Item Details
Optical Imaging and Aberrations: Part 1 Ray Geometrical Optics [electronic resource]
Virendra N. Mahajan
 Format
 EBook; Book; Online
 Published
 Bellingham, Wash. : SPIE, 1998.
 Language
 English
 Variant Title
 Ray geometrical optics
 Series
 SPIE Press Monograph
 ISBN
 9780819478795 (electronic), 081942515X (print), 9780819425157 (print)
 Summary
 This book discusses the characteristics of a diffraction image of an incoherent or a coherent object formed by an aberrated imaging system. Numerical results in aberrated imaging have been emphasized to maximize the practical use of the material. This new, second printing includes a number of updates and corrections to the first printing. Beginning with a description of the diffraction theory of image formation, the book describes both aberrationfree and aberrated imaging by optical systems with circular, annular, or Gaussian pupils. As in part I, the primary aberrations are emphasized. Their effects on Strehl, Hopkins, and Struve ratios are discussed in detail. The balanced aberrations are identified with Zernike polynomials appropriate for each type of system. Imaging in the presence of random aberrations is also discussed that includes the effects of image motion and propagation through atmospheric turbulence. Each chapter ends with a set of practical problems.
 Contents
 Chapter 1: Gaussian optics
 Introduction
 Foundations of geometrical optics
 Fermat's principle
 Laws of geometrical optics
 Optical path lengths of neighboring rays
 MalusDupin theorem
 Hamilton's point characteristic function and direction of a ray
 Gaussian imaging
 Sign convention
 Spherical refracting surface
 Gaussian imaging equation
 Focal lengths and refracting power
 Magnifications and Lagrange invariant
 Graphical imaging
 Newtonian imaging equation
 Thin lens
 Undeviated ray
 Refracting systems
 Cardinal points and planes
 Gaussian imaging, focal lengths, and magnifications
 Nodal points
 Afocal systems
 Spherical reflecting surface (spherical mirror)
 Focal length and reflecting power
 Paraxial ray tracing
 Refracting surface
 Two thin lenses
 Thick lens
 Reflecting surface (mirror)
 Twomirror system
 Catadioptric system: thin lensmirror combination
 Tworay Lagrange invariant
 Matrix approach to paraxial ray tracing and Gaussian optics
 System matrix
 Conjugate matrix
 System matrix in terms of Gaussian parameters
 Gaussian imaging equations
 References
 Problems.
 Chapter 2: Radiometry of imaging
 Stops, pupils, and vignetting
 Aperture stop, and entrance and exit pupils
 Chief and marginal rays
 Vignetting
 Size of an imaging element
 Telecentric aperture stop
 Field stop, and entrance and exit windows
 Radiometry of point sources
 Irradiance of a surface
 Flux incident on a circular aperture
 Radiometry of extended sources
 Lambertian surface
 Exitance of a Lambertian surface
 Radiance of a tube of rays
 Irradiance by a Lambertian surface element
 Irradiance by a Lambertian disc
 Radiometry of point object imaging
 Radiometry of extended object imaging
 Image radiance
 Pupil distortion
 Image irradiance: aperture stop in front of the system
 Image irradiance: aperture stop in back of the system
 Telecentric systems
 Throughput
 Condition for uniform image irradiance
 Concentric systems
 Photometry
 Photometric quantities and spectral response of the human eye
 Imaging by a human eye
 Brightness of a Lambertian surface
 Observing stars in the daytime
 Appendix: Radiance theorem
 Chapter 3: Optical aberrations
 Wave and ray aberrations
 Definitions
 Relationship between wave and ray aberrations
 Defocus aberration
 Wavefront tilt
 Aberration function of a rotationally symmetric system
 Rotational invariants
 Powerseries expansion
 Explicit dependence on object coordinates
 No explicit dependence on object coordinates
 Zernike circlepolynomial expansion
 Relationships between coefficients of powerseries and
 Zernikepolynomial expansions
 Observation of aberrations
 Primary aberrations
 Interferograms
 Conditions for perfect imaging
 Imaging of a 3D object
 Imaging of a 2D transverse object
 Imaging of a 1D axial object
 Linear coma and the sine condition
 Optical sine theorem
 Linear coma and offense against the sine condition
 Appendix A: Degree of approximation in eq. (311)
 Appendix B: Wave and ray aberrations: alternative definition and derivation
 Chapter 4: Geometrical pointspread function
 Theory
 Application to primary aberrations
 Spherical aberration
 Coma
 Astigmatism and field curvature
 Distortion
 Balanced aberrations for minimum spot sigma
 Spot diagrams
 Aberration tolerance and golden rule of optical design
 Chapter 5: Calculation of primary aberrations
 Spherical refracting surface with aperture stop at the surface
 Onaxis point object
 Offaxis point object
 Aberrations with respect to Petzval image point
 Aberrations with respect to Gaussian image point
 Spherical refracting surface with aperture stop not at the surface
 Aplanatic points of a spherical refracting surface
 Conic refracting surface
 Sag of a conic surface
 General aspherical refracting surface
 Series of coaxial refracting (and reflecting) surfaces
 General imaging system
 Petzval curvature and corresponding field curvature wave aberration
 Relationship among Petzval curvature, field curvature, and astigmatism
 Wave aberration coefficients
 Aberration function in terms of Seidel sums or Seidel coefficients
 Effect of change in aperture stop position on the aberration function
 Change of peak aberration coefficients
 Illustration of the effect of aperturestop shift on coma and distortion
 Aberrations of a spherical refracting surface with aperture stop not at the surface obtained from those with stop at the surface
 Imaging relations
 Thin lens with spherical surfaces and aperture stop at the lens
 Petzval surface
 Spherical aberration and coma
 Aplanatic lens
 Thin lens with conic surfaces
 Thin lens with aperture stop not at the lens
 Field flattener
 Aberration function
 Planeparallel plate
 Chromatic aberrations
 Single refracting surface
 General system: surfacebysurface approach
 General system: use of principal and focal points
 Chromatic aberrations as wave aberrations
 Symmetrical principle
 Pupil aberrations and conjuageshift equations
 Pupil aberrations
 Conjugateshift equations
 Invariance of image aberrations
 Simultaneous correction of aberrations for two or more object positions
 Chapter 6: Calculation of primary aberrations: reflecting and catadioptric systems
 Conic reflecting surface
 Conic surface
 Spherical mirror
 Aberration function and aplanatic points for arbitrary location of aperture stop
 Aperture stop at the mirror surface
 Aperture stop at the center of curvature of mirror
 Paraboloidal mirror
 Catadioptric systems
 Schmidt camera
 BouwersMaksutov camera
 Beam expander
 Gaussian parameters
 Aberration contributed by primary mirror
 Aberration contributed by secondary mirror
 System aberration
 Twomirror astronomical telescopes
 Classical Cassegrain and Gregorian telescopes
 Aplanatic Cassegrain and Gregorian telescopes
 Afocal telescope
 Couder anastigmatic telescopes
 Schwarzschild telescope
 DallKirkham telescope
 Astronomical telescopes using aspheric plates
 Aspheric plate in a diverging object beam
 Aspheric plate in a converging image beam
 Aspheric plate and a conic mirror
 Aspheric plate and a twomirror telescope
 Chapter 7: Calculation of primary aberrations: perturbed optical systems
 Aberrations of a misaligned surface
 Decentered surface
 Tilted surface
 Despaced surface
 Aberrations of perturbed twomirror telescopes
 Decentered secondary mirror
 Tilted secondary mirror
 Decentered and tilted secondary mirror
 Despaced secondary mirror
 Fabrication errors
 Reflecting surface
 System errors
 Error tolerance
 Problems
 Bibliography
 Index.
 Description
 Mode of access: World wide Web.
 Notes
 "SPIE digital library."
 Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
 Series Statement
 SPIE Press monograph ; PM45
 Copyright & PermissionsRights statements and licenses provide information about copyright and reuse associated with individual items in the collection.
 Copyright Not Evaluated
 Technical Details

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LEADER 10700cam a2200529 a 4500001 u5815658003 SIRSI005 20140108060501.0006 m d007 cr n008 970212s1998 waua fsb 001 0 eng dz 97007721a 9780819478795 (electronic)z 081942515X (print)z 9780819425157 (print)a 10.1117/3.265735 2 doia (WaSeSS)ssj0000386801a CaBNvSL c CaBNvSL d CaBNvSL d WaSeSSa QC671 b .M36 1998ea 621.36 2 21a Mahajan, Virendra N.a Optical imaging and aberrations. n Part 1, p Ray geometrical optics h [electronic resource] / c Virendra N. Mahajan.a Ray geometrical opticsa Bellingham, Wash. : b SPIE, c 1998.a SPIE Press monograph ; v PM45a "SPIE digital library."a Includes bibliographical references and indexes.a Chapter 1: Gaussian optics  Introduction  Foundations of geometrical optics  Fermat's principle  Laws of geometrical optics  Optical path lengths of neighboring rays  MalusDupin theorem  Hamilton's point characteristic function and direction of a ray  Gaussian imaging  Introduction  Sign convention  Spherical refracting surface  Gaussian imaging equation  Focal lengths and refracting power  Magnifications and Lagrange invariant  Graphical imaging  Newtonian imaging equation  Thin lens  Gaussian imaging equation  Focal lengths and refracting power  Undeviated ray  Magnifications and Lagrange invariant  Newtonian imaging equation  Refracting systems  Cardinal points and planes  Gaussian imaging, focal lengths, and magnifications  Nodal points  Newtonian imaging equation  Afocal systems  Spherical reflecting surface (spherical mirror)  Gaussian imaging equation  Focal length and reflecting power  Magnifications and Lagrange invariant  Graphical imaging  Newtonian imaging equation  Paraxial ray tracing  Refracting surface  Thin lens  Two thin lenses  Thick lens  Reflecting surface (mirror)  Twomirror system  Catadioptric system: thin lensmirror combination  Tworay Lagrange invariant  Matrix approach to paraxial ray tracing and Gaussian optics  Introduction  System matrix  Conjugate matrix  System matrix in terms of Gaussian parameters  Gaussian imaging equations  References  Problems.a Chapter 2: Radiometry of imaging  Introduction  Stops, pupils, and vignetting  Introduction  Aperture stop, and entrance and exit pupils  Chief and marginal rays  Vignetting  Size of an imaging element  Telecentric aperture stop  Field stop, and entrance and exit windows  Radiometry of point sources  Irradiance of a surface  Flux incident on a circular aperture  Radiometry of extended sources  Lambertian surface  Exitance of a Lambertian surface  Radiance of a tube of rays  Irradiance by a Lambertian surface element  Irradiance by a Lambertian disc  Radiometry of point object imaging  Radiometry of extended object imaging  Image radiance  Pupil distortion  Image irradiance: aperture stop in front of the system  Image irradiance: aperture stop in back of the system  Telecentric systems  Throughput  Condition for uniform image irradiance  Concentric systems  Photometry  Photometric quantities and spectral response of the human eye  Imaging by a human eye  Brightness of a Lambertian surface  Observing stars in the daytime  Appendix: Radiance theorem  References  Problems.a Chapter 3: Optical aberrations  Introduction  Wave and ray aberrations  Definitions  Relationship between wave and ray aberrations  Defocus aberration  Wavefront tilt  Aberration function of a rotationally symmetric system  Rotational invariants  Powerseries expansion  Explicit dependence on object coordinates  No explicit dependence on object coordinates  Zernike circlepolynomial expansion  Relationships between coefficients of powerseries and  Zernikepolynomial expansions  Observation of aberrations  Primary aberrations  Interferograms  Conditions for perfect imaging  Imaging of a 3D object  Imaging of a 2D transverse object  Imaging of a 1D axial object  Linear coma and the sine condition  Optical sine theorem  Linear coma and offense against the sine condition  Appendix A: Degree of approximation in eq. (311)  Appendix B: Wave and ray aberrations: alternative definition and derivation  References  Problems.a Chapter 4: Geometrical pointspread function  Introduction  Theory  Application to primary aberrations  Spherical aberration  Coma  Astigmatism and field curvature  Distortion  Balanced aberrations for minimum spot sigma  Spot diagrams  Aberration tolerance and golden rule of optical design  References  Problems.a Chapter 5: Calculation of primary aberrations  Refracting systems  Introduction  Spherical refracting surface with aperture stop at the surface  Onaxis point object  Offaxis point object  Aberrations with respect to Petzval image point  Aberrations with respect to Gaussian image point  Spherical refracting surface with aperture stop not at the surface  Onaxis point object  Offaxis point object  Aplanatic points of a spherical refracting surface  Conic refracting surface  Sag of a conic surface  Onaxis point object  Offaxis point object  General aspherical refracting surface  Series of coaxial refracting (and reflecting) surfaces  General imaging system  Petzval curvature and corresponding field curvature wave aberration  Relationship among Petzval curvature, field curvature, and astigmatism  Wave aberration coefficients  Aberration function in terms of Seidel sums or Seidel coefficients  Effect of change in aperture stop position on the aberration function  Change of peak aberration coefficients  Illustration of the effect of aperturestop shift on coma and distortion  Aberrations of a spherical refracting surface with aperture stop not at the surface obtained from those with stop at the surface  Thin lens  Imaging relations  Thin lens with spherical surfaces and aperture stop at the lens  Petzval surface  Spherical aberration and coma  Aplanatic lens  Thin lens with conic surfaces  Thin lens with aperture stop not at the lens  Field flattener  Imaging relations  Aberration function  Planeparallel plate  Introduction  Imaging relations  Aberration function  Chromatic aberrations  Introduction  Single refracting surface  Thin lens  General system: surfacebysurface approach  General system: use of principal and focal points  Chromatic aberrations as wave aberrations  Symmetrical principle  Pupil aberrations and conjuageshift equations  Introduction  Pupil aberrations  Conjugateshift equations  Invariance of image aberrations  Simultaneous correction of aberrations for two or more object positions  References  Problems.a Chapter 6: Calculation of primary aberrations: reflecting and catadioptric systems  Introduction  Conic reflecting surface  Conic surface  Imaging relations  Aberration function  Petzval surface  Spherical mirror  Aberration function and aplanatic points for arbitrary location of aperture stop  Aperture stop at the mirror surface  Aperture stop at the center of curvature of mirror  Paraboloidal mirror  Catadioptric systems  Introduction  Schmidt camera  BouwersMaksutov camera  Beam expander  Introduction  Gaussian parameters  Aberration contributed by primary mirror  Aberration contributed by secondary mirror  System aberration  Twomirror astronomical telescopes  Introduction  Gaussian parameters  Petzval surface  Aberration contributed by primary mirror  Aberration contributed by secondary mirror  System aberration  Classical Cassegrain and Gregorian telescopes  Aplanatic Cassegrain and Gregorian telescopes  Afocal telescope  Couder anastigmatic telescopes  Schwarzschild telescope  DallKirkham telescope  Astronomical telescopes using aspheric plates  Introduction  Aspheric plate in a diverging object beam  Aspheric plate in a converging image beam  Aspheric plate and a conic mirror  Aspheric plate and a twomirror telescope  References  Problems.a Chapter 7: Calculation of primary aberrations: perturbed optical systems  Introduction  Aberrations of a misaligned surface  Decentered surface  Tilted surface  Despaced surface  Aberrations of perturbed twomirror telescopes  Decentered secondary mirror  Tilted secondary mirror  Decentered and tilted secondary mirror  Despaced secondary mirror  Fabrication errors  Refracting surface  Reflecting surface  System errors  Error tolerance  References  Problems  Bibliography  Index.a This book discusses the characteristics of a diffraction image of an incoherent or a coherent object formed by an aberrated imaging system. Numerical results in aberrated imaging have been emphasized to maximize the practical use of the material. This new, second printing includes a number of updates and corrections to the first printing. Beginning with a description of the diffraction theory of image formation, the book describes both aberrationfree and aberrated imaging by optical systems with circular, annular, or Gaussian pupils. As in part I, the primary aberrations are emphasized. Their effects on Strehl, Hopkins, and Struve ratios are discussed in detail. The balanced aberrations are identified with Zernike polynomials appropriate for each type of system. Imaging in the presence of random aberrations is also discussed that includes the effects of image motion and propagation through atmospheric turbulence. Each chapter ends with a set of practical problems.a Mode of access: World wide Web.a Aberration.a Imaging systems.a Geometrical optics.a Electronic books.a Society of Photooptical Instrumentation Engineers.a SPIE Digital Library (Books)c (Original) z 081942515X w (DLC) 97007721a SPIE Press monograph ; v PM45.u http://RE5QY4SB7X.search.serialssolutions.com/?V=1.0&L=RE5QY4SB7X&S=JCs&C=TC0000386801&T=marca 1a XX(5815658.1) w WEB i 58156581001 l INTERNET m UVALIB t INTERNET