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Handbook of Mathematics and Statistics for the Environment

Frank R. Spellman, Nancy E. Whiting
Format
Book
Published
Boca Raton : CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, [2014]
Language
English
ISBN
9781466586376 (alk. paper), 1466586370 (alk. paper)
Contents
  • Ch. 1 Introduction
  • 1.1.Setting the Stage
  • 1.2.SI Units
  • 1.3.Conversion Factors
  • 1.4.Conversion Factors: Practical Examples
  • 1.4.1.Weight, Concentration, and Flow
  • 1.4.2.Water/Wastewater Conversion Examples
  • 1.4.3.Temperature Conversions
  • 1.5.Conversion Factors: Air Pollution Measurements
  • 1.5.1.Conversion from ppm to [µ ]g/m3
  • 1.5.2.Conversion Tables for Common Air Pollution Measurements
  • 1.6.Soil Test Results Conversion Factors
  • 1.7.Greenhouse Gas Emission Numbers to Equivalent Units
  • 1.7.1.Electricity Reductions (Kilowatt-Hours)
  • 1.7.2.Passenger Vehicles per Year
  • 1.7.3.Gallons of Gasoline Consumed
  • 1.7.4.Therms of Natural Gas
  • 1.7.5.Barrels of Oil Consumed
  • 1.7.6.Tanker Trucks Filled with Gasoline
  • 1.7.7.Home Electricity Use
  • 1.7.8.Home Energy Use
  • 1.7.9.Number of Tree Seedlings Grown for 10 Years
  • 1.7.10.Acres of U.S. Forests Storing Carbon for 1 Year
  • 1.7.11.Acres of U.S. Forest Preserved from Conversion to Cropland
  • 1.7.12.Propane Cylinders Used for Home Barbecues
  • 1.7.13.Railcars of Coal Burned
  • 1.7.14.Tons of Waste Recycled Instead of Landfilled
  • 1.7.15.Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions for 1 Year
  • 1.8.Units of Derivatives and Integrals
  • References and Recommended Reading
  • ch. 2 Basic Math Operations
  • 2.1.Introduction
  • 2.2.Basic Math Terminology and Definitions
  • 2.2.1.Keywords
  • 2.3.Sequence of Operations
  • 2.3.1.Rules for Sequence of Operations
  • 2.3.2.Examples of Sequence of Operations
  • 2.4.Percent
  • 2.5.Significant Digits
  • 2.6.Powers and Exponents
  • 2.7.Averages (Arithmetic Mean)
  • 2.8.Ratio
  • 2.9.Dimensional Analysis
  • 2.9.1.Basic Operation: Division of Units
  • 2.9.2.Basic Operation: Divide by a Fraction
  • 2.9.3.Basic Operation: Cancel or Divide Numerators and Denominators
  • 2.10.Threshold Odor Number (TON)
  • 2.11.Geometrical Measurements
  • 2.11.1.Definitions
  • 2.11.2.Relevant Geometric Equations
  • 2.11.3.Geometrical Calculations
  • 2.12.Force, Pressure, and Head Calculations
  • 2.12.1.Force and Pressure
  • 2.12.2.Head
  • 2.13.Review of Advanced Algebra Key Terms/Concepts
  • ch. 3 Environmental Modeling
  • 3.1.Introduction
  • 3.2.Basic Steps for Developing an Effective Model
  • 3.3.What Are Models Used For?
  • 3.4.Media Material Content
  • 3.4.1.Material Content: Liquid Phases
  • 3.5.Phase Equilibrium and Steady State
  • 3.6.Math Operations and Laws of Equilibrium
  • 3.6.1.Solving Equilibrium Problems
  • 3.6.2.Laws of Equilibrium
  • 3.7.Chemical Transport Systems
  • 3.8.Final Word on Environmental Modeling
  • ch. 4 Algorithms and Environmental Engineering
  • 4.1.Introduction
  • 4.2.Algorithms: What Are They?
  • 4.3.Expressing Algorithms
  • 4.4.General Algorithm Applications
  • 4.5.Environmental Practice Algorithm Applications
  • 4.6.Dispersion Models
  • 4.7.Screening Tools
  • ch. 5 Quadratic Equations
  • 5.1.Quadratic Equations and Environmental Practice
  • 5.1.1.Key Terms
  • 5.2.Quadratic Equations: Theory and Application
  • 5.3.Derivation of the Quadratic Equation Formula
  • 5.4.Using the Quadratic Equation
  • ch. 6 Trigonometric Ratios
  • 6.1.Trigonometric Functions and the Environmental Practitioner
  • 6.2.Trigonometric Ratios or Functions
  • ch. 7 Statistics Review
  • 7.1.Statistical Concepts
  • 7.1.1.Probability and Statistics
  • 7.2.Measure of Central Tendency
  • 7.3.Symbols, Subscripts, Basic Statistical Terms, and Calculations
  • 7.3.1.Mean
  • 7.3.2.Median
  • 7.3.3.Mode
  • 7.3.4.Range
  • 7.4.Distribution
  • 7.5.Standard Deviation
  • 7.6.Coefficient of Variation
  • 7.7.Standard Error of the Mean
  • 7.8.Covariance
  • 7.9.Simple Correlation Coefficient
  • 7.10.Variance of a Linear Function
  • 7.11.Sampling Measurement Variables
  • 7.11.1.Simple Random Sampling
  • 7.11.2.Stratified Random Sampling
  • 7.12.Sampling-Discrete Variables
  • 7.12.1.Random Sampling
  • 7.12.2.Sample Size
  • 7.13.Cluster Sampling for Attributes
  • 7.13.1.Transformations
  • 7.14.Chi-Square Tests
  • 7.14.1.Test of Independence
  • 7.14.2.Test of a Hypothesized Count
  • 7.14.3.Bartlett's Test of Homogeneity of Variance
  • 7.15.Comparing Two Groups by the t Test
  • 7.15.1.t Test for Unpaired Plots
  • 7.15.2.t Test for Paired Plots
  • 7.16.Comparison of Two or More Groups by Analysis of Variance
  • 7.16.1.Complete Randomization
  • 7.16.2.Multiple Comparisons
  • 7.16.3.Randomized Block Design
  • 7.16.4.Latin Square Design
  • 7.16.5.Factorial Experiments
  • 7.16.6.Split-Plot Design
  • 7.16.7.Missing Plots
  • 7.17.Regression
  • 7.17.1.Simple Linear Regression
  • 7.17.2.Multiple Regression
  • 7.17.3.Curvilinear Regressions and Interactions
  • 7.17.4.Group Regressions
  • 7.17.5.Analysis of Covariance in a Randomized Block Design
  • ch. 8 Computation and Measurement of Risk
  • 8.1.Introduction
  • 8.2.Frequency Measures
  • 8.2.1.Ratio
  • 8.2.2.Proportion
  • 8.2.3.Rate
  • 8.3.Morbidity Frequency Measures
  • 8.3.1.Incidence Proportion or Risk
  • 8.3.2.Incidence Rate or Person-Time Rate
  • 8.3.3.Prevalence
  • 8.4.Mortality Frequency Measures
  • 8.4.1.Mortality Rate
  • 8.4.2.Death-to-Case Ratio
  • 8.4.3.Case-Fatality Rate
  • 8.4.4.Proportionate Mortality
  • 8.4.5.Years of Potential Life Lost
  • 8.5.Natality (Birth) Measures
  • 8.6.Measures of Association
  • 8.6.1.Risk Ratio
  • 8.6.2.Rate Ratio
  • 8.6.3.Odds Ratio
  • 8.7.Measures of Public Health Impact
  • 8.7.1.Attributable Proportion
  • 8.7.2.Vaccine Efficacy or Vaccine Effectiveness
  • ch. 9 Boolean Algebra
  • 9.1.Why Boolean Algebra?
  • 9.1.1.Fault-Tree Analysis
  • 9.1.2.Key Terms
  • 9.2.Technical Overview
  • 9.2.1.Commutative Law
  • 9.2.2.Distributive Law
  • 9.2.3.Identity and Inverse Variables
  • 9.3.Boolean Synthesis
  • ch. 10 Environmental Economics
  • 10.1.Environmental Practice and Economics
  • 10.1.1.Key Terms
  • 10.2.Capital-Recovery Factor (Equal-Payment Series)
  • 10.3.Uniform Series Present Worth (Value) Factor
  • 10.4.Future Value
  • 10.5.Annual Payment, (Uniform Series Sinking Fund)
  • 10.6.Present Value of Future Dollar Amount
  • 10.7.Future Value of a Present Amount
  • ch. 11 Fundamental Engineering Concepts
  • 11.1.Introduction
  • 11.2.Resolution of Forces
  • 11.3.Slings
  • 11.3.1.Rated Sling Loads
  • 11.4.Inclined Plane
  • 11.5.Properties of Materials
  • 11.5.1.Friction
  • 11.5.2.Specific Gravity
  • 11.5.3.Force, Mass, and Acceleration
  • 11.5.4.Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces
  • 11.5.5.Stress and Strain
  • 11.6.Materials and Principles of Mechanics
  • 11.6.1.Statics
  • 11.6.2.Dynamics
  • 11.6.3.Hydraulics and Pneumatics-Fluid Mechanics
  • 11.6.4.Welds
  • 11.6.5.Moment
  • 11.6.6.Beams and Columns
  • 11.6.7.Bending Moment
  • 11.6.8.Radius of Curvature (Beam)
  • 11.6.9.Column Stress
  • 11.6.10.Beam Flexure
  • 11.6.11.Reaction Force (Beams)
  • 11.6.12.Buckling Stress (Wood Columns)
  • 11.6.13.Floors
  • 11.7.Principles of Electricity
  • 11.7.1.Nature of Electricity
  • 11.7.2.Simple Electrical Circuit
  • 11.7.3.Ohm's Law
  • 11.7.4.Electrical Power
  • 11.7.5.Electrical Energy (Kilowatt-Hours)
  • 11.7.6.Series DC Circuit Characteristics
  • 11.7.7.Parallel DC Circuits
  • 11.7.8.Series-Parallel Circuits
  • 11.7.9.Conductors
  • 11.7.10.Magnetic Units
  • 11.7.11.AC Theory
  • 11.7.12.Inductance
  • ch. 12 Fundamental Soil Mechanics
  • 12.1.Introduction
  • 12.2.Soil: What Is It?
  • 12.3.Soil Basics
  • 12.3.1.Soil for Construction
  • 12.4.Soil Characteristics
  • 12.4.1.Soil Weight Volume and Space-Volume Relationships
  • 12.4.2.Specific Gravity
  • 12.5.Soil Particle Characteristics
  • 12.6.Soil Stress and Strain
  • 12.7.Soil Compressibility
  • 12.8.Soil Compaction
  • 12.9.Soil Failure
  • 12.10.Soil Physics
  • 12.11.Structural Failure
  • ch. 13 Forest-Based Biomass Basic Computations
  • 13.1.Introduction
  • 13.1.1.Forestry Service and Mathematics: The Interface
  • 13.2.Forest Biomass Computations and Statistics
  • 13.3.Sample Forest-Based Biomass Computations
  • 13.3.1.Lower and Higher Heating Values
  • 13.3.2.Effect of Fuel Moisture on Wood Heat Content
  • 13.3.3.Forestry Volume Unit to Biomass Weight Considerations
  • 13.3.4.Stand-Level Biomass Estimation
  • 13.3.5.Biomass Equations
  • 13.4.Timber Scaling and Log Rules
  • 13.4.1.Theory of Scaling
  • 13.4.2.Authorized Log Rules
  • 13.4.3.Wood Density and Weight Ratios
  • ch. 14 Fundamental Chemistry and Hydraulics
  • 14.1.Fundamental Chemistry
  • 14.1.1.Density and Specific Gravity
  • 14.1.2.Water Chemistry Fundamentals
  • 14.2.Fundamental Hydraulics
  • 14.2.1.Principles of Water Hydraulics
  • 14.2.2.Basic Pumping Calculations
  • 14.2.3.Calculating Head Loss
  • 14.2.4.Calculating Head
  • 14.2.5.Calculating Horsepower and Efficiency
  • 14.2.6.Pump Efficiency and Brake Horsepower (BHP)
  • ch. 15 Basic Calculations for Occupational Safety and Environmental Health Professionals
  • 15.1.Industrial Hygiene: What Is It?
  • 15.2.Workplace Stressors
  • 15.2.1.Chemical Stressors
  • 15.2.2.Physical Stressors
  • 15.2.3.Biological Stressors
  • 15.2.4.Ergonomic Stressors
  • 15.3.Environmental Health and Safety Terminology
  • 15.4.Indoor Air Quality
  • 15.4.1.Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants
  • 15.5.Air Pollution Fundamentals
  • 15.5.1.Six Common Air Pollutants
  • 15.5.2.Gases
  • 15.5.3.Particulate Matter
  • 15.5.4.Pollution Emission Measurement Parameters
  • 15.5.5.Standard Corrections
  • 15.5.6.Atmospheric Standards
  • 15.5.7.Air Monitoring and Sampling
  • 15.6.Ventilation
  • 15.6.1.Definitions
  • 15.6.2.Concept of Ventilation
  • 15.6.3.Common Ventilation Measurements
  • 15.6.4.Good Practices
  • -- Note continued: 24.14.1.Biosolids Dewatering
  • 24.14.2.Pressure Filtration Calculations
  • 24.14.3.Rotary Vacuum Filter Dewatering Calculations
  • 24.14.4.Sand Drying Bed Calculations
  • 24.14.5.Biosolids Disposal Calculations
  • 24.15.Wastewater Laboratory Calculations
  • 24.15.1.Wastewater Lab
  • 24.15.2.Composite Sampling Procedures and Calculations
  • 24.15.3.Biochemical Oxygen Demand Calculations
  • 24.15.4.Mole and Molarity Calculations
  • 24.15.5.Settleability (Activated Biosolids Solids) Calculations
  • 24.15.6.Settleable Solids Calculations
  • 24.15.7.Biosolids Total Solids, Fixed Solids and Volatile Solids Calculations
  • 24.15.8.Wastewater Suspended Solids and Volatile Suspended Solids Calculations
  • 24.15.9.Biosolids Volume Index and Biosolids Density Index Calculations
  • ch. 25 Stormwater Calculations
  • 25.1.Introduction
  • 25.2.Stormwater Terms and Acronyms
  • 25.3.Hydrologic Methods
  • 25.3.1.Precipitation
  • 25.4.Runoff Hydrographs
  • 25.5.Runoff and Peak Discharge
  • 25.6.Calculation Methods
  • 25.6.1.Rational Method
  • 25.6.2.Modified Rational Method
  • 25.6.3.TR-55 Estimating Runoff Method
  • 25.6.4.TR-55 Graphical Peak Discharge Method
  • 25.6.5.TR-55 Tabular Hydrograph Method
  • 25.7.General Stormwater Engineering Calculations
  • 25.7.1.Detention, Extended Detention, and Retention Basin Design Calculations
  • 25.7.2.Allowable Release Rates
  • 25.7.3.Storage Volume Requirement Estimates
  • 25.7.4.Graphical Hydrograph Analysis-SCS Methods
  • 25.7.5.TR-55 Storage Volume for Detention Basins (Shortcut Method)
  • 25.7.6.Graphical Hydrograph Analysis, Modified Rational Method, Critical Storm Duration
  • 25.7.7.Modified Rational Method, Critical Storm Duration-Direct Solution
  • 25.7.8.Stage-Storage Curve
  • 25.7.9.Water Quality and Channel Erosion Control Volume Calculations
  • References and Recommended Reading.
Description
xxi, 838 pages : illustrations ; 27 cm
Notes
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Technical Details
  • Access in Virgo Classic
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    a| Ch. 1 Introduction -- 1.1.Setting the Stage -- 1.2.SI Units -- 1.3.Conversion Factors -- 1.4.Conversion Factors: Practical Examples -- 1.4.1.Weight, Concentration, and Flow -- 1.4.2.Water/Wastewater Conversion Examples -- 1.4.3.Temperature Conversions -- 1.5.Conversion Factors: Air Pollution Measurements -- 1.5.1.Conversion from ppm to [µ ]g/m3 -- 1.5.2.Conversion Tables for Common Air Pollution Measurements -- 1.6.Soil Test Results Conversion Factors -- 1.7.Greenhouse Gas Emission Numbers to Equivalent Units -- 1.7.1.Electricity Reductions (Kilowatt-Hours) -- 1.7.2.Passenger Vehicles per Year -- 1.7.3.Gallons of Gasoline Consumed -- 1.7.4.Therms of Natural Gas -- 1.7.5.Barrels of Oil Consumed -- 1.7.6.Tanker Trucks Filled with Gasoline -- 1.7.7.Home Electricity Use -- 1.7.8.Home Energy Use -- 1.7.9.Number of Tree Seedlings Grown for 10 Years -- 1.7.10.Acres of U.S. Forests Storing Carbon for 1 Year -- 1.7.11.Acres of U.S. Forest Preserved from Conversion to Cropland -- 1.7.12.Propane Cylinders Used for Home Barbecues -- 1.7.13.Railcars of Coal Burned -- 1.7.14.Tons of Waste Recycled Instead of Landfilled -- 1.7.15.Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions for 1 Year -- 1.8.Units of Derivatives and Integrals -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 2 Basic Math Operations -- 2.1.Introduction -- 2.2.Basic Math Terminology and Definitions -- 2.2.1.Keywords -- 2.3.Sequence of Operations -- 2.3.1.Rules for Sequence of Operations -- 2.3.2.Examples of Sequence of Operations -- 2.4.Percent -- 2.5.Significant Digits -- 2.6.Powers and Exponents -- 2.7.Averages (Arithmetic Mean) -- 2.8.Ratio -- 2.9.Dimensional Analysis -- 2.9.1.Basic Operation: Division of Units -- 2.9.2.Basic Operation: Divide by a Fraction -- 2.9.3.Basic Operation: Cancel or Divide Numerators and Denominators -- 2.10.Threshold Odor Number (TON) -- 2.11.Geometrical Measurements -- 2.11.1.Definitions -- 2.11.2.Relevant Geometric Equations -- 2.11.3.Geometrical Calculations -- 2.12.Force, Pressure, and Head Calculations -- 2.12.1.Force and Pressure -- 2.12.2.Head -- 2.13.Review of Advanced Algebra Key Terms/Concepts -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 3 Environmental Modeling -- 3.1.Introduction -- 3.2.Basic Steps for Developing an Effective Model -- 3.3.What Are Models Used For? -- 3.4.Media Material Content -- 3.4.1.Material Content: Liquid Phases -- 3.5.Phase Equilibrium and Steady State -- 3.6.Math Operations and Laws of Equilibrium -- 3.6.1.Solving Equilibrium Problems -- 3.6.2.Laws of Equilibrium -- 3.7.Chemical Transport Systems -- 3.8.Final Word on Environmental Modeling -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 4 Algorithms and Environmental Engineering -- 4.1.Introduction -- 4.2.Algorithms: What Are They? -- 4.3.Expressing Algorithms -- 4.4.General Algorithm Applications -- 4.5.Environmental Practice Algorithm Applications -- 4.6.Dispersion Models -- 4.7.Screening Tools -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 5 Quadratic Equations -- 5.1.Quadratic Equations and Environmental Practice -- 5.1.1.Key Terms -- 5.2.Quadratic Equations: Theory and Application -- 5.3.Derivation of the Quadratic Equation Formula -- 5.4.Using the Quadratic Equation -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 6 Trigonometric Ratios -- 6.1.Trigonometric Functions and the Environmental Practitioner -- 6.2.Trigonometric Ratios or Functions -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 7 Statistics Review -- 7.1.Statistical Concepts -- 7.1.1.Probability and Statistics -- 7.2.Measure of Central Tendency -- 7.3.Symbols, Subscripts, Basic Statistical Terms, and Calculations -- 7.3.1.Mean -- 7.3.2.Median -- 7.3.3.Mode -- 7.3.4.Range -- 7.4.Distribution -- 7.5.Standard Deviation -- 7.6.Coefficient of Variation -- 7.7.Standard Error of the Mean -- 7.8.Covariance -- 7.9.Simple Correlation Coefficient -- 7.10.Variance of a Linear Function -- 7.11.Sampling Measurement Variables -- 7.11.1.Simple Random Sampling -- 7.11.2.Stratified Random Sampling -- 7.12.Sampling-Discrete Variables -- 7.12.1.Random Sampling -- 7.12.2.Sample Size -- 7.13.Cluster Sampling for Attributes -- 7.13.1.Transformations -- 7.14.Chi-Square Tests -- 7.14.1.Test of Independence -- 7.14.2.Test of a Hypothesized Count -- 7.14.3.Bartlett's Test of Homogeneity of Variance -- 7.15.Comparing Two Groups by the t Test -- 7.15.1.t Test for Unpaired Plots -- 7.15.2.t Test for Paired Plots -- 7.16.Comparison of Two or More Groups by Analysis of Variance -- 7.16.1.Complete Randomization -- 7.16.2.Multiple Comparisons -- 7.16.3.Randomized Block Design -- 7.16.4.Latin Square Design -- 7.16.5.Factorial Experiments -- 7.16.6.Split-Plot Design -- 7.16.7.Missing Plots -- 7.17.Regression -- 7.17.1.Simple Linear Regression -- 7.17.2.Multiple Regression -- 7.17.3.Curvilinear Regressions and Interactions -- 7.17.4.Group Regressions -- 7.17.5.Analysis of Covariance in a Randomized Block Design -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 8 Computation and Measurement of Risk -- 8.1.Introduction -- 8.2.Frequency Measures -- 8.2.1.Ratio -- 8.2.2.Proportion -- 8.2.3.Rate -- 8.3.Morbidity Frequency Measures -- 8.3.1.Incidence Proportion or Risk -- 8.3.2.Incidence Rate or Person-Time Rate -- 8.3.3.Prevalence -- 8.4.Mortality Frequency Measures -- 8.4.1.Mortality Rate -- 8.4.2.Death-to-Case Ratio -- 8.4.3.Case-Fatality Rate -- 8.4.4.Proportionate Mortality -- 8.4.5.Years of Potential Life Lost -- 8.5.Natality (Birth) Measures -- 8.6.Measures of Association -- 8.6.1.Risk Ratio -- 8.6.2.Rate Ratio -- 8.6.3.Odds Ratio -- 8.7.Measures of Public Health Impact -- 8.7.1.Attributable Proportion -- 8.7.2.Vaccine Efficacy or Vaccine Effectiveness -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 9 Boolean Algebra -- 9.1.Why Boolean Algebra? -- 9.1.1.Fault-Tree Analysis -- 9.1.2.Key Terms -- 9.2.Technical Overview -- 9.2.1.Commutative Law -- 9.2.2.Distributive Law -- 9.2.3.Identity and Inverse Variables -- 9.3.Boolean Synthesis -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 10 Environmental Economics -- 10.1.Environmental Practice and Economics -- 10.1.1.Key Terms -- 10.2.Capital-Recovery Factor (Equal-Payment Series) -- 10.3.Uniform Series Present Worth (Value) Factor -- 10.4.Future Value -- 10.5.Annual Payment, (Uniform Series Sinking Fund) -- 10.6.Present Value of Future Dollar Amount -- 10.7.Future Value of a Present Amount -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 11 Fundamental Engineering Concepts -- 11.1.Introduction -- 11.2.Resolution of Forces -- 11.3.Slings -- 11.3.1.Rated Sling Loads -- 11.4.Inclined Plane -- 11.5.Properties of Materials -- 11.5.1.Friction -- 11.5.2.Specific Gravity -- 11.5.3.Force, Mass, and Acceleration -- 11.5.4.Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces -- 11.5.5.Stress and Strain -- 11.6.Materials and Principles of Mechanics -- 11.6.1.Statics -- 11.6.2.Dynamics -- 11.6.3.Hydraulics and Pneumatics-Fluid Mechanics -- 11.6.4.Welds -- 11.6.5.Moment -- 11.6.6.Beams and Columns -- 11.6.7.Bending Moment -- 11.6.8.Radius of Curvature (Beam) -- 11.6.9.Column Stress -- 11.6.10.Beam Flexure -- 11.6.11.Reaction Force (Beams) -- 11.6.12.Buckling Stress (Wood Columns) -- 11.6.13.Floors -- 11.7.Principles of Electricity -- 11.7.1.Nature of Electricity -- 11.7.2.Simple Electrical Circuit -- 11.7.3.Ohm's Law -- 11.7.4.Electrical Power -- 11.7.5.Electrical Energy (Kilowatt-Hours) -- 11.7.6.Series DC Circuit Characteristics -- 11.7.7.Parallel DC Circuits -- 11.7.8.Series-Parallel Circuits -- 11.7.9.Conductors -- 11.7.10.Magnetic Units -- 11.7.11.AC Theory -- 11.7.12.Inductance -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 12 Fundamental Soil Mechanics -- 12.1.Introduction -- 12.2.Soil: What Is It? -- 12.3.Soil Basics -- 12.3.1.Soil for Construction -- 12.4.Soil Characteristics -- 12.4.1.Soil Weight Volume and Space-Volume Relationships -- 12.4.2.Specific Gravity -- 12.5.Soil Particle Characteristics -- 12.6.Soil Stress and Strain -- 12.7.Soil Compressibility -- 12.8.Soil Compaction -- 12.9.Soil Failure -- 12.10.Soil Physics -- 12.11.Structural Failure -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 13 Forest-Based Biomass Basic Computations -- 13.1.Introduction -- 13.1.1.Forestry Service and Mathematics: The Interface -- 13.2.Forest Biomass Computations and Statistics -- 13.3.Sample Forest-Based Biomass Computations -- 13.3.1.Lower and Higher Heating Values -- 13.3.2.Effect of Fuel Moisture on Wood Heat Content -- 13.3.3.Forestry Volume Unit to Biomass Weight Considerations -- 13.3.4.Stand-Level Biomass Estimation -- 13.3.5.Biomass Equations -- 13.4.Timber Scaling and Log Rules -- 13.4.1.Theory of Scaling -- 13.4.2.Authorized Log Rules -- 13.4.3.Wood Density and Weight Ratios -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 14 Fundamental Chemistry and Hydraulics -- 14.1.Fundamental Chemistry -- 14.1.1.Density and Specific Gravity -- 14.1.2.Water Chemistry Fundamentals -- 14.2.Fundamental Hydraulics -- 14.2.1.Principles of Water Hydraulics -- 14.2.2.Basic Pumping Calculations -- 14.2.3.Calculating Head Loss -- 14.2.4.Calculating Head -- 14.2.5.Calculating Horsepower and Efficiency -- 14.2.6.Pump Efficiency and Brake Horsepower (BHP) -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 15 Basic Calculations for Occupational Safety and Environmental Health Professionals -- 15.1.Industrial Hygiene: What Is It? -- 15.2.Workplace Stressors -- 15.2.1.Chemical Stressors -- 15.2.2.Physical Stressors -- 15.2.3.Biological Stressors -- 15.2.4.Ergonomic Stressors -- 15.3.Environmental Health and Safety Terminology -- 15.4.Indoor Air Quality -- 15.4.1.Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants -- 15.5.Air Pollution Fundamentals -- 15.5.1.Six Common Air Pollutants -- 15.5.2.Gases -- 15.5.3.Particulate Matter -- 15.5.4.Pollution Emission Measurement Parameters -- 15.5.5.Standard Corrections -- 15.5.6.Atmospheric Standards -- 15.5.7.Air Monitoring and Sampling -- 15.6.Ventilation -- 15.6.1.Definitions -- 15.6.2.Concept of Ventilation -- 15.6.3.Common Ventilation Measurements -- 15.6.4.Good Practices --
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    a| Note continued: 24.14.1.Biosolids Dewatering -- 24.14.2.Pressure Filtration Calculations -- 24.14.3.Rotary Vacuum Filter Dewatering Calculations -- 24.14.4.Sand Drying Bed Calculations -- 24.14.5.Biosolids Disposal Calculations -- 24.15.Wastewater Laboratory Calculations -- 24.15.1.Wastewater Lab -- 24.15.2.Composite Sampling Procedures and Calculations -- 24.15.3.Biochemical Oxygen Demand Calculations -- 24.15.4.Mole and Molarity Calculations -- 24.15.5.Settleability (Activated Biosolids Solids) Calculations -- 24.15.6.Settleable Solids Calculations -- 24.15.7.Biosolids Total Solids, Fixed Solids and Volatile Solids Calculations -- 24.15.8.Wastewater Suspended Solids and Volatile Suspended Solids Calculations -- 24.15.9.Biosolids Volume Index and Biosolids Density Index Calculations -- References and Recommended Reading -- ch. 25 Stormwater Calculations -- 25.1.Introduction -- 25.2.Stormwater Terms and Acronyms -- 25.3.Hydrologic Methods -- 25.3.1.Precipitation -- 25.4.Runoff Hydrographs -- 25.5.Runoff and Peak Discharge -- 25.6.Calculation Methods -- 25.6.1.Rational Method -- 25.6.2.Modified Rational Method -- 25.6.3.TR-55 Estimating Runoff Method -- 25.6.4.TR-55 Graphical Peak Discharge Method -- 25.6.5.TR-55 Tabular Hydrograph Method -- 25.7.General Stormwater Engineering Calculations -- 25.7.1.Detention, Extended Detention, and Retention Basin Design Calculations -- 25.7.2.Allowable Release Rates -- 25.7.3.Storage Volume Requirement Estimates -- 25.7.4.Graphical Hydrograph Analysis-SCS Methods -- 25.7.5.TR-55 Storage Volume for Detention Basins (Shortcut Method) -- 25.7.6.Graphical Hydrograph Analysis, Modified Rational Method, Critical Storm Duration -- 25.7.7.Modified Rational Method, Critical Storm Duration-Direct Solution -- 25.7.8.Stage-Storage Curve -- 25.7.9.Water Quality and Channel Erosion Control Volume Calculations -- References and Recommended Reading.
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    a| Whiting, Nancy E., e| author.
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    a| TD145 .S6765 2014 w| LC i| X031652236 l| STACKS m| SCI-ENG t| BOOK
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