilian scientist who is coming to Havana for experiments on yellow fever.

Letter from William Cary Sanger to Hugh L. Scott August 7, 1901

Sanger introduces Caldas, a Brazilian scientist who developed a yellow fever vaccine, to the Havana community. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Gustaf E. Lambert August 3, 1901

Special Orders #166 relieves Lambert from duty at Camp Columbia. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Proceedings of a Medical Commission Appointed By Circular Letter No. 59 with enclosed chart September, 1901

Proceedings of a Medical Commission Appointed By Circular Letter No. 59 September, 1901

Havard provides evidence that Caldas' and Bellingaghi's theories are unsound and should not be accepted. He includes a detailed time-line of events and a list of arguments to conclude his report against Caldas. Enclosed are charts, reports, and other documents used as evidence. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Temperature and Pulse Chart for Paulino Alonso August 14, 1901

Chart plots temperature and pulse of a yellow fever volunteer after the use of the Caldas' vaccine. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

"Topics of the Times" August 8, 1901

The clipping relates to Carlos E. Finlay and Walter Reed.

Military orders for Wallace W. Forbes and Henry De Lamar August 10, 1901

Forbes and De Lamar are relieved from duty at Columbia Barracks. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Hugh L. Scott to William Crawford Gorgas August 15, 1901

Scott directs Gorgas to increase the funding for Carroll's yellow fever research.

"Mosquitos and Malaria", The Medical Record September 7, 1901

This article discusses the transmission of malaria.

Photocopied fragment of Public Health Papers and Reports, Volume XXVII, Presented at the Twenty-Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Buffalo, N.Y., September 16-20, 1901 September 16-20, 1901

Includes papers and reports such as the President's Address, by Benjamin Lee; The Results of Yellow Fever Sanitation in Havana, Cuba, for the Year 1901 Up to September 1st, Carried on Upon the Basis that the Stegomyia Mosquito is the Sole Means of Its Transmission, by William Crawford Gorgas; Practical Discussion of Yellow Fever, by Alvah H. Doty; and Fomites and Yellow Fever, by A. N. Bell.

Letter from Walter Reed to James Carroll September 30

Reed discusses Carroll's experiments, comments on Springer's involvement, and makes recommendations.

Letter from James Carroll to L. O. Howard October 3, 1901

Carroll sends Howard a female mosquito collected near Las Animas Hospital.

Letter from T. H. Chittinden to James Carroll October 9, 1901

Chittinden clarifies the species of mosquito that Carroll sent Howard on October 3rd, 1901.

Letter from James Carroll to L. O. Howard October 10, 1901

Carroll sends Howard more samples of mosquitoes.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Walter Reed October 13, 1901

Kean encourages Reed to lobby for the office of Surgeon General.

Telegram from James Carroll to the War Department October 22, 1901

Carroll reports positive results for the filtrate test.

Lists of Men Undergoing the Yellow Fever Experiments circa 1900

These are original lists of men undergoing the yellow fever experiments, with an autograph note by Hench.

Letter from T. H. Chittinden to James Carroll October 23, 1901

Chittinden clarifies the species of different mosquitoes sent to him by Carroll.

Military Record of J.F. Dunshie October 23, 1901

Kean explains why Dunshie was discharged from the medical corps.

Letter from Walter Reed to Jefferson Randolph Kean November 5, 1901

Reed relays news of additional candidates for Surgeon General. He believes Kean should be Surgeon General instead of himself because he is concerned about his age.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Walter Reed November 9, 1901

Jefferson Randolph Kean supports the appointment of Walter Reed as the new surgeon general.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Walter Reed November 26, 1901

Kean offers Reed continued encouragement and strategy for the Surgeon General's post.

Letter from L. O. Howard to Walter Reed December 10, 1901

Howard thanks Reed for the copies of two papers on yellow fever. He then corrects Reed on the proper way to spell out fasciata Stegomyia. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Special Orders No. 280 December 23, 1901

The orders relate to a man named John J. Moran, but not the same John J. Moran who was involved with the yellow fever experiments.

Letter from Leonard Wood to John Dalzell December 31, 1901

Wood advocates a pension for Mabel Houston Lazear.

Military orders for Thomas M. England and Charles G. Sonntag January 12, 1901

Special Orders #10 orders England and Sonntag to experimental camp with Walter Reed. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Pages from the daybook of Ignacio Rojas 1901

These selections from Rojas' daybook concern the rent for Camp Lazear.

Walter Reed & Yellow Fever. Chronology of the Yellow Fever Work in Cuba circa 1901

This is an outline, organized chronologically, of Kean's experience with the Yellow Fever Commission.

"Requisition and Estimate for Insular Funds" February 26, 1901

Kean requests funds for Camp Lazear. Included is a note by [Truby]. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders relating to Aristides Agramonte 1901

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte May 21, 1901

Special Orders #119 relieves Agramonte from duty as a member of the board of medical officers appointed in 1900. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte May 28, 1901

Special Orders #117 assigns Agramonte to duty at Las Animas Hospital. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Aristides Agramonte June 20, 1901

Special Orders #134 details Agramonte to visit Columbia Barracks four times a week. Included is a note by [Truby]. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders relating to James Carroll 1901

Military orders for James Carroll February 6, 1901

Special Orders #31 orders Carroll to report to Washington, D. C. for duty in the pathological laboratory of the Army Medical Museum. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for James Carroll July 25, 1901

Special Orders #172 orders Carroll to Havana to continue the investigation of yellow fever. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Memorandum from Valery Havard to the Adjutant General August 24, 1901

Havard authorizes Carroll to continue investigations. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders relating to Rafael T. Echeverria, Robert P. Cooke, Royal M. Dean, Paul Hamann, Alfred W. Covington, Frank H. Edmunds, Alexander N. Stark, Roger Post Ames, James Carroll, Jefferson Randolph Kean, John S. Neate, Adolph F. Springer, Newell R. Colby, and John W. Ross 1901

Military orders regarding Frank H. Edmunds June 18, 1901

General Orders #10 lists military stations and various ranks for Edmunds up to his death by yellow fever on June 18, 1901. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Robert P. Cooke February 1, 1901

Special Orders #27 orders Cooke to Camp Mackenzie for duty. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Alexander N. Stark February 5, 1901

Special Orders #27 elects Stark to a board of officers. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Reports from the Yellow Fever Commission to Adjutant General in Charge of Civil Affairs, Havana, Cuba 1901

Report of the Yellow Fever Commission April 3, 1901

The Yellow Fever Commission examines Ole A. Jensen and pronounces his illness as yellow fever. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report of the Yellow Fever Commission April 11, 1901

The Yellow Fever Commission examines potential cases of yellow fever at Morro 58. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report of the Yellow Fever Commission April 22, 1901

The commission examines potential cases of yellow fever at Las Animas Hospital. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

List of U.S. Army Hospital Corps personnel at Camp Lazear circa 1901

This is a list of twelve U.S. Army Hospital Corps members who were stationed at Camp Lazear.

Surgeon General's office record card for Walter Reed 1901

The record card explains Walter Reed's leave of absence for 1901, with reference to an unexplained absence from his post as member of the Army Medical Examining Board. The report also states that Reed is personally and professionally humiliated by this inquiry. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Notes listing the volunteers for the yellow fever experiments circa 1901

These three notes list the human-experiment volunteers who were exposed to fomites, infected by injections of blood, and infected by mosquitoes.

Memoirs of a Human Guinea Pig circa 1901-1950

This is Moran's account of his experience with the Yellow Fever Commission as a human test subject.

"This Busy World", Harper's Weekly circa 1901

Information in the article relates to the 1901 Nobel Prize winners.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Walter Reed January 1, 1902

Kean discusses La Garde's and Havard's candidacy for Surgeon General. There is a question of General Wood's support.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Walter Reed January 15, 1902

Kean provides news concerning the Surgeon General position. He has had a conversation with General Wood. Reed should return to Cuba.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to Walter Reed February 6, 1902

Gorgas discusses Reed's success with Carlos Finlay's mosquito theory. Gorgas would like a post in Panama after Cuba.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to F.H. Beach with related military orders February 21, 1902

Orders from F.H. Beach to the Quartermaster of the Columbia Barracks February 21, 1902

Beach reports that government vehicles may not be used for private purposes, i.e. entertainment.

Official Request from Jefferson Randolph Kean to F.H. Beach February 18, 1902

Kean requests a copy of the orders forbidding private use of government vehicles.

Letter from L. O. Howard to Walter Reed March 7, 1902

Howard responds to Reed's most recent letter, and discusses the notion of insects affecting both humans and domestic animals. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Jose [Maria] Benis to Jefferson Randolph Kean March 8, 1902

Benis thanks Kean for his assistance in public health projects.

Letter from the Surgeon General to Aristides Agramonte March 26, 1902

The Surgeon General informs Agramonte that his contract is over with the U. S. Army on April 30, 1902.

Report on the conduct of nurse Lena A. Warner April 17, 1902

Kean writes about Lena A. Warner's refusal to care for an officer's wife.

Letter from [Jefferson Randolph Kean] to the Department of Charities April 29, 1902

[Kean] writes an endorsement concerning modifications to orders for the Superior Sanitary Board.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to the Surgeon General May 8, 1902

Gorgas informs [Sternberg] that Agramonte will be relieved of duty May 15, 1902.

Letters supporting appointment of Walter Reed as surgeon general May 1902

Letter from Elihu Root to William Osler May 20, 1902

Root thanks Osler for his letter supporting Reed for nomination to the post of Surgeon General. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from George B. Cortelyou to Elihu Root May 26, 1902

Cortelyou sends endorsements from the President concerning Reed succeeding Sternberg as the Surgeon General. The President also mentions O'Reilly. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Elihu Root to Charles William Eliot May 31, 1902

Root acknowledges receipt of recommendations from the Faculty of Medicine at Harvard University for the nomination of Reed to the position of Surgeon General. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa May 31, 1902

Reed asks for news of Keewaydin. He and Kean continue the campaign for Surgeon General.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 1, 1902

Reed meets Kean. Reed hopes to get to Blue Ridge Summit (Keewaydin)soon. He describes boarding house meals.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 5, 1902

Reed promises to bring Emilie Lawrence Reed the money she needs to meet their expenses.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 6, 1902

Reed writes that the boarding house fare has improved, though the coffee is still not good. Forwood tells Reed that his chances are excellent for a permanent appointment to be the Surgeon General.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 9, 1902

Reed writes that he is returning to Cuba, and includes other political news about those who are candidates for Surgeon General. He says Roach's orchards are alive with locusts and expresses concern.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa June 11, 1902

Reed gently upbraids his wife for not writing him daily and comments on the orchards.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa June 12, 1902

Reed writes that the shipments are on their way to her. He is leaving for Boston, is looking forward to a reunion with his Cuban colleagues, and concludes with news of Forwood's confirmation.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 13, 1902

Reed writes of his trip to Boston. He describes his hotel and the arrival of friends.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa June 15, 1902

Reed writes about last night's grand dinner where he was given the second place of honor at dinner in recognition of his work, above men who awed him. He is distressed to learn about their fruit trees.

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa June 16, 1902

Reed is devastated to learn that their orchard is crawling with locusts. Reed hears that the President is highly complimentary of him. He will be coming home soon.

Letter from Walter Reed to Theobald Smith July 19, 1902

Reed writes concerning B. Icteroides and hog cholera, and the observations of microorganisms. He notes the affected populations' presence in Cuba. He appreciates congratulations for his honorary Harvard degree.

Telegram from [s.n.] Crossby to Jefferson Randolph Kean July 25, 1902

Crossby relates Mahan's condition regarding malaria and other diseases.

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to the Surgeon General August 13, 1902

Agramonte forwards his contract of annulment with the U. S. Army and discusses reimbursement for mileage traveled since annulment. He also requests a certificate of non-indebtedness.

Military records relating to Walter Reed 1902

Report for Walter Reed June 30, 1902

The efficiency report for Reed covers the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Robert M. O'Reilly to the Adjutant General November 1, 1902

O'Reilly requests that Reed be ordered to Fisher's Island, New York, to investigate an outbreak of typhoid fever among the troops. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Military orders for Walter Reed November 3, 1902

Special Orders #258 orders Reed to Fort H. G. Wright, New York, to investigate an outbreak of typhoid. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Jefferson Randolph Kean September 3, 1902

Reed writes a satirical letter concerning the appointment of the new Surgeon General, staff changes, and Kean's new position.

Report of the Surgeon General September 6, 1902

This report documents yellow fever cases in the Army for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1902.

Letter from Walter Reed to the War Department September 9, 1902

Reed approves and endorses Carroll's application for admission into the Medical Corps of the Army. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Louis A. La Garde to the Surgeon General September 9, 1902

La Garde writes a letter of recommendation for Carroll who is applying for admission into the Medical Corps of the Army. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to the Surgeon General September 9, 1902

Kean writes a letter of recommendation for Carroll who is applying for admission into the Medical Corps of the Army. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from James Carroll to the Surgeon General September 9, 1902

Carroll requests admission into the Medical Corps of the Army. He gives a brief summary of his career as a non-commissioned officer and a contract surgeon, and his terms at medical school. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Walter Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa September 15, 1902

Reed writes about his conference with O'Reilly from the War Department. Kean and his family are moving-in nearby. He comments on Smart becoming the Chief Surgeon of the Philippines.

Letter fragment from Henry P. McCain to the Surgeon General October 2, 1902

Carroll's application into the Medical Corps of the Army is approved, although Carroll is technically too old. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letters from the Surgeon General to James Carroll October 1902

Letter from the Surgeon General to James Carroll October 4, 1902

O'Reilly informs Carroll that his application for appointment in the Medical Corps has been approved and that the age limit will be waived. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from the Surgeon General to James Carroll October 18, 1902

Carroll is to report to Dewitt for examination before the Army Medical Board. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Personal history of candidate: James Carroll October 18, 1902

Carroll submits his personal history to the Medical Board for part of his examination for the Army Medical Corps. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Transcript of letter from Walter Reed to Simon Flexner November 3, 1902

Reed turns down an invitation to speak at Flexner's Pathological Society in Philadelphia.

Letter from L. O. Howard to James Carroll November 18, 1902

Howard wants to borrow a photograph of Lazear from Carroll in order to have a slide made. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from L. O. Howard to James Carroll November 22, 1902

Howard asks Carroll for extra copies of his paper on the yellow fever mosquito. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from William C. Borden to the Adjutant General November 23, 1902

Borden announces the time and cause of Reed's death. Endorsements by O'Reilly are included. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Histories of Major Walter Reed's military career1902

Military History of Major Walter Reed January 2, 1902

Sternberg lists the military posts and stations served by Reed as reported by the records of the Surgeon General.

Military History of Major Walter Reed June 2, 1902

Surgeon General's Records listing military and personal history for Reed until June 2, 1902.

Letter from William C. Borden to the War Department December 6, 1902

Borden certifies that Reed died in the line of duty. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Christopher Reed to Jefferson Randolph Kean December 23, 1902

Christopher Reed provides a story of young Walter Reed in Brooklyn, where he was frustrated by malpractice in the medical profession.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Howard A. Kelly December 27, 1902

Kean discusses a strategy to lobby Congress to approve a pension for Emilie Lawrence Reed.

Dr. Reed as a Medical Officer, an address given in honor of Walter Reed December 31, 1902

Kean's remarks about Reed portray him as a great storyteller and as a doctor making heroic house-calls during his "Dakota winters".

Value of Dr. Reed's Work circa 1902

[Kean?] comments on the paucity of public praise that Reed has received. He maintains that his work should be recognized by the United States government, and ends with a call for a generous pension to Emilie Lawrence Reed.

Data from reports made by William Crawford Gorgas 1902

Gorgas details mosquito larvae inspections, from December 1901 to December 1902.

Extract from the Annual Report of the Secretary of War 1902

The report recognizes the work of Reed, Gorgas, Kean, Carroll, and Lazear.

Excerpt from Dr. Walter Reed 1902

This excerpt discusses Reed's medical work and gives a listing of each publication authored by Reed.

Booklet published by the Walter Reed Memorial Association circa 1902

This booklet contains extracts and resolutions honoring Walter Reed furnished by various individuals and institutions.

Letter from James Carroll to L. O. Howard January 5, 1903

Carroll asks to borrow a journal from Howard that is not in the library. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Howard A. Kelly January 11, 1903

Kean solicits support for pension bills in Congress. He discusses biographical essays on Walter Reed by himself and Kelly.

Letter from the Paymaster General's Office to Aristides Agramonte January 13, 1903

Letter relates to $45 owed by Aristides Agramonte to the War Department.

Letter from John R. Vaughan to Howard A. Kelly January 14, 1903

Vaughan requests that a letter in support of the pension bill be sent to the Washington Post.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Caroline Latimer circa January 28, 1903

Kean encourages Kelly to support the pension bill with a letter to the Washington Post.

Letter fragment from Laura Reed Blincoe to Howard A. Kelly January 30, 1903

Blincoe provides recollections of Walter Reed's childhood.

Letter from Laura Reed Blincoe to Howard A. Kelly February 9, 1903

Blincoe provides recollections of Walter Reed, and includes a transcription of Thomas Reed's letter.

Letter from [s.n.] Hall to the Surgeon General February 10, 1903

Agramonte is hired for temporary service at Columbia Barracks.

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to Adjutant General February 12, 1903

Letter relates to $45 claimed by War Department.

Article fragment: "The Military Government of Cuba" March, 1903

Wood gives a history of the American occupation in Cuba and discusses the yellow fever outbreak and consequent investigation by Reed and Lazear. Article appears in “The Annals of the American Academy.” Only pages 16 and 17 are included.

"The Transmission of Yellow Fever", by Aristides Agramonte May 30, 1903

The work is critical of article by James Carroll which disputes Carlos Finlay's claim to proof of mosquito theory.

Letter from Christopher Reed to [Jefferson Randolph Kean?] May 31, 1903

Christopher Reed gives his account of Walter Reed's childhood.

Letter from the Assistant Surgeon General to Aristides Agramonte June 3, 1903

Agramonte is informed that his contract as surgeon will terminate June 15, 1903.

Letter from James Carroll to the Editor of The Journal June 26, 1903

Carroll writes that Agramonte was not present at the meeting where self-inoculation was discussed by Reed, Carroll and Lazear. Furthermore, he was only informed about the results of the experiments when Reed was about to leave Cuba, in October of 1900. He maintains that Finlay should not be awarded credit for the discovery of the mosquito theory.

Letter from James Carroll to L. O. Howard August 27, 1903

Carroll thanks Howard for the eggs and mosquitoes. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from L. O. Howard to James Carroll August 27, 1903

Howard sends Carroll eggs of Stegomyia and more mosquitoes. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from James Carroll to L. O. Howard August 29, 1903

Carroll thanks Howard for the boxes of Stegomyia eggs. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Laura Reed Blincoe to Jefferson Randolph Kean September 14, 1903

Blincoe provides recollections of Walter Reed as a youth. She gives the family genealogy and a description of the house in Gloucester County, Virginia, where Reed was born.

Letter from L. O. Howard to James Carroll October 7, 1903

Howard is concerned about Carroll's reaction to the statement in Century Magazine about Finlay producing three cases of mild fever. Howard is investigating the matter further. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Photocopied fragment of Public Health Papers and Reports, Volume XXIX, Presented at the Thirty-First Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. October 26-30, 1903 October 26-30, 1903

These selections from presentations given at the 1903 annual meeting of the American Public Health Association concern the scientific reception of the Yellow Fever Commission's work, particularly the etiology of yellow fever, quarantine procedures, and the discovery of the role of the mosquito. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Fragment of Report of the Surgeon General of the Army to the Secretary of War for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1903 June 30, 1903

O'Reilly reports about the state of yellow fever in the United States and foreign territories, and claims that it will not be a factor for health concerns in the future. He also includes a chart which details the admissions of important diseases by months for 1902. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Materials relating to military career of Walter Reed 1903

Letter from Arthur V. Medgo to Theodore Roosevelt January 8, 1903

A preamble to the bill about to be presented to Congress grants Emilie Lawrence Reed a yearly pension of $4,000. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from John H. Walker to H. C. Corbin January 16, 1903

Walker requests a statement of service regarding Reed. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from H. C. Corbin to the Chairman of the Committee on Pensions January 22, 1903

Corbin sends a statement of military service of Reed to the Committee on Pensions regarding Senate Bill #6702. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

"How the Army Yellow Fever Board Conducted its Experiments upon Human Beings", The University of Virginia Alumni Bulletin 1903

Stark presents a paper about the measures taken by Reed and his commission to prove it was the mosquito, and not fomites, that was responsible for the spread of yellow fever. Published in The University of Virginia Alumni Bulletin, vol. 3.

List of publications by Walter Reed from 1894 to 1902 circa 1903

The list of Reed's publications includes articles on Trikresol, typhoid fever, variola, bacillus icteroides and bacillus cholerae suis, and yellow fever.

Biography of Walter Reed, by Christopher Reed circa 1903

Christopher Reed provides a biographical sketch of Walter Reed written.

Letter from Roger Post Ames to Surgeon General January 16, 1904

Report of yellow fever at Laredo, Texas and among troops at Ft. Mcintosh, Texas.

Letter from James Carroll to Caroline Latimer March 16, 1904

Carroll presents his autobiography. He includes a note on immunity to yellow fever.

Military orders regarding Guy Charles Moore Godfrey May 2, 1904

Godfrey is commended for his courageous act during a fire at Fort Apache, Arizona. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to John J. Moran June 22, 1904

Gorgas hires Moran as sanitary inspector for the Panama Canal Zone.

Presidential Decree No. 25 July 7, 1904

The President of Panama, Manuel Amador Guerrero, invests the Canal Zone Sanitary Officer with full sanitary authority for Panama City and Colon.

Letter from John G. Walker to John J. Moran July 19, 1904

Walker relates the terms of Moran's appointment to the sanitary staff of the Panama Canal Zone.

Letter from the Governor of the Panama Canal Zone to John J. Moran September 15, 1904

Moran is appointed clerk in the Canal Zone Health Department.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to Jefferson Randolph Kean September 24, 1904

Gorgas writes about the Canal Zone Sanitary Commission, and his wife's illness.

Letter from Azel Ames to James Carroll October 3, 1904

Ames objects to the inadequate recognition given to Carroll, Lazear, and Agramonte for their yellow fever work.

Letter from Walter Wyman to Howard A. Kelly November 7, 1904

Wyman forwards references on yellow fever to Kelly.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Howard A. Kelly November 10, 1904

Kean forwards Kelly information about Walter Reed for Kelly's biography.

Letter from R.B. Maury to Howard A. Kelly November 13, 1904

Maury forwards Kelly a book on the yellow fever epidemic of 1878, as well as journal references. Maury contacts Lena Warner, a yellow fever survivor, for her recollections.

Letter from Joseph Y. Porter to Howard A. Kelly November 28, 1904

Porter confesses he was only a general colleague of Walter Reed, so he is unable to provide much information for Kelly's biography of Reed.

Recollections of Lena A. Warner December 7, 1904

Warner writes about the unreported side of the yellow fever epidemic, including her own experiences during an 1878 outbreak in her hometown.

Miscellaneous materials relating to the military career of Walter Reed 1904

Fragment of a statement regarding Walter Reed circa 1904

Kean states that Reed did not give up his life demonstrating the mosquito theory. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Statement regarding Walter Reed 1904

Wood attributes the mosquito theory principally to Walter Reed. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Report of the Surgeon General to the Secretary of War for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1904 June 30, 1904

O'Reilly reports on the cases of yellow fever in the Army, and is concerned about the transmission of the disease from Mexico into Texas.

List of subscribers prior to January 1, 1905 January 1, 1905

This is a list of subscribers, possibly related to the Walter Reed Memorial.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to Robert M. O'Reilly January 3, 1905

Gorgas writes about his own work with the Canal Zone Sanitary Commission.

Letter from John Guiteras to Roger Post Ames January 13, 1905

Letter relates to Carlos Finlay's mosquito theory.

Letter from Charles W. Kent to Howard A. Kelly January 27, 1905

Kent provides the dates of Walter Reed's attendance at the University of Virginia, as well as other biographical references.

"Sanitary Conditions in Panama" February 10, 1905

This report was prepared for the Smithsonian Institution and includes autographed notes.

Letter from Henry M. Hurd to Caroline Latimer February 11, 1905

Hurd shares his recollections of Walter Reed at Johns Hopkins and later.

Letter with memorandum from William Crawford Gorgas to Charles A.L. Reed February 17, 1905

Gorgas writes to Reed concerning the organization of the Canal Zone Sanitary Department, and details problems in its function. Memorandum details the problems in the Panama Canal.

Report to the Secretary of War by C.F. Mason February 17, 1905

Mason reports on the Panama Canal Zone Sanitary Department activities with appendices: A - plan of action; B - departmental organization; C - free distribution of quinine.

Envelope addressed to Howard A. Kelly with a blank postcard circa 1905

Blank postcard circa 1905

The post card includes the caption 'Colonel Gorgas Mosquito Brigade. The Gang that made Panama healthy'.

Letter fragment to Howard A. Kelly March 4, 1905

The writer informs Kelly about a yellow fever epidemic in Norfolk, Virginia, in 1855.

Letter from Pride Thomas to Howard A. Kelly March 6, 1905

Thomas writes about a yellow fever epidemic in Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1862.

Letter from James Carroll to Caroline Latimer March 9, 1905

Carroll presents a chronology of Walter Reed's involvement with the Yellow Fever Commission. Carroll gives his own autobiography and provides information on the other participants in the study.

Letter from William C. Borden to Howard A. Kelly March 16, 1905

Borden provides details of the surgical operation for appendicitis that immediately preceded Walter Reed's death.

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to Howard A. Kelly March 22, 1905

Agramonte writes about the responsibilities of the Yellow Fever Commission members, and gives a brief chronology of their activities.

Transcript of letter from William H. Taft to Theodore Roosevelt March 30, 1905

Taft details the requirements for the completion of the Panama Canal and the need to reorganize the Canal Commission.

Note from Howard A. Kelly to Cullen circa 1905

Kelly asks Cullen to assist Sears.

Program from the Fourteenth Annual Dinner of the Kings County Hospital Alumni Association November 21, 1906

This is the program for an evening in honor of Walter Reed, who was once an intern at the hospital. The cover is autographed.

Transcript of letter from Theodore Roosevelt to The White House April 1, 1905

Roosevelt reorganizes the Panama Canal Commission.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to William Howard Taft April 1, 1905

Gorgas responds to criticisms of Charles A. Reed. He presents an analysis of the Canal Zone Commission organization.

Front page of the The Press-Republic April 11, 1905

Contains the article, Discusses Mosquito

Letter from Rudolph Matas to Howard A. Kelly April 14, 1905

Matas provides references on yellow fever, and gives information on his own work and experience with the disease.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to Robert M. O'Reilly May 5, 1905

Gorgas reports on yellow fever cases in the Canal Zone, as well as administrative issues.

Letter from P. Farshish to the Editor of The Baltimore News May 10, 1905

Farshish writes the editor to correct what he thinks is misinformation in Kelly's article about the earliest documented reference of insects carrying disease. Farshish challenges Kelly with references from the Talmud and Midroshic Literature.

Telegram from William Crawford Gorgas to Robert M. O'Reilly May 11, 1905

Gorgas lists yellow fever patients to date in the Panama Canal Zone.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to Louis A. LaGarde May 27, 1905

Gorgas asks LaGarde, the superintendent of Ancon Hospital, to resign.

Letter from Louis A. La Garde to the Secretary of War May 30, 1905

La Garde requests to be relieved from duty.

Letter from Charles E. Magoon to William Crawford Gorgas June 1, 1905

Magoon writes about yellow fever cases in the Canal Zone. He makes an official offer of full financial and manpower support for Gorgas to eradicate the disease.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to Charles E. Magoon June 2, 1905

Gorgas requests assignment of John W. Phillips for duty in the Canal Zone Sanitary Department.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to Robert M. O'Reilly June 3, 1905

Gorgas describes cases of yellow fever in the Canal Zone, and the reaction to the new Sanitary Commission.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to Charles E. Magoon June 30, 1905

Gorgas requests the assignment of Raeder for duty as a nurse in the Canal Zone Sanitary Department.

Letter from [George H.] Smith with enclosed article 1905

Letter from [George H.] Smith August 3, 1905

Smith explains the importance of the Reed's work with the Yellow Fever Commission and asks that his accomplishments be publicized. He includes an article on Reed's work, distributed by the New Orleans & North-Eastern Railroad Company, the Alabama & Vicksburg Railway Company, and the Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific Railway Company.

Major Reed's Work in Havana; How he Proved that Yellow Fever is Transmitted Only by One Species of Mosquito and that Articles Used or Soiled by Patients Do Note Cary Infection circa 1905

Article on Reed's work, distributed by the New Orleans & North-Eastern Railroad Company, the Alabama & Vicksburg Railway Company, and the Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific Railway Company.

Letter from the Acting Chief of Bureau to James Carroll August 3, 1905

Carroll is asked to communicate with Owens about Reed's work in Cuba. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to Ronald Ross August 9, 1905

Gorgas reports on conditions in Panama regarding yellow fever and malaria. He recommends that the Nobel Prize be given to America.

Photocopied fragment of Public Health Papers and Reports, Volume XXXI, Presented at the Thirty-Third Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Boston, Massachusetts, September 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 1905 September 25, 1905-September 29, 1905

Proceedings of the 31st meeting of the American Public Health Association, including “Lessons to be Learned from the Present Outbreak of Yellow Fever in Louisiana” by James Carroll, “Some New Points in the Etiology and Symptomatology of Yellow Fever” by Juan Guiteras, “Yellow Fever in Mexico” by Eduardo Liceaga, and the “Official Report of the Proceedings....”.

U.S. War Department General Orders, No. 172 October 18, 1905

This order establishes that the Army General Hospital in the District of Columbia be named the Walter Reed United States Army General Hospital, in honor of Reed.

Letter from Juan Guiteras to Howard A. Kelly November 12, 1905

Guiteras responds to negative publicity about sanitary work in Panama. He states that neglect of mosquito work in the American South is the result of “moneyed interests”. He offers favorable recollections of Walter Reed.

Letter from Henry M. Hurd to Howard A. Kelly November 13, 1905

Hurd writes with suggestions for changes to Kelly's manuscript on the life of Walter Reed.

Letter from L.O. Howard to James Carroll November 13, 1905

Howard saw many things on his trip to New Orleans that would greatly interest Carroll. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from L.O. Howard to Howard A. Kelly November 27, 1905

Howard forwards to Kelly statistics on yellow fever cases from New Orleans epidemics.

Postcard from William H. Welch to Howard A. Kelly December 4, 1905

Welch provides journal article references on yellow fever.

Surgeon General's Office report card October 10, 1905

These excerpts regard the erection of a tablet to Walter Reed at Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn, New York. There is also a request to see if a memorial will be built to Reed in Chicago, Illinois. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Ancient Theories of Causation of Fever by Mosquitoes, by Sir Henry A. Blake April 15, 1905

This translation [from Sanskrit] of Blake's report details ancient references to yellow fever and transmission by mosquitos.

Letter from L. O. Howard to James Carroll January 18, 1906

Howard requests that Carroll send his papers on yellow fever to a professor in Indiana. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

"Remarks on the Epidemic of Yellow Fever in Baltimore", The Hospital Bulletin circa February 15, 1906

Carroll gives a history of yellow fever in Baltimore and the debates that ensued among physicians as to whether yellow fever was contagious or not. Published in “The Hospital Bulletin” by The Hospital Bulletin Company of the University of Maryland.

Letter from Anita Clayton Blincoe to Caroline Latimer with enclosed obituary February 28, 1906-March 3, 1906

Letter from Anita Clayton Blincoe to Caroline Latimer March 3, 1906

Blincoe sends Latimer the obituary of Laura Reed Blincoe, who was Walter Reed's sister.

Obituary for Mrs. Laura Reed Blincoe February 28, 1906

Blincoe sends Latimer the obituary of Laura Reed Blincoe, who was Walter Reed's sister.

Letter from Emilie Lawrence Reed to Howard A. Kelly June 19, 1906

Emilie Lawrence Reed thanks Kelly for his biography of Walter Reed. She is highly complimentary.

Letter from James Carroll to Howard A. Kelly June 23, 1906

Carroll comments on Kelly's manuscript. He corrects errors of fact, and objects to the attention given Reed to the detriment of himself, Lazear, and the rest of the Yellow Fever Commission.

Letter from James Carroll to Howard A. Kelly July 6, 1906

Carroll will provide Kelly with letters for his biography of Reed. Carroll anticipates writing a defense of himself only if necessary.

Letter from James Carroll to Caroline Latimer July 9, 1906

Carroll gives Latimer permission to quote from letters that he provided to her. He objects to their characterization of his work after Walter Reed's experiments.

Letter from James Carroll to Caroline Latimer July 13, 1906

Carroll gives Latimer permission to retain his letters until the fall, and gives her references to journal articles.

Letter from Emilie Lawrence Reed to Caroline Latimer circa July 16, 1906

Emilie Lawrence Reed thanks Latimer for a review of Kelly's biography of Walter Reed, and for her work with Kelly on the book.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to James Carroll with notes by Albert E. Truby circa 1906-1950

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to James Carroll August 16, 1906

Kean informs Carroll that efforts are being made for Carroll to receive some substantial recognition for his services with the Yellow Fever Commission. Included are notes by Truby. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from James Carroll to Surgeon General with related notes by Albert E. Truby circa 1906-1950

Notes on James Carroll circa 1940-1950

Truby discusses Carroll's career.

Report to the Surgeon General by James Carroll August 18, 1906

Carroll gives a detailed report about his involvement with the yellow fever project in Cuba and the necessity of having human volunteers. He also provides a listing of his publications. Included are notes by Truby. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from James Carroll to Robert M. O'Reilly August 29, 1906

Carroll writes about the Yellow Fever Board's determination to investigate the mosquito theory. Carroll claims that he first proposed Board inoculate themselves. Included is an apparent draft, with autograph notations, and a final copy of the same letter.

Letter from James Carroll to Howard A. Kelly September 10, 1906

Carroll appeals to Kelly to consider Carroll's own statement of the facts concerning the responsibilities and actions of the Yellow Fever Board members. Carroll objects to Kean's version of the events and to Kelly's assertions in his book.

Letter from James Carroll to Caroline Latimer September 26, 1906

Carroll will meet Latimer to discuss Kelly's book. Carroll offers corrections, and states that Lazear's work is not given due credit.

Letter from William H. Taft to Carlos J. Finlay October 4, 1906

Taft writes that Kean has been detailed to assist Finlay in stamping out yellow fever in Cuba.

Letter from James Carroll to Caroline Latimer October 7, 1906

Carroll requests that Latimer return his letters. He grants Latimer permission to copy or borrow them again.

Letter from James Carroll to Caroline Latimer October 13, 1906

Carroll thanks Latimer for the prompt return of his letters. He has discovered three more letters from Walter Reed and makes them all available to Latimer and Kelly.

Letter from James Carroll to Howard A. Kelly October 23, 1906

Carroll forwards to Kelly his account of the autopsy of the first fatal case in his yellow fever experiments.

Correspondence of Howard Atwood Kelly October 1906

Letter from Howard A. Kelly October 23, 1906

Kelly requests his father's opinion concerning a name in his biography of Reed.

Letter to Howard Atwood Kelly October 24, 1906

Kelly's father writes that he is glad he has returned home.

Letter from L.O. Howard to Howard A. Kelly October 31, 1906

Howard provides his recollections of Reed and the formation of the Walter Reed Memorial Association.

Book Review in Journal of Insanity for Howard A. Kelly's book, "Walter Reed and Yellow Fever" October 1906

This review, which appeared in "The Journal of Insanity," praises Kelly's biography of Walter Reed.

Letter from Howard A. Kelly to L.O. Howard November 1, 1906

Kelly requests to see Reed's account of the experiments, which had been mailed to Howard. A plaque for Walter Reed at King's County Hospital, in Brooklyn, will be dedicated.

Letter from L.O. Howard to Howard A. Kelly November 2, 1906

Howard sends Kelly copies of two letters from Reed.

Letter from James Carroll to Howard A. Kelly November 7, 1906

Carroll forwards Kelly two photographs. He states that he will not attend the Walter Reed Memorial Association dinner in Brooklyn.

Telegram from [Lawrence] Reed to Jefferson Randolph Kean November 11, 1906

Reed wires that Moran is employed in Panama, and thus cannot accept a position in Havana.

Letter from the Surgeon General to P. F. Harvey November 14, 1906

Harvey is asked to attend, on behalf of the Corps, the dedication of the bronze memorial tablet in honor of Walter Reed at Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn, New York. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from James Carroll to Howard A. Kelly November 15, 1906

Carroll claims that Reed, Stark, Kean, and another unnamed man colluded to promote Stark over him. He believes this was because Kean was not appointed to the Yellow Fever Board after Lazear's death.

Letter from Robert L. Dickinson to Howard A. Kelly November 23, 1906

Dickinson proposes an alteration to the text of Kelly's book concerning Brooklyn Hospital. Dickinson provides a quotation from the hospital minutes of 1871 regarding Walter Reed's appointment.

Message from the President of the United States transmitting Certain Papers in regard to Experiments Conducted for the Purpose of Coping with Yellow Fever December 5, 1906

Roosevelt, O'Reilly, and McCaw make statements about the value of the yellow fever experiments to humanity. A detailed history of the project is given, along with mention of all the individuals involved, including a listing of all the volunteers in the project. Numerous quotations are cited from various speeches and memorials dedicated to Walter Reed. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from [Howard A. Kelly] to A.S. von Mansfelde December 13, 1906

[Kelly] offers his views about the credit due Carroll. Kelly proposes to support Carroll's promotion on the basis of his merits alone without diminishing the role played by Reed.

Letter fragment from [s.n.] to [Howard A. Kelly?] December 13, 1906

Convening of Medical Legislative Council delayed; unable to meet recipient [letter incomplete].

Letter from A.S. von Mansfelde to Howard A. Kelly December 15, 1906

Von Mansfelde agrees in principle with Kelly, but will not cease promoting Carroll. He suggests Kelly write the Secretary of Agriculture and Senator Dirk.

"The Walter Reed Memorial", The Medical Record December 16, 1906

This article, which appeared in the "Medical Record," discusses efforts to erect a monument to Walter Reed.

Letter from James Carroll to Howard A. Kelly December 17, 1906

Carroll requests the return of his letter describing a post mortem exam.

Surgeon General's Office Record Card May 5, 1906

O'Reilly responds to Sterling's request for information about the career and promotion of Walter Reed. There is also concern about the article “The Public's Forgetfulness” which will be forwarded to the President. The record card is dated from May 5, 1906 to August 15, 1906.[Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Howard A. Kelly to A.S. von Mansfelde circa 1906

Kelly will help Carroll, but not to the detriment of Reed. Kelly asks von Mansfelde to send him any worthy names for a Cyclopedia of American Medical Biography that he is compiling.

Letter from James Carroll to Howard A. Kelly January 6, 1907

Carroll sends a note of gratitude for Kelly's letter to Secretary Wilson.

Issue of The Youth's Companion January 10, 1907

Includes Howard Atwood Kelley's article, The Lesson of Little Things: The Conquest of Yellow Fever.

Minutes from the Conference of the Committee on Medical Legislation and the National Legislation Council of the American Medical Association January 12, 1907

These minutes include a discussion of the failure of Congress to pass a bill to provide financial relief to James Carroll's family.

Facsimile of letter from Theodore Roosevelt to William H. Taft January 22, 1907

Roosevelt advocates establishment of peace and order in Cuba, and rejects the idea of a U.S. protectorate there. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from T.D. Berry to Editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association February 1, 1907

Berry claims Roger P. Ames had important role in the yellow fever experiments.

Senate Report No. 6009, James Carroll February 2, 1907

This report concerns James Carroll.

Letter from John J. Moran to Howard A. Kelly February 15, 1907

Moran provides his autobiography, including his experiences as a participant in the yellow fever experiments.

Letter from N.P. Stewart to Howard A. Kelly February 20, 1907

Stewart praises Kelly's book. He suggests corrections for clarification, and notes that he would emphasize the role of the Public Health Service.

Letter from John S. Fulton to Howard A. Kelly with enclosed clipping 1907

Letter from John S. Fulton to Howard A. Kelly February 25, 1907

Fulton encloses an editorial proof from the Maryland Medical Journal in support of the Carroll pension bill.

"The Promotion of James Carroll" circa 1907

This editorial lauds Carroll's achievements and supports the funding of a pension for his widow.

Telegram from James Carroll to Howard A. Kelly [telegram; article fragment] circa March 11, 1907

The telegram deals with the James Carroll's promotion to Major, and is then followed by a biographical article about him. [missing pages 1 - 3 of 5].

Letter from Robert M. O'Reilly to S. C. Meade March 13, 1907

O'Reilly informs Meade that the Walter Reed Memorial Fund has increased Emilie Lawrence Reed's pension, that James Carroll has been promoted to Major, and that Mabel H. Lazear has been minimally compensated for her husband's work. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from John J. Moran to Roger Post Ames March 14, 1907

Letter relates to the amount of money offered to Moran for volunteering to participate in the yellow fever experiment.

Letter from E.R. Dean to Howard A. Kelly April 2, 1907

Dean writes about the financial and physical condition of Kissinger (a yellow fever experiment patient) and discusses a pension bill for him in Congress.

"A Hero from the Ranks", Outlook June 29, 1907

The article, which appeared in "Outlook," outlines Kissinger's contribution to the yellow fever work and appeals for financial contributions for his care.

Letter from S. Solis Cohen to George M. Kober July 2, 1907

Letter relates to the credit to all those associated with the yellow fever experiments.

Letter from Mrs. Percival Chrystie to Howard A. Kelly July 2, 1907

Chrystie sends a contribution for Kissinger.

Letter from Mrs. John R. Hall to Howard A. Kelly July 4, 1907

Hall sends a contribution for Kissinger.

Letter from B.F. Rittenhouse to Howard A. Kelly July 4, 1907

Rittenhouse sends a contribution for Kissinger.

Letter from S.S. Morgan to Howard A. Kelly July 8, 1907

Morgan requests Kissinger's address and mentions the Shut-in Society, which provides wheelchairs to needy persons.

Letter from Laura Grace Jackson to Howard A. Kelly July 14, 1907

Jackson sends a contribution for Kissinger. Her husband knew Kissinger as a hospital attendant.

Letter from Orestes A.B. Senter to Howard A. Kelly July 15, 1907

Senter sends a contribution for Kissinger.

Letter from Mrs. John A. Hall to [s.n.] Murphy July 26, 1907

Hall sends a contribution for Kissinger.

Contribution for John R. Kissinger circa 1907

This note encloses a contribution for Kissinger, and mentions the Outlook essay.

Letter from L. Osgood to Howard A. Kelly circa September 19, 1907

Osgood sends a contribution for Kissinger.

Letter from Jennie Carroll to Howard A. Kelly September 30, 1907

Carroll thanks Kelly for his letter of sympathy. She will loan him a photograph of her late husband.

Letter from John R. Kissinger to Caroline Latimer October 1, 1907

Kissinger expresses gratitude for the letters supporting him.

Letter from Harvey Cushing to Howard A. Kelly October 2, 1907

Cushing writes about plans to speak at a meeting in support of Jennie Carroll.

Letter from Jennie Carroll to Caroline Latimer October 4, 1907

Carroll thanks Latimer for her sympathy. She notes additional speakers for the meeting at Johns Hopkins.

Letter from J.O. Skinner to Howard A. Kelly October 9, 1907

Skinner writes that he will attend a meeting at the Maryland Club. He expresses his sentiments for Carroll.

Letter from A.F.A. King to William N. Hill October 9, 1907

King comments on the Maryland Club meeting and thanks Hill for some literature on drainage.

Letter from William N. Hill to Howard A. Kelly October 10, 1907

Hill apologizes for his and King's absence from the Maryland Club meeting.

Text of speech by A.F.A King in honor of James Carroll October 14, 1907

King honors Carroll and others. He lays emphasis on his contribution to national health. He supports a pension.

Letter from H.H. Donnally to Howard A. Kelly October 17, 1907

Donnally thanks Kelly for his fairness to Carroll.

Letter from Marshall L. Price to Howard A. Kelly October 19, 1907

Price writes about Carroll's experience in the military, particularly under the command of his father. He corrects misconceptions regarding his father's role in Carroll's career.

Letter from A.F.A. King to Howard A. Kelly October 21, 1907

King responds to questions regarding publications of the Philosophical Society. He makes reference to a Smithsonian Institution report.

Letter from Howard A. Kelly to Juan Guiteras October 26, 1907

Kelly requests permission to publish a letter from Carroll stating that Guiteras refused permission to take blood for the yellow fever experiments. Guiteras responds - in a autograph note on the same document - that he had no authority to permit or prevent Carroll from proceeding as he wished.

Military History of Hospital Steward James Carroll October 1907

This document describes Carroll's various postings, beginning in September 1883, and includes evaluations of his performance by several commanding officers. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

List of contributors to the Kissinger Relief Fund circa 1907

This document gives names and contribution amounts for the Kissinger Relief Fund.

Letter from A.S. von Mansfelde to Howard A. Kelly November 6, 1907

Von Mansfelde requests a copy of the program for the Carroll Memorial Dinner and a copy of the letter von Mansfelde wrote Kelly regarding Carroll's promotion. Von Mansfelde adds that he is continuing to work for pensions for the widows of Lazear and Carroll.

Letter to Carolyn H. Booth from [Caroline Latimer?] December 6, 1907

The writer acknowledges the receipt of a letter concerning Kissinger's pension increase. Kelly awaits instructions for further assistance.

Letter from William N. Hill to [Howard A. Kelly?] December 7, 1907

Hill comments on a strategy to lobby Congress for pension bills.

Letter from Carolyn H. Booth to Howard A. Kelly December 10, 1907

Booth notes the actions taken for Kissinger's pension and her attentions to the Kissinger family.

Fiebre Amarilla: Instrucciones Populares Para Evitar Su Transmision y Propagacion December 1907

This pamphlet details preventative measures against yellow fever, especially the control of mosquitos.

Letters from John R. Kissinger and Ida E. Kissinger to Howard A. Kelly March 1907-November 1907

Letter from John R. Kissinger to Howard A. Kelly March 8, 1907

Kissinger requests an article on yellow fever experimentation from Kelly.

Letter from John R. Kissinger to Howard A. Kelly March 20, 1907

Kissinger writes about his improved finances, his ill health, and his gratitude for the many contributions.

Letter from John R. Kissinger to Howard A. Kelly April 1, 1907

Kissinger thanks Kelly for his financial support.

Correspondence relating to attempts to secure a pension for John R. Kissinger 1907

Letter from Merritte W. Ireland to Howard A. Kelly April 2, 1907

Ireland writes that the New York Merchants' Association will offer assistance to Mabel H. Lazear. Ireland also discusses Kissinger.

Letter from Carolyn H. Booth to Howard A. Kelly July 17, 1907

Booth offers assistance to the Kissinger family.

Letter from Edwin Denby to Howard A. Kelly August 15, 1907

Denby makes a contribution to the fund for Kissinger. As a member of Congress, he offers to introduce a bill in the House of Representatives. Included at the end of the letter is a reply from [Kelly] to Denby, on September 4, 1907, thanking him for his contribution.

Correspondence of Jennie Wilson on behalf of John R. Kissinger 1907

Letter from Jennie Wilson to the Editor of Youth's Companion January 21, 1907

Wilson writes to the Editor concerning the situation of Kissinger. She hopes that something can be done for him.

Letter from John R. Kissinger to Jennie Wilson January 30, 1907

Kissinger provides Wilson with his address and relates his circumstances.

Letter from Jennie Wilson to Howard A. Kelly March 2, 1907

Wilson relays Kissinger's situation to Kelly.

Surgeon General's Office Record Card January 25, 1907-August 15, 1907

The record card includes several requests for photographs or paintings of Reed, along with information regarding his uniform. The record card is dated from January 25, 1907 through August 15, 1907. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Simon Flexner to Howard A. Kelly January 4, 1908

Flexner has copied one of Walter Reed's letters for Kelly.

Letters from Marshall Price to Howard A. Kelly circa February 1908

Letter from Marshall Price to Howard A. Kelly circa February 1908

Price thanks Kelly for submitting a deposition in support of a pension for Jennie Carroll.

Letter from Marshall L. Price to Howard A. Kelly February 4, 1908

Price requests that Kelly make a deposition in support of a pension for Jennie Carroll.

Method of the Spread of Yellow Fever April 15, 1908

Gorgas presents an article to the Canal Zone Medical Association on work done in Cuba and Panama to eradicate yellow fever.

"El Estado Sanitario de Cuba" April 15, 1908

Spanish translation of article, by Dr. Darlington, originally appearing in the “New York Daily News.”

Letter from Robert M. O'Reilly to the Secretary of War May 22, 1908

O'Reilly confirms that his office has no objection to the approval of a bill that proposes increasing the pensions being provided for Jennie Carroll and Mabel H. Lazear. The letter is accompanied by a partial copy of Report No. 431 of the 60th Congress, which specifies the rationale for the proposed bill. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Extracts from "An Account of Dr. Louis-Daniel Beauperthuy: A Pioneer in Yellow Fever Research", "Boston Medical and Surgical Journal", by Aristides Agramonte and Mosquito or Man?, by Sir Robert Boyce June 11, 1908

The extracts from Agramonte's article detail Beauperthuy's work with mosquitos as disease vectors. The extracts from Boyce's report [in French] also deal with mosquitos and their connections to yellow fever.

Letter from John R. and Ida E. Kissinger to Caroline Latimer June 14, 1908

The Kissingers fear they may have offended Kelly.

Letter from Charles E. Magoon to J.W. Amesse June 30, 1908

Magoon urges Amesse to support an end to the quarantine of Cuba, arguing that there is no danger to the United States.

Letter from [s.n.] to F.M. Wilmot June, 1908

The writer asks Wilmot to consider supplementing Kissinger's pension.

Letter from William Crawford Gorgas to Robert M. O'Reilly July 21, 1908

Gorgas writes to O'Reilly concerning the administrative reorganizations in the Panama Canal Zone. He offers a political analysis of the situation.

Circular [in English and Spanish] from Carlos J. Finlay to the Local Sanitary Officers of Cuba July 22, 1908

Finlay discusses recent cases of yellow fever, in Santiago and Daiquiri, in order to quell rumors of massive outbreaks.

Letter from Harold C. Ernst to William H. Welch October 30, 1908

Ernst seeks advice on the status of the Carnegie Hero Fund application for Kissinger.

Letter from Harold C. Ernst to Howard A. Kelly November 27, 1908

Ernst seeks Kelly's advice in order to organize a campaign in support of Kissinger.

Letter from W.W. Keen to Howard A. Kelly December 12, 1908

Keen requests information on all those who volunteered for the yellow fever experiments.

"Major James Carroll of the United States Army" 1908

Hemmeter gives a chronological account of all the work done by Carroll with regard to yellow fever, and includes a series of letters written by Carroll to his wife, to Walter Reed, and to several others. Hemmeter attempts to rectify what he sees as a lack of proper recognition or reward to Carroll and his family for the part he played in determining the cause of yellow fever.

Letters from John R. Kissinger and Ida E. Kissinger to Howard A. Kelly March 1908-June 1908

Letter from John R. and Ida E. Kissinger to Howard A. Kelly February 9, 1908

The Kissingers inform Kelly of their poor financial situation and John Kissinger's failing health.

Letter from John R. and Ida E. Kissinger to Howard A. Kelly June 28, 1908

The Kissingers are concerned that they have somehow offended Kelly.

Letter from John R. and Ida E. Kissinger to Howard A. Kelly May 24, 1908

The Kissingers inform Kelly that they have moved to a less expensive house. John Kissinger's health continues to worsen.

Letters from Caroline Latimer concerning John Kissinger June 1908-November 1908

Letter from Caroline Latimer to Howard A. Kelly June 15, 1908

Latimer writes about assistance for the Kissingers and possible strategy for applying to the Carnegie Fund.

Letter from Caroline Latimer to Howard A. Kelly circa June 18, 1908

Latimer agrees that Kelly and herself should stop supporting the Kissingers, but she still wants to find alternative sources of income for them.

Letter from Caroline Latimer to Howard A. Kelly November 19, 1908

Latimer writes that it may be necessary to appeal directly to Andrew Carnegie himself on behalf of the Kissingers.

Correspondence relating to a biographical notice of James Carroll written by Howard A. Kelly February 1908-March 1908

Letter from Frederick V. Coville to Howard A. Kelly February 17, 1908

Coville asks Kelly to write an obituary of Carroll for the Washington Academy of Sciences.

Letter from Frederick V. Coville to Howard A. Kelly March 14, 1908

Coville thanks Kelly for writing an obituary of Carroll for the Washington Academy of Sciences.

Obituary fragment of James Carroll circa 1908

This is an incomplete, hand-corrected draft of an obituary of James Carroll, written for the Washington Academy of Sciences.

Documents in Matter of Quarantine Against Yellow Fever in Cuba 1908

This pamphlet contains letters bearing on yellow fever conditions in Cuba.

Materials relating to James Carroll 1908-1954

Letter from Wilbert W. White to Howard A. Kelly May 21, 1908

White thanks Kelly for the reprint of his address on Carroll.

Program from the University of Maryland Academic Day November 11, 1908

Welch is listed as having given a speech honoring Carroll. A bronze tablet memorializing Carroll was also unveiled.

Statement in support of Carlos J. Finlay and Aristides Agramonte for Nobel Prize in Medicine circa 1907

The report argues in support of nominating Finlay and Agramonte for the Nobel Prize in Medicine. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Surgeon General's Office Record Card December 10, 1908

The record card cites a request from Hunt for a copy of a photograph of Reed for use in a lecture “The Story of Two Mosquitoes.”

Correspondence of James Evelyn Pilcher 1901-1909

Letter from James Evelyn Pilcher to Howard A. Kelly January 5, 1909

Pilcher encloses a letter from Carroll, written in 1901.

Letter from James Carroll to James Evelyn Pilcher November 26, 1901

Carroll thanks Pilcher for mentoring him early in his career.

Letter from Harold C. Ernst to Caroline Latimer February 10, 1909

Ernst discusses difficulties involving Carnegie funding for the Kissingers.

"The Relief of Dr. Carroll's Widow" and a related editorial 1909

"The Relief of Dr. Carroll's Widow", Journal of the American Medical Association April 3, 1909

This article makes an appeal for monetary contributions to James Carroll's surviving family.

Editorial from The Military Surgeon circa 1909

The editor praises the work of Reed, Lazear, Carroll and Agramonte as having laid the foundation for all future efforts against yellow fever and malaria. Carroll is singled out for commendation and called a martyr.

Letter from Ida E. Kissinger to Howard A. Kelly July 20, 1909

Ida Kissinger thanks Kelly for the photograph of his family. John Kissinger's health is improving.

Surgeon General's Office Record Card June 2, 1909

The Surgeon General's office sends a photograph of Reed to Purcell and refers him to Kelly's book. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to John R. Kissinger April 23, 1910

Agramonte informs Kissinger that he has written to members of the United States Congress on his behalf.

Extract from "Dr. Osler's Address on "The Nation and the Tropics" and Dr. Finlay", by Juan Guiteras April 1910

This extract, by Guiteras, discusses Finlay's work on yellow fever and his association with the U.S. Yellow Fever Commission.

Senate Bill No. 8024 May 2, 1910

This bill proposes a statue and tablet to honor the members of the Yellow Fever Commission.

Senate Document No. 520 April 29, 1910

This document describes in detail the appointment and work of the Yellow Fever Commission and includes an autographed note by Kean.

Letter from Juan Guiteras to the Surgeon General May 18, 1910

Guiteras informs the Surgeon General that they have seemingly overlooked the work of Taylor when listing those involved with the yellow fever investigation, and urges him to have Taylor's name included.

Letter from Charles [Caverico] to Howard A. Kelly May 23, 1910

[Caverico] compliments Kelly on his book, Walter Reed and Yellow Fever.

Letter from the Office of the Surgeon General to Juan Guiteras May 24, 1910

The Surgeon General requests more information from Guiteras on Taylor. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Records of the Surgeon General's office relating to a publication honoring Walter Reed and the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission January 12, 1911-September 12, 1911

Records regard the publication of “Major Walter Reed and the Yellow Fever Commission - A Compilation.” The Smithsonian Institution requests photographs of Walter Reed. The record card is dated January 12, 1911 through September 12, 1911. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Notes on the Stegomyia Mosquito circa 1900-1930

The writer believes Cuba should not be quarantined until yellow fever appears again.

Payroll notes from [Canal Zone?] circa 1905-1940

This list gives names and salaries.

Letter from Ida E. Kissinger to James E. Peabody February 15, 1912

Ida Kissinger sends photographs for Peabody's lecture and mentions Kelly's book. The Kissingers appreciate all the help given to them. They also provide Agramonte's address in Havana.

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to Dr. Santos with English translation February 22, 1912

English translation [from Spanish] of letter from Aristides Agramonte to Dr. Santos February 22, 1912

Strategy in application and nomination for Nobel Prize. In Spanish with an English translation.

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to Dr. Santos February 22, 1912

Strategy in application and nomination for Nobel Prize. In Spanish with an English translation.

Letter from Bessie C. Wratten to Emilie Lawrence Reed March 27, 1912

Wratten informs Emilie Lawrence Reed that her husband will offer assistance with her writing.

Letter from George M. Wratten to Emilie Lawrence Reed April 1, 1912

Wratten sends Emilie Lawrence Reed transliterations of [song?] titles.

Letter from Joseph B. Bishop to John J. Moran August 12, 1912

Bishop requests a photograph of Moran from the yellow fever experiment years to be used in an article in Scribner's Magazine.

Letters from Caroline Latimer to [s.n.] Waterson September 25, 1912-September 26, 1912

Letter from Caroline Latimer to [s.n.] Waterson September 25, 1912

Latimer elaborates the differences between the first and second editions of the book: Walter Reed and Yellow Fever.

Letter from Caroline Latimer to [s.n.] Waterson September 26, 1912

Latimer writes to Waterson regarding Kissinger's pension.

Letter from George H. Torney to the Director of the Yellow Fever Bureau December 7, 1912

Torney reports that Agramonte has requested that a statement published in the Yellow Fever Bureau Bulletin be corrected. Torney explains how he believes the apparent injustice occurred, and requests the correction on behalf of the Office of the Surgeon General.

Records of the Surgeon General's office relating to correspondence between William T. Jenkins and Randolph Jefferson Kean March 27, 1912

These excerpts regard the correspondence between William T. Jenkins and Jefferson Randolph Kean, and the confusion of Jenkins' mailing address. The record card is dated March 27, 1912 through April 20, 1912. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Rupert Blue to Henry Rose Carter August 4, 1913

Blue orders Carter to North Carolina to investigate malaria and propose control measures.

Records of the Surgeon General's Office relating to the military career of Walter Reed 1913

Records of the Surgeon General's Office relating to biographies and memorials for Walter Reed January 20, 1913

Excerpts from a record card pertain to the biographies of Walter Reed, as well as to the discussion of a monument to commemorate the completion of the Panama Canal that should include Walter Reed. The record card is dated from January 20, 1913 through June 28, 1913. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from George H. Torney 1913

Torney wants to inspect the painting of Walter Reed when it is on exhibition in Washington, D. C. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Charles M. Gandy to Simon Flexner October 15, 1913

Gandy discusses the various photographs of Walter Reed that are suitable for hanging at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Joseph A. Le Prince to Henry Rose Carter with pamphlet 1914-1915

Pamphlet relates to drainage law of the State of South Carolina.

Memorandum of interview with William Crawford Gorgas, by Wickliffe Rose July 14, 1914

Rose and Gorgas discuss the relative severity of ankylostomiasis and malaria in Malaya, as well as plans to eradicate yellow fever worldwide.

Materials from the U.S. House of Representatives relating to promotions for military officers who were members of the Isthmian Canal Commission July 27, 1914

Union Calendar No. 297 H.R. 16510 May 13, 1914

This bill recognizes the services of certain military officers of the Isthmian Canal Commission.

House of Representatives Report No. 1022 July 27, 1914

This report recognizes officers whose work was instrumental in the construction of the Panama Canal.

Letter from George W. Goethals to John J. Moran November 18, 1915

Goethals provides Moran with a transcript of Moran's service record and acknowledges his resignation from the Health Department.

Records of the Surgeon General's Office relating to the military career of Walter Reed 1915

Letter to Daniel Witwer Weaver August 14, 1915

Weaver is informed of Kelly's biography of Walter Reed. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from [William Crawford Gorgas] to N. M. Miller November 26, 1915

Gorgas informs Miller that a painting of Walter Reed has been approved and will be hung in the Walter Reed General Hospital. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from the Chief Clerk of the Surgeon's General's Office to N. M. Miller circa December 4, 1915

Permission is sought to photograph the painting of Walter Reed recently completed by Miller. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from the Chief Quarantine Officer to [Rupert Blue] February 13, 1916

The Chief Quarantine Officer relates information on a case of yellow fever and notes disagreement over the diagnosis.

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to William Crawford Gorgas May 9, 1916

Agramonte informs Gorgas that all his reports about the Yellow Fever Commission are completely accurate and can be proven, and that he believes he will never receive proper recognition for his contribution. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

English translation of article from Diario Illustrado regarding the American Sanitary Commission June 26, 1916

This article, translated into English, addresses the involvement of the American Sanitary Commission in Central and South America, and the political ramifications of its actions.

Letter from the Secretary of War to President of the Senate with enclosed bill May 1916-June 1916

Letter from the Secretary of War to the President of the Senate June 29, 1916

The Commission of Fine Arts and the Chairman of the House Committee on the Library disapprove of the monument to Reed, Carroll, Lazear, and Agramonte. They suggest a memorial fountain instead. Included is a copy of Senate Bill #6067. [Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration]

Letter from Joseph A. LePrince to J.E.S. Thorpe September 13, 1916

Le Prince discusses the treatment of a lake shore, in North Carolina, in order to reduce the number of anopheles mosquitos.

Letter from Robert Wilson, Jr. to Hagood, Rivers and Young September 30, 1916

Wilson relates findings that timbering in the Little Salkehatchie did not increase prevalence of malaria.

Preparedness for National Defense: Hearings Before the Committee on Military Affairs United States Senate, Part 14 1916

Includes testimony of Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas before Congress concerning the preparation of the U.S. Army medical corps for possible participation in World War I.

Report on Anopheles and Malarial Fever Survey on and within (3) Miles of the Pond of Stevens Creek Dam on Savannah River, by T.H.D. Grifitts circa 1916

Griffitts describes a house-to-house search to determine the number and type of mosquitoes, as well as the number of people stricken with malaria.

Letter from W.O. Reed to Jefferson Randolph Kean January 12, 1918

Reed informs Kean of an incident involving two privates in the ambulance service, Army Medical Corps.

Letter from Isabel Riva to R.C. Derivaux December 6, 1918

Riva explains the difficulties of using postal cards for collecting statistical data.

Military records relating to John J. Moran 1918

Telegram from [H.P.] McCain to John J. Moran May 27, 1918

McCain informs Moran of his appointment as captain in the Quartermaster Corps.

Special Orders No. 124 from Peyton C. March May 27, 1918

Moran is ordered to report to New York City.

Special Orders No. 124 from Peyton C. March May 27, 1918

Moran is ordered to report to New York City.

Program from the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine June 17, 1919

This program includes a symposium on yellow fever featuring presentations by Noguchi, Elliott, Carter, White, Pareja, Lebredo and Guiteras.

Letter from H.J. Nichols to the Members of the American Society of Tropical Medicine July 4, 1919

Nichols encourages members to support the Society, which lapsed during the World War I.

Letter from J.A. Ulio to John J. Moran August 21, 1919

Ulio commends Moran for his work in the Quartermaster Corps during the war.

Character references for John J. Moran August 21, 1919

Harold Sorenson and R.P. Harbold describe Moran's service in the army.

Letter from J.E.S. Thorpe to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries September 3, 1919

Thorpe seeks a recommendation for the best top-minnow species to use in the Yadkin River (Badin, North Carolina) for mosquito control.

Letter from H.M. Smith to J.E.S. Thorpe September 9, 1919

Smith recommends a species of top minnow for mosquito control, as well as useful publications dealing with mosquitos.

Letter from T.H.D. Griffitts to Lunsford D. Fricks October 21, 1920

Griffitts writes about the anopheles survey at Badin, North Carolina.

Excerpts from George Miller Sternberg: A Biography, by Martha L. Sternberg 1920

This document includes excerpts from Sternberg's biography of her husband's involvement with tropical diseases, including yellow fever.

Letter from Ronald Ross to Henry Young & Sons February 7, 1921

Ross sends a photograph of himself for Kelly. He provides a journal reference for his work on malaria.

Letter from Wenceslao Pareja to Wickliffe Rose May 29, 1921

Pareja, in this letter translated from Spanish to English, writes to Rose regarding his appointment as Director of Health. He details efforts taken to eliminate yellow fever.

Correspondence of Henry Hanson March 1921-September 1921

Letter from Henry Hanson to the Director of Public Health March 30, 1921

Hanson writes about the inappropriate handling of vaccine.

Letter from John P. Corrigan to Henry Hanson August 13, 1921

Corrigan describes inspections of various Peruvian sites for yellow fever eradication.

Cablegram from Henry Hanson to the International Health Board September 5, 1921

This is a cablegram with a translated cipher. It concerns funding for health inspectors in the Panama Canal Zone.

Letter from Henry Hanson to Florence M. Read February 21, 1922

Hanson describes the work of the sanitary campaign against yellow fever in Peru, naming physicians and surveyors.

Letter from H. McG. Robertson to Hugh S. Cumming May 9, 1922

Robertson proposes a study of fleas and bubonic plague in Boston, Philadelphia or Baltimore, Savannah, and New Orleans.

Miscellaneous correspondence of Howard A. Kelly with related materials 1922

Letter from Henry Rose Carter to Philip A. Bruce June 24, 1922

Carter offers a correction to Bruce's “History of the University of Virginia.“

Letter from Howard A. Kelly to William H. Welch October 7, 1922

Kelly solicits corrections or clarifications for a new edition of his book, “Walter Reed and Yellow Fever.“

Letter from Howard A. Kelly to William H. Welch October 7, 1922

Kelly solicits corrections or clarifications for a new edition of his book, “Walter Reed and Yellow Fever.“

"Editorial: William Crawford Gorgas" March 1925

This editorial concerns Marie Gorgas' biography of her husband. The editor comments on the claims made concerning Gorgas' yellow fever work.

Book reviews for William Crawford Gorgas: His Life and Work and clippings related to William Crawford Gorgas 1925-1949

Book reviews for William Crawford Gorgas: His Life and Work in The Panama Times circa 1925

This review, by an unnamed critic, concentrates on the claims surrounding Gorgas' yellow fever work.

Book review for William Crawford Gorgas: His Life and Work in the Journal of the American Medical Association May 9, 1925

This review, which appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association, is critical of some of the accomplishments attributed to William Crawford Gorgas by Marie Gorgas and Hendrick.

Letter from Joseph F. Siler to Emilie Lawrence Reed with enclosed article January 28, 1926

Letter from J. F. Siler to Emilie Lawrence Reed January 28, 1926

Siler sends Emilie Reed a manuscript he has submitted to Hygeia, the health journal of the American Medical Association, on Walter Reed and yellow fever.

Original Contributions to the Science of Medicine by Medical Officers of the Army. Walter Reed and Yellow Fever circa 1926

Siler's manuscript describes 19th century yellow fever epidemics in the United States, theories of yellow fever transmission, and the contribution of Reed in proving mosquito transmission.

Letters from Harry M. Carroll to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 1926

Letter from Harry M. Carroll to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 4, 1926

Carroll makes an appeal to the medical profession to make Walter Reed's birthplace a national shrine.

Letter from Harry M. Carroll to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 9, 1926

Carroll informs Emilie Lawrence Reed that the Medical Society of Virginia will address his proposal to make Walter Reed's birthplace a national shrine.

Letters from Harry M. Carroll to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 1926-July 1926

Letter from Harry M. Carroll to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 1, 1926

Carroll plans to write a magazine article on Walter Reed.

Letter from Harry M. Carroll to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 9, 1926

Carroll discusses plans to make Walter Reed's birthplace a national shrine. He receives permission from Emilie Lawrence Reed to mention the pension debate in his magazine article.

Letter from Benjamin C. Gruenberg to Howard A. Kelly September 9, 1926

Gruenberg seeks Kelly's advice on establishing an additional pension for Kissinger.

Letter from Charles Whitebread to Emilie Lawrence Reed September 10, 1926

Whitebread requests that Emilie Lawrence Reed donate some of Walter Reed's personal effects for an exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution.

Letter from John R. Kissinger to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 18, 1926

Kissinger relates his story and political difficulties in obtaining financial support.

Letter from James E. Peabody to Howard A. Kelly with related materials November 1926

Letter from James E. Peabody to Howard A. Kelly November 22, 1926

Peabody has received Kelly's new edition of Walter Reed and Yellow Fever. He sends Kelly materials concerning pensions for Kissinger and the Yellow Fever Commission widows.

Letter from Charles Inman and Elizabeth Fitzpatrick to James E. Watson November 22, 1926

Representatives of the New York Association of Biology Teachers petition Sen. Watson to seek Congressional action on pensions for Kissinger and widows of Yellow Fever Commission participants.

Letter from James E. Peabody to Friends of the Yellow Fever Heroes of 1900 November 15, 1926

Peabody describes efforts to obtain pensions for Kissinger and for widows of Yellow Fever Commission participants.

Fragment of minutes from a meeting of the Medical Society of the District of Columbia November 3, 1926

This agenda concerns a proposal to raise money for a Walter Reed chair at the University of Virginia and the restoration of the Walter Reed birthplace.

Letter from James E. Peabody to Howard A. Kelly January 16, 1928

Peabody informs Kelly of the progress of the yellow fever pension proposal. He seeks photographs for a lecture.

Letter from Clyde F. Karshner to Emilie Lawrence Reed January 22, 1927

Karshner thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for materials she sent concerning Walter Reed.

Correspondence between James E. Peabody, Howard A. Kelly, and Ida E. Kissinger February 7, 1927

Letter from James E. Peabody to Howard A. Kelly February 7, 1927

Peabody writes about the failure of government assistance for Kissinger. The Association of Biology Teachers has also been unable to help.

Letter from James E. Peabody to Howard A. Kelly April 2, 1927

Peabody writes about circulating the “Yellow Fever Story of Heroism“ to high schools and colleges.

Letter from Lillian M. Elliot to Emilie Lawrence Reed with enclosed student essays March 1927-April 1927

Letter from Lillian M. Elliott to Emilie L. Reed April 11, 1927

Elliott informs Mrs. Reed of a talk on Walter Reed by James Peabody, and encloses two student papers on Reed.

A Hero April 11, 1927

A student paper defines heroism.

Types of Heroes March 29, 1927

A student paper defines heroism.

Letter from R.W. Kerr to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 21, 1927

Kerr thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for her gift of a rose bush.

Letter from Ida E. Kissinger and John R. Kissinger to James E. Peabody June 7, 1927

The Peabody Fund has donated a house to the Kissingers.

Letters from a biology class of Johnson High School to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 8, 1927

Letter from a biology class of Johnson High School to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 8, 1927

The students thank Emilie Lawrence Reed for Walter Reed's work and sacrifice.

Letter from Alicilla M. Murran to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa June 15, 1927

Murran and her students thank Emilie Lawrence Reed for Walter Reed's work and sacrifice.

Letter from Margaret Deland to James E. Peabody June 8, 1927

Deland thanks Peabody for his work for Kissinger. She offers to lobby Congress and sends a check to Ida Kissinger.

Letters from Sally Lucas Jean and Maud MacLachlan to Emilie Lawrence ReedJune 1927

Letter from Sally L. Jean to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 14, 1927

Jean requests Emilie Lawrence Reed's help in creating an educational film strip on Walter Reed.

Letter from Maud MacLachlan to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 20, 1927

MacLachlan writes about a high school memorial day in honor of Walter Reed.

Letter from Paul de Kruif to J. F. Siler June 23 1927

De Kruif informs Siler of a play about the Yellow Fever Commission.

Letters from the students of Woodrow Wilson Jr. High School to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 1927

Letter from Edith R. Force to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 6, 1927

Force introduces letters from her students responding to a lesson about Walter Reed and the Yellow Fever Commission.

Letter from Jack Smittle to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 1, 1927

This letter, written by a student of Edith R. Force, thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for the life and work of Walter Reed.

Letter from Estelle Adamson to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 31, 1927

This letter, written by a student of Edith R. Force, thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for the life and work of Walter Reed.

Letter from Ida E. and John R. Kissinger to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 1, 1927

The Kissingers thank Emilie Lawrence Reed for the gift of a painting.

Letter from [James E. Peabody] to [s.n.] Mallock July 8, 1927

[Peabody] informs Mallock of various projects, including a film strip on Walter Reed and a newspaper story on Kissinger.

Correspondence between Robert F. Nelson and Jefferson Randolph Kean with related materials July 1927-August 1927

Letter from Robert F. Nelson to Jefferson Randolph Kean July 20, 1927

Nelson sends a photograph of Walter Reed's birthplace and text on its dedication as a national shrine.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Robert F. Nelson August 25, 1927

Kean rejects Nelson's article on the grounds of inaccuracies. Kean informs him of the Walter Reed Memorial Association's work and Peabody's efforts to lobby Congress for pension increases for the survivors.

Biography of Walter Reed by Elizabeth Kosslow circa 1920-1930

Kosslow writes a succinct but vivid account of Walter Reed's life, dealing with his work on typhoid and yellow fever.

Letter from A.S. Hardy to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 25, 1927

Hardy requests information on Walter Reed. He wants to make Reed's birthplace a national shrine.

Letters from James Luther Kibler to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 1927

Letter from J. Luther Kibler to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 4, 1927

Kibler requests information on Walter Reed for a newspaper article relative to the dedication of Walter Reed's birthplace.

Letter from J. Luther Kibler to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 13, 1927

Kibler informs Emilie Lawrence Reed that the dedication ceremony has been rescheduled.

Letter from J. Luther Kibler to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 19, 1927

Kibler thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for the clippings she provided regarding Walter Reed.

Letter from A.S. Hardy to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 10, 1927

Hardy offers a strategy for publicizing the pension campaign.

Letter from Clarence P. Jones to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 13, 1927

Jones examines the restored house, in Belroi, and asks when Emilie Lawrence Reed would be available for a dedication ceremony.

Letter from J. Luther Kibler to Emilie Lawrence Reed September 1, 1927

Kibler requests an outline of Walter Reed's life, from Brooklyn to Cuba. He will send Emilie Lawrence Reed a photograph of the restored house in Belroi.

Letter from A.S. Hardy to Emilie Lawrence Reed September 23, 1927

Hardy expresses continued interest in lobbying Congress for the pension campaign.

Letter from Alfred P. Upshur to Emilie Lawrence Reed September 26, 1927

Upshur sends Emilie Lawrence Reed photographs of Belroi and Blue Ridge Summit.

Letter to Jack [s.n.] with a business card September 1927

Letter to Jack [s.n.] September 28, 1927

The writer discusses an entry, in the National Cyclopedia of American Biography, on his unidentified father.

Letter from Ida E. and John R. Kissinger to Emilie Lawrence Reed October 17, 1927

The Kissingers thank Emilie Lawrence Reed for inviting them to the Belroi dedication.

Additions to an article in the Military Surgeon October 1927

The writer corrects the date of the commencement of mosquito eradication in Havana.

Letters from Lawrence T. Royster to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 1927

Letter from Lawrence T. Royster to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 6, 1927

Royster will send Emilie Lawrence Reed copies of his remarks from the dedication of Walter Reed' birthplace.

Letter from Lawrence T. Royster to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 12, 1927

Royster clarifies his statement regarding Walter Reed's biography.

Letter fragment to Margaret Deland January 16, 1928

The writer informs Deland that he is continuing to lobby Congress for the pension bill.

Articles and pamphlets relating to pensions for participants in the yellow fever experiments February 15, 1928

Should the United States Correct This Ingratitude? February 15, 1928

The author discusses the resolution brought before Congress to honor and to compensate all those who volunteered as subjects in the yellow fever experiments.

Yellow Fever circa 1920-1930

The American Association for Medical Progress briefly outlines the history of yellow fever and the Yellow Fever Commission, and concludes that animal experimentation is crucial in order to save human lives.

The yellow fever honor roll and a chronology o the yellow fever work in Cuba between 1899 and 1900 February 16, 1928

The Yellow Fever Roll of Honor February 16, 1928

The Roll of Honor lists the Yellow Fever Commission members, Reed experiment volunteers and persons involved in the Gorgas-Guiteras experiments.

Chronology of the yellow fever work in Cuba, 1899 and 1900 June 1, 1929

This chronology includes Kean's personal experiences and an autographed entry noting Reed's death, in 1902.

Letter from Henry Binley to Emilie Lawrence Reed February 17, 1928

Binley writes to Emilie Lawrence Reed regarding a lecture by Peabody on yellow fever.

Letter from Sidney Howard to Emilie Lawrence Reed February 21, 1928

Howard inquires about Walter Reed's character for his play “Yellow Jack.“

House of Representatives Bill No. 11686 March 2, 1928

This is a pension bill for the Yellow Fever Commission survivors and volunteers.

Maj. Gen. William Crawford Gorgas and the Gorgas Hospital March 1, 1928

Taylor gives a history of Ancon Hospital in Panama and the reasons why so many patients were infected with yellow fever. Taylor states that Gorgas was entirely responsible for the cleaning up of the hospitals and the Panama environs, and suggests that the name of Ancon Hospital be changed to the General Gorgas Hospital. A biographical sketch of Gorgas is included.

Letter from Marie C. Oemler to Emilie Lawrence Reed March 12, 1928

Oemler thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for the works of Walter Reed.

"The Republic Remembers", Medical Progress, by James E. Peabody March 1928

Peabody gives a brief history of the Yellow Fever Commission and discusses the pensions to be granted to the yellow fever volunteers after the passing of the Copeland-Wainwright Bill.

Letter from Winfield Scott to Howard A. Kelly April 9, 1928

Scott supplies Mabel Lazear's address and the pensions paid her by the United States Department of the Interior.

Yellow Fever: Hearing before the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, Part 1 April 11, 1928

This document contains discussion regarding the placement of names of individuals involved in the yellow fever experiments on the rolls of the war department and providing pensions to the survivors or widows of those involved. Support for the bill includes statements by Peabody, Ireland, Kean, and representatives from Congress and the Smithsonian.

House of Representatives Bill No. 13060 April 30, 1928

Congressional Bill and Report #1429 recognizes the public service of Reed and the volunteers associated with the yellow fever experiments. Biographical information is supplied in Report #1429 regarding each of the members and volunteers of the Yellow Fever Commission.

"The Easter Sunday Sunrise Service in the Amphitheater of the Walter Reed Hospital Grounds", The Washington Star April 15, 1928

Image of the Easter Sunday sunrise service in the amphitheater of the Walter Reed Hospital grounds.

Letter from Howard A. Kelly to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 12, 1928

Kelly thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for a memento of Walter Reed. He notes a greater appreciation of Walter Reed's work.

"Extension of Remarks of Hon. Schuyler O. Bland of Virginia In the House of Representatives", Congressional Record May 18, 1928

Bland speaks of the dedication of Walter Reed's birthplace, and recounts Kean's speech given at the dedication on October 15, 1927.

Letter from Simon Flexner to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 28, 1928

Flexner thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for a memento of Walter Reed.

Letter from William C. Borden to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 29, 1928

Borden thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for the memento of Walter Reed.

Letter from James E. Peabody to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 29, 1928

Peabody thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for gifts and sends her a copy of a lecture on Walter Reed.

Letter from James E. Peabody to Alvah H. Doty September 9, 1928

Peabody seeks clarification of information for a pamphlet on yellow fever for the American Museum of Natural History.

Letter from Frederick V. Coville to Emilie Lawrence Reed October 22, 1928

Coville identifies a tree specimen sent to him as a willow oak.

Letter from James E. Peabody to Howard A. Kelly November 26, 1928

Peabody thanks Kelly for the photograph and hospitality in Baltimore. He discusses strategy for lobbying Congress in regards to the pension bill.

Letter from Clarence P. Jones to Howard A. Kelly December 10, 1928

Jones thanks Kelly for the book on Walter Reed. He will send photographs of Belroi and relate the status of restoration funding.

Letter from William T. Davis to William C. Borden January 7, 1929

Davis thanks Borden for referring Emilie Lawrence Reed to him.

Why Walter Reed General Hospital Was Named and Located as It Is: An Address to Student Nurses, by P.M. Ashburn February 4, 1929

Ashburn's speech to an audience of student nurses is an overview of Reed's life and work. The piece includes an excerpt from the Surgeon General's report, 1900.

Correspondence of William A. Tansey March 1929-May 1929

Letter from William A. Tansey to Emilie Lawrence Reed March 10, 1929

Tansey's cousins will lobby a Minnesota congressman on her behalf.

Letter from William A. Tansey to Emilie Lawrence Reed April 30, 1929

Tansey sends Emilie Lawrence Reed copies of letters written on her behalf.

Letter from Charles E. Fitzgerald to William A. Tansey April 25, 1929

Fitzgerald discusses activities on behalf of Emilie Lawrence Reed and the pension bill.

Telegrams from R.C. Thompson and W.A. O'Connell to John J. Moran April 15, 1929

These telegrams congratulate Moran on receiving the Congressional Medal of Honor.

Letter from Lytton G. Ament to Emilie Lawrence Reed May 10, 1929

Ament is unable to assist Emilie Lawrence Reed at present, but expects to be able to soon.

Letter from Morris Sheppard to Jessie D. Ames May 16, 1929

Sheppard states that a bill of unspecified subject matter cannot pass.

Address of the Secretary of War, Honorable James W. Good, to the Graduating Class of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York June 13, 1929

Good, the Secretary of War, addresses the 1929 class of West Point and mentions the enrollment of Reed and Wood on the Roll of Honor.

Letters from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 1929

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 17, 1929

Kean asks Emilie Lawrence Reed to supply the dates and locations of her birth and marriage.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 20, 1929

Kean sends Emilie Lawrence Reed a copy of the new Secretary of War's speech, given at West Point.

Letter from John J. Moran to James E. Peabody July 7, 1929

Moran thanks Peabody for his efforts in campaigning for compensation for the volunteers. Moran is hesitant to grant Agramonte compensation since he is healthy and, because of being Cuban, was immune from all dangers. Also included is a brief history of Moran's involvement with the yellow fever experiments.

Letter from Frederick F. Russell to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 8, 1929

Russell writes that he knew Walter Reed and values his work. He informs her that the Rockefeller Foundation has pursued yellow fever eradication since 1918.

Letter from Merritte W. Ireland to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 23, 1929

Ireland expresses admiration for Emilie Lawrence Reed and Walter Reed.

Letters from William G. Harrison to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 1929

Letter from William G. Harrison to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 10, 1929

Harrison seeks artifacts of Walter Reed for the Vanderbilt University Medical Department.

Letter from William G. Harrison to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa 1929

Harrison thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for donating her husband's letter. He inquires if she has anything else she would like to contribute to the Vanderbilt University Medical School Museum.

Letter from Jefferson Randolph Kean to Emilie Lawrence Reed August 14, 1929

Kean vouches for Harrison and urges Emilie Lawrence Reed to make a donation to Vanderbilt University.

Letter from Elizabeth L. Ireland to Emilie Lawrence Reed circa August 22, 1929

Ireland thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for the gift and the visit to Blue Ridge Summit.

Memorandum from Jefferson Randolph Kean August 27, 1929

Kean lists the yellow fever experiment participants included in the Roll of Honor.

Letter from William G. Harrison to Emilie Lawrence Reed September 10, 1929

Harrison thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for the gift of a Bible.

Letter from Landon Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed and Blossom Reed September 1929

Letter from Landon Reed to Emilie Lawrence Reed September 14, 1929

Landon Reed writes about her husband Lawrence Reed's promotion to post inspector.

Letter from Landon Reed to Blossom Reed circa September 1929

Landon Reed writes to Blossom Reed about the family cats.

Letter from W.S. Leathers to Emilie Lawrence Reed September 30, 1929

Leathers thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for the donation of Walter Reed's letter and Bible to the Vanderbilt University Museum of Medical History.

Letter from Richard M. Hewitt to the Editor September 17, 1929

Hewitt writes about the 1878 New Orleans yellow fever outbreak and Carter's work on the transmission of yellow fever.

Letter from S.F. Blake to Emilie Lawrence Reed October 22, 1929

Blake identifies Emilie Lawrence Reed's botanical specimen.

Report of an interview with Merritte W. Ireland, by Jessie Daniel Ames October 22, 1929

According to Ames, Ireland refuses to include her deceased husband (Roger Post Ames) among the yellow fever heroes. He minimizes Ames' husband role in the yellow fever work, and advises [Jessie Daniel Ames] to give up in her attempt to have him honored.

Letter from [James E. Peabody] to Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright November 18, 1929

[Peabody] thanks Wainwright for his support of the bill to honor the yellow fever experiment participants. Peabody is delighted that Agramonte was included, and glad that Marie Gorgas was not.

Letter from C.H. Bridges to Jessie Daniel Ames November 19, 1929

Bridges provides the official military record of Roger Ames' work in Cuba.

Letter from Merritte W. Ireland to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 2, 1929

Ireland sends Emilie Lawrence Reed a map of the Fort Robinson Station, near a butte which has been named for Walter Reed.

Letter fragment from [Laura Armistead Carter] to Frederick F. Russell December 16, 1929

[Laura Carter] writes to Russell concerning her planned completion of her father's unfinished history of yellow fever.

Letter from [James E. Peabody] to George Kellogg December 18, 1929

[Peabody] reports on the status of the Congressional campaign to honor the yellow fever heroes, and enlists Kellogg's help in the effort.

Letter from [James E. Peabody] to Clara December 29, 1929

[Peabody] describes his trips related to his campaign to honor the yellow fever heroes through an Act of Congress.

National Honors for the Yellow Fever Heroes circa 1929

This report chronicles the path to recognition for the members of the Yellow Fever Board, beginning with a 1906 letter from Theodore Roosevelt.

Letter from Dorothy Blondel to John J. Moran January 13, 1930

Blondel, on behalf of the New York Association of Biology Teachers, congratulates Moran for his yellow fever work.

Letter from Patrick J. Hurley to Morris Sheppard January 29, 1930

Secretary of War Hurley summarizes Ames' service record, concluding that Ames does not merit inclusion in the yellow fever roll of honor. He suggests that Sheppard turn over any additional official papers to the War Department.

Letter from [Morris Sheppard] to Patrick J. Hurley January 31, 1930

[Sheppard] clarifies his statements regarding Ames' service with the Yellow Fever Board, in Cuba.

Letter from Morris Sheppard to Jessie Daniel Ames January 31, 1930

Sheppard informs Jessie Ames of the results of his correspondence with Secretary of War Hurley concerning her husband.

Letter from Patrick J. Hurley to Morris Sheppard February 8, 1930

Hurley confirms that Ames contracted yellow fever in Cuba, but reiterates that Ames did not take part in the actual experiments of the Yellow Fever Board.

Letter from Morris Sheppard to Jessie Daniel Ames February 11, 1930

Sheppard forwards a letter from Patrick J. Hurley, Secretary of War, to Jessie Ames, which confirms that her husband contracted yellow fever in Cuba. Sheppard writes that he will continue to work for a bill recognizing Ames' service.

Letter from C.H. Bridges to Emilie Lawrence Reed March 5, 1930

Bridges informs Emilie Lawrence Reed that Walter Reed is listed on the Roll of Honor, published in the 1930 Army Register.

Letter from Margaret H. Lower to Emilie L. Reed with enclosed program April 8, 1930

Letter from Margaret H. Lower to Emilie L. Reed April 8, 1930

Lower thanks Emilie Reed for her promised gift of a cross and vases for the nearly completed chapel at Walter Reed Hospital.

Program for the breaking ground for the memorial chapel at Walter Reed General Hospital November 11, 1929

Lower thanks Emilie Reed for her promised gift of a cross and vases for the nearly completed chapel at Walter Reed Hospital.

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to Jessie Daniel Ames with enclosed questionnaire May 27, 1930

Aristides Agramonte's answers to questions propounded by Jessie Daniel Ames May 27, 1930

Agramonte answers Mrs. Ames' questions concerning her husband's actions and responsibilities with the yellow fever board in Cuba.

Letter from Aristides Agramonte to Jessie Daniel Ames May 27, 1930

Agramonte informs Mrs. Ames about her husband's actions and responsibilities with the yellow fever board in Cuba, enclosing answers to questions she has posed.

Transcript of letter fragment from John H. Andrus circa 1930

Andrus answers questions about Ames and mentions the kindness of Lambert.

Drafts of a Memorandum for Wade Hampton Frost August 24, 1930

Memorandum for Wade Hampton Frost August 24, 1930

This document lists acknowledgments to be included in Carter's "History of Yellow Fever."

Memorandum to Wade Hampton Frost August 24, 1930

This document lists illustrative material to be included in Carter's "History of Yellow Fever," for which permissions to reproduce will be required.

Letter from Lawrence T. Royster to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 15, 1930

Royster thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for the copy of Gorgas' book and the letter to Walter Reed. He enjoyed her visit.

Letter from Margaret H. Lower to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 11, 1930

Lower informs Emilie Lawrence Reed that the Walter Reed Army Medical Center Chapel has been completed.

Letter from Lawrence T. Royster to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 24, 1930

Royster informs Emilie Lawrence Reed that he has spoken with President Alderman, of the University of Virginia, about obtaining either a portrait or a bust of Walter Reed.

Memorandum from L.O. Howard circa 1930

Howard reflects on his lifetime of work with mosquitoes. He includes a transcript of a January 13, 1901 letter from Walter Reed describing the success of Reed's experiments. A transcript of a February 20, 1902 letter from Ronald Ross discusses Ross' work in Africa.

Poems addressed to Emilie L. Reed January 20, 1931

The two poems are entitled, How It Happened and Elliott Holman.

Letter from Helen Crone Nolte to Emilie Lawrence Reed February 14, 1931

Nolte requests permission to name a son after Walter Reed.

Letter from Edwin Anderson Alderman to Emilie Lawrence Reed February 18, 1931

Alderman thanks Emilie Lawrence Reed for her gift of a replica of a Walter Reed bust by Schuler.

Letter from Gertrude B. Updegraff to Emilie Lawrence Reed March 7, 1931

Updegraff enjoyed meeting Emilie Lawrence Reed in Washington, D.C. She describes trips to Detroit, Albany, and home to Trenton, N.J.

Letters from Wilburt C. Davidson to Emilie Lawrence Reed March 1931

Letter from Wilburt C. Davison to Emilie Lawrence Reed March 9, 1931

Davison invites Emilie Lawrence Reed to attend the dedication of Duke University Hospital. He lists the wards named for distinguished physicians, including one named for Walter Reed.

Letter from Wilburt C. Davison to Emilie Lawrence Reed March 16, 1931

Davison is disappointed that Emilie Lawrence Reed cannot attend the dedication of Duke University Hospital.

Letter from Merritte W. Ireland to Albert E. Truby August 20, 1931

Ireland mentions Agramonte's death and requests that Truby and Kean write an accurate depiction of Agramonte's and Ames' work with the Yellow Fever Commission. He also describes a trip to France.

Correspondence between Emilie L. Reed to Herbert S. Hollander September 1931

Letter from Emilie Lawrence Reed to Herbert S. Hollander September 1931

Emilie Lawrence Reed expresses her appreciation for Hollander's newspaper article on Walter Reed.

Letter from Herbert S. Hollander to Emilie Lawrence Reed September 23, 1931

Hollander gratefully acknowledges Emilie Lawrence Reed's letter.

Letter from Oren Britt Brown to Emilie Lawrence Reed October 6, 1931

Brown sends Emilie Lawrence Reed an article on the Congressional gold medal awarded to Walter Reed. He has heard of the progress on Blossom's new house.

Letter from Sidney Coe Howard to Albert E. Truby December 1931

Letter from Sidney Coe Howard to Albert E. Truby December 7, 1931

Howard requests an interview with Truby to learn about Reed's character and personality for a play he is writing about the Yellow Fever Commission.

Letter from Sidney Coe Howard to Albert E. Truby December 19, 1931

Howard confirms his appointment with Truby.

Letter from Sidney Coe Howard to John J. Moran December 22, 1931

Howard requests an interview with Moran in order to inquire about the yellow fever experiments. Howard is writing a play about the work of the Yellow Fever Commission entitled "Yellow Jack."

Speech to be given at inauguration of tablet to Jesse W. Lazear at Columbia University 1931

It is likely that the speech was never delivered in public.

Letter from Sidney Coe Howard to John J. Moran January 12, 1932

Howard requests an interview with Moran.

Memorandum from Albert E. Truby to the Surgeon General March 9, 1932

Truby states his opinion, with Kean's concurrence, regarding qualifications for inclusion in the yellow fever roll of honor. He refers to the paper written by Walter Reed et al., "The Etiology of Yellow Fever - A Preliminary Note," and he recommends A.S. Pinto not be included in the roll of honor.

Draft of letter from the Secretary of War to David A. Reed March 18, 1932

The Secretary of War recommends denying the claim of A.S. Pinto, as presented in Senate Bill No. 206.

Letters from Richard B. Ritchey to Emilie Lawrence Reed June 26, 1932

Letter from Emilie Lawrence Reed to Ralph Rohrer Whittaker, Jr. 1932

Emilie Lawrence Reed thanks Whittaker for the sentiments expressed in his address "Unsung Heroes," and inquires if he knows the location of a church window dedicated to Christ, Florence Nightingale, and Walter Reed.

Letter from P.R. Hawley to Emilie Lawrence Reed October 6, 1932

Hawley invites Emilie Lawrence Reed to be the guest of honor at the American Public Health Association's annual meeting.

Letter from Sidney Coe Howard to John J. Moran January 12, 1933

Howard describes his play, "Yellow Jack." He mentions taking artistic license with his treatment of the volunteer soldiers' lives for the sake of the story.

Letter from Frederick F. Russell to Albert E. Truby January 17, 1933

Russell seeks clarification about the yellow fever experiments. He is particularly interested in whether or not Reed returned to the United States before beginning the experiments.

Letter from [Albert E. Truby] to Frederick F. Russell January 25, 1933

Truby narrates the sequence of events leading to the yellow fever experiments, noting that Walter Reed returned to United States on August 7 and came back to Cuba on October 1, 1900.

Correspondence, reports, and speeches of James E. Peabody 1933-1943

Letter from James C. Reed to James E. Peabody June 20, 1933

James Reed writes that he regrets having missed Peabody's visit. He provides information about himself and his brothers.

Letter from James C. Reed to James E. Peabody June 20, 1933

James Reed writes that he regrets having missed Peabody's visit. He provides information about himself and his brothers.

Letter from Laura Wood to James E. Peabody February 2, 1942

Wood reports to Peabody about Emilie and Blossom Reed and the illnesses of Andrus and Kissinger. She requests information about the pensions for the participants and their families.

Letter from John D. Schwieger to Albert E. Truby June 21, 1933

Schwieger, who served with Truby in Cuba, requests Truby's assistance in retaining his pension.

Letter from William F. King to John J. Moran June 22, 1933

King invites Moran to participate in a meeting of the American Public Health Association commemorating the anniversary of Walter Reed's paper, presented in 1900.

Letter from William F. King to John J. Moran August 10, 1933

King informs Moran that the date of the memorial session has been changed and urges Moran to attend.

Cablegram from John J. Moran to William F. King September 7, 1933

Moran sends word that he is unable to attend the meeting.

"Believe It Or Not ... by Ripley" 1933

Walter Reed is featured in this newspaper column.

Letter from Sidney Coe Howard to John J. Moran March 6, 1934

Howard writes that his play opens tonight and discusses the changes he has made.

Letter from Robert U. Patterson to John J. Moran June 13, 1934

Patterson thanks Moran for the donation of his yellow fever certificate to the Army Medical Library.

Letter from Walter De Blois Briggs to Sidney Coe Howard July 23, 1934

Briggs, Jesse Lazear's son-in-law, congratulates Howard on his play. He offers a correction concerning Private Dean's willingness to participate in the experiment.

Issue of American Explorer July 1934

Contains an article relating to the play, Yellow Jack.

Letter from Sidney Coe Howard to Walter De Blois Briggs August 11, 1934

Howard offers a justification of his characterization of Dean in his play, "Yellow Jack."

Statement of Winifred E. Lewis concerning the yellow fever experiments October 13, 1934

Winifred E. Lewis nursed Roger Post Ames in Cuba during his illness with yellow fever around 1900.

Letter from William T. Davis to Emilie Lawrence Reed December 22, 1934

Davis sends Christmas wishes to Emilie Reed and requests a photograph of her.

Letter from Chauncey B. Baker to Albert E. Truby January 17, 1935

Baker sends Truby a copy of his recollections of yellow fever epidemics in Havana and requests corrections.

Senate Bill S.1850 February 14, 1935

To amend an act entitled 'An Act to recognize the high public service rendered by Major Walter Reed and those associated with him in the discovery of the cause and means of transmission of yellow fever'.

Letter from J.G. Woods to James E. Peabody with enclosed excerpts and transcriptions 1935

Letter from J.G. Woods to James E. Peabody February 16, 1935

Woods sends Peabody a transcription of a 1914 letter from Henry Cabot Lodge to Theodore Roosevelt.

Partial transcription by J.G. Woods of 1914 letter from Henry Cabot Lodge to Theodore Roosevelt April 6, 1914

Woods transcribes part of a 1914 letter from Henry Cabot Lodge to Theodore Roosevelt concerning the successful use of mosquito netting against yellow fever in 1850.

Excerpts from A History of the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1878, by J.M. Keating 1879

Keating describes a 1878 yellow fever epidemic in Memphis, Tennessee.

Letter from Sidney Coe Howard to John J. Moran February 20, 1935

Howard writes that he will send Moran a copy of "Yellow Jack." He reports on the play's success and sympathizes with Moran's difficulties related to the Cuban revolution.

Letter from Estela Agramonte Rodriguez Leon to James E. Peabody March 12, 1935

Leon thanks Peabody for his work in securing pensions for yellow fever participants. She discusses her mother's death and conditions in Cuba.

Correspondence between Chauncey B. Baker and Albert E. Truby April 1935

Letter from Albert E. Truby to Chauncey B. Baker April 13, 1935

Truby thanks Baker for relating his yellow fever experiences.

Letter from Chauncey B. Baker to Albert E. Truby April 3, 1935

Baker writes that he is sending Truby a copy of his yellow fever experiences.

Correspondence of S.S. Goldwater April 1935-May 1935

Letter from S.S. Goldwater to Albert E. Truby May 1, 1935

Goldwater informs Truby that he will not have a job opening in his hospital.

Letter from S.S. Goldwater to Albert E. Truby May 4, 1935

Goldwater sends letters of recommendation to Truby his letters of recommendation to Truby.

Letter from Harlow Brooks to S.S. Goldwater April 6, 1935

Brooks recommends Truby for a hospital position, describing his character and experience.

Letter from James E. Peabody to the Members of the New York Association of Biology Teachers May 5, 1935

Peabody urges support of a bill granting posthumous recognition to George Sherman Ward and a pension to his survivors, in recognition of Ward's part in James Carroll's typhoid experiment, in 1904.

Issue of The War Cry June 22, 1935

An article in the magazine mentions Walter Reed.

Letter from John H. Andrus to Donald H. McLean July 19, 1935

Andrus writes a letter of support for Roger Post Ames and Gustaf E. Lambert, advocating enactment of the bills that would recognize their contributions to the Yellow Fever Commission work and grant pensions.

Issue of The Harrisburg Churchman July 1935

Contains articles relating to Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania.

Letter from John H. Andrus to James H. Lewis August 9, 1937

Andrus writes in support of bill S.115 granting recognition to Gustaf E. Lambert for his role in the yellow fever experiments.

Letter from James E. Peabody to John J. Moran December 10, 1935

Peabody thanks Moran for his hospitality and for the information on the Yellow Fever Commission work.

Memorandum from Frank T. Hines to Colonel Ijams with an enclosed lecture on Walter Reed December 20, 1935-January 3, 1936

Memorandum from Frank T. Hines to Col. Ijams January 3, 1936

Hines sends Ijams a copy of a lecture on Walter Reed by Major Wesley C. Cox.

Walter Reed - A Memoir, by Wesley C. Cox December 20, 1935

Cox's lecture includes a biography of Walter Reed and a detailed description of the yellow fever experiments.

Letter from Wilbur A. Sawyer to Albert E. Truby January 2, 1936

Sawyer inquires about the use of a rhesus monkey in Reed's yellow fever experiments. He questions the accuracy of the "Yellow Jack's" portrayal of Dean.

Letter from Wilbur A. Sawyer to Albert E. Truby February 4, 1936

Sawyer thanks Truby for responding to his letter, and is pleased with Truby's opinion regarding Dean.

"Elizabeth" in Authors Today and Yesterday June 8, 1936

With envelope addressed to Mrs. Walter Reed.

Letter from Allen R. Boyd to Emilie Lawrence Reed July 10, 1936

Boyd responds to Emilie Lawrence Reed's question concerning wood thrushes.

Letter fragment to Albert E. Truby July 15, 1936

The writer urges Truby to place his yellow fever correspondence in an archive for safekeeping and compliments Kean personally and professionally.

Letter from N. Paul Hudson to Emilie Lawrence Reed with enclosed program November 1936

Letter from N. Paul Hudson to Emilie Lawrence Reed November 5, 1936

Hudson sends Emilie Lawrence Reed a program from the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine. He invites her to attend the meeting, where she will be presented with the Walter Reed medal.

The Walter Reed Medal 1936

Awarded by the American Society of Tropical Medicine to Mrs. Walter Reed n recognition of meritorious achievement in tropical medicine.