Item Details

Reactive Polymer Blending

W. Baker, C.E. Scott, G.-H. Hu ; with contributions from M.K. Akkapeddi ... [et al.]
Format
Book
Published
Munich : Hanser Publishers ; Cincinnati : Hanser Gardner Publications, c2001.
Language
English
Series
Progress in Polymer Processing
ISBN
1569903123 (hardcover), 3446210687 (hardcover)
Contents
  • 1.2 Important Blending Principles 3
  • 1.3 A Historical Perspective on Reactive Blending 7
  • 1.4 Evolution of Commercial Practice 9
  • 1.4.1 Patents and Products 9
  • 1.4.2 Processing 10
  • 2 Types of Reactive Polymers Used in Blending 13
  • 2.2 Compatibility in Polymer Blends 15
  • 2.2.2 Strategies for Blend Compatibilization 15
  • 2.2.2.1 Addition of Block and Graft Copolymers 15
  • 2.2.2.2 Utilization of Non-Bonding Specific Interactions 16
  • 2.2.2.3 Addition of Low Molecular Weight Coupling Agents 16
  • 2.2.2.4 Reactive Compatibilization 17
  • 2.3 Preparation of Reactive Polymers 17
  • 2.4 Types of Compatibilizing Reactions 19
  • 2.5 Types of Reactive Polymers and Their Applications 19
  • 2.5.1 Reactive Polymers Having MAn Functionality 20
  • 2.5.2 Reactive Polymers with Carboxylic Acid Functionality 22
  • 2.5.3 Reactive Polymers Capable of Interchange Reactions 24
  • 2.5.4 Reactive Polymers Containing Primary and Secondary Amines 26
  • 2.5.5 Reactive Polymers Containing Hydroxyl Groups 26
  • 2.5.6 Reactive Polymers Containing Heterocyclic Groups 29
  • 2.5.7 Reactive Polymers Capable of Ionic Interactions 31
  • 2.5.8 Miscellaneous Reactive Polymers 31
  • 3 Reactive Blending with Immiscible Functional Polymers: Molecular, Morphological, and Interfacial Aspects 43
  • 3.2 Reactive Versus Physical Blending with Respect to Compatibilization 44
  • 3.2.1 Similarities and Differences 44
  • 3.2.2 Industrial Feasibility and Current Trends 46
  • 3.3 In Situ Interfacial Chemical Reactions of Functional Polymers 47
  • 3.3.1 Types of In Situ Chemical Reactions Involved 47
  • 3.3.2 Kinetics of Interfacial Reactions and Molecular Characterization 49
  • 3.4 Effects of Reactive Blending on Phase Morphology 53
  • 3.4.1 Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Morphology Generation 53
  • 3.4.1.1 General Aspects of Phase Morphology Development 53
  • 3.4.1.2 Phase Morphology Development in Non-Reactive Blending 54
  • 3.4.1.3 Phase Morphology Development in Reactive Blending 56
  • 3.4.2 Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Stabilisation in the Melt 63
  • 3.4.3 Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Co-Continuity 64
  • 3.4.4 Interfacial Stability of the In Situ Formed Copolymer 67
  • 3.5 Effect of Reactive Blending on Crystallization of Blends Containing Crystallizable Components 67
  • 3.6 Blend Interface Characterization 69
  • 3.6.1 General Aspects Concerning Polymer/Polymer Interfaces 69
  • 3.6.2 Determination of the Interfacial Tension in Reactively Compatibilized Blends 72
  • 3.6.2.1 Blend Rheology Using the Palierne Model 72
  • 3.6.2.2 Breaking Thread Method 73
  • 3.6.3 Determination of the Interfacial Thickness in Reactive Blends 74
  • 3.6.3.1 Ellipsometry 74
  • 3.6.3.2 Neutron Reflectometry 75
  • 3.6.3.3 Transmission Electron Microscopy 77
  • 4 Key Role of Structural Features of Compatibilizing Polymer Additives in Reactive Blending 82
  • 4.3 Molecular Architecture of the Compatibilizer 85
  • 4.3.1 Alternative 1 86
  • 4.3.2 Alternative 2 86
  • 4.3.3 Alternative 3 87
  • 4.4 Phase Morphology Development 87
  • 4.5 Effect of the Interfacial Reaction on the Phase Morphology Development 89
  • 4.6 Effect of the Molecular Characteristic Features of the Reactive Polymers 90
  • 4.6.1 Kinetics of the Interfacial Reaction 90
  • 4.6.2 Molecular Weight of the Compatibilizer Precursors 95
  • 4.6.3 Reactive Group Content of the Reacting Polymers 98
  • 4.6.4 Distribution of the Reactive Groups Along the Chains 104
  • 4.7 Effect of Processing Conditions 105
  • 4.7.1 Melting Order of the Constitutive Components of Reactive Polyblends 105
  • 4.7.2 Effect of Shearing 106
  • 4.7.3 Initial State of Dispersion 107
  • 4.7.4 Mixing Temperature 107
  • 5 Morphological and Rheological Aspects of Reactive Polymer Blending 113
  • 5.1 Morphology Development During Blending of Immiscible Polymers 114
  • 5.1.1 Melting Regime 116
  • 5.1.2 Melt Flow Regime 120
  • 5.1.3 Final Morphology of Reactive Blends 127
  • 5.1.4 Miscible Reactive Polymer Blends 132
  • 5.2 Rheological Aspects of Reactive Polymer Blending 132
  • 5.2.1 Rheological Changes During Blending 132
  • 5.2.2 Rheology of Reactively Compatibilized Polymer Blends 134
  • 5.4 Future Challenges 139
  • 6 Reactive Blending in Screw Extruders 142
  • 6.2 Reactive Blending in Mixers 144
  • 6.2.1 Copolymer Formation at Polymer/Polymer Interfaces 145
  • 6.2.1.1 Chemical Considerations 145
  • 6.2.1.2 Copolymer Architecture Considerations 145
  • 6.2.1.3 Kinetics Considerations 145
  • 6.2.1.4 Experimental Assessment of Reaction Kinetics at Polymer-Polymer Interfaces 151
  • 6.2.2 Batch Mixers for Reactive Blending 154
  • 6.2.2.1 Reactive Compatibilization vs. Physical Compatibilization 154
  • 6.2.2.2 Morphology Development 155
  • 6.2.3 Reactive Blending in Screw Extruders 158
  • 6.2.3.1 Non-Reactive vs. Reactive PP/PA6 Blends 163
  • 6.2.3.2 Influence of Screw Configuration 164
  • 6.2.3.3 Influences of Feed Rate and Screw Speed 165
  • 6.2.3.4 Influence of the Maleic Anhydride Modified PP Content 166
  • 6.2.3.5 Correlation Between Morphology and Mechanical Properties 167
  • 6.4 One-Step and Two-Step Reactive Blending Processes 170
  • 6.4.1 PP/PA6 Blends 171
  • 6.4.2 PP/PBT Blends 174
  • 7 Extrusion Equipment for Reactive Blending 180
  • 7.1 Extruders Used for Reactive Blending 181
  • 7.2 Mixing Mechanism 185
  • 7.2.1 Distributive and Dispersive Mixing 186
  • 7.2.1.1 Distributive Mixing 186
  • 7.2.1.2 Dispersive Mixing 187
  • 7.2.1.3 Viscosity Ratio and Surface Tension 187
  • 7.2.1.4 Extensional Flow 188
  • 7.2.2 Dissipative Melting 188
  • 7.3 Residence Time and Residence Time Distribution 193
  • 7.4 Devolatilization 194
  • 7.5 Microstructure Development and Monitoring in Reactive Blending 197
  • 7.6 Hybridized Polymer Processing Systems 201
  • 8 Rubber Toughening of Polyamides by Reactive Blending 207
  • 8.2 Evolution of Polyamide Impact Modification Technology 211
  • 8.3 Comparison of Reactivity vs. Toughening Efficiency of Various Functional Rubbers 216
  • 8.4 Toughening Efficiency of Maleated EP Rubbers 224
  • 8.4.1 Effect of Maleic Anhydride Content 224
  • 8.4.2 Effect of Polyamide End Groups 226
  • 8.5 Toughening Efficiency of Maleated Styrene-Ethylene/Butylene-Styrene (M-SEBS) Block Copolymer Rubbers 231
  • 8.6 Effect of Mixtures of Reactive and Non-Reactive (Maleated and Unmaleated) Rubbers 236
  • 8.7 Reactive Toughening of PA6 with Acyllactam-Grafted EP Rubbers 237
  • 8.8 Toughening of Polyamides with Maleated LDPE 239
  • 8.9 High Impact Polyamide/ABS Blend 241
  • 8.10 Toughening Mechanisms in Rubber Modified Polyamides 243
  • 8.10.1 Role of Rubber Particle Size on Polyamide Toughness 243
  • 8.10.2 Role of Rubber Particle Cavitation on the PA Matrix Toughening 245
  • 8.11 Rubber Toughening of Reinforced Polyamides 246
  • 8.12 Applications of Rubber Toughened Polyamide 247
  • 8.13 High Rubber/Polyamide Blends 248
  • 8.14 Polyamide/Reactive Rubber Blending Process 250
  • 8.16 Future Directions in Rubber Toughened Polyamides 251
  • 9 Compatibilization Using Low Molecular Weight Reactive Additives 254
  • 9.2 Free Radical Reactivity and Compatibilization of Polyolefins 256
  • 9.3 Polyethylene/Polystyrene Compatibilization 259
  • 9.4 Compatibilization of Polyolefin/Polyamide Blends 263
  • 9.5 Development of the Vector Fluid Compatibilization Concept 266
  • 9.6 Special Peroxide 272
  • 9.7 Inorganic Catalyst for PE/PS Compatibilization 273.
Description
xvi, 289 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
Notes
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Technical Details
  • Access in Virgo Classic

  • LEADER 08956pam a22003734a 4500
    001 u3737117
    003 SIRSI
    005 20010705155914.0
    008 010409s2001 gw a b 001 0 eng
    010
      
      
    a| 2001024627
    020
      
      
    a| 1569903123 (hardcover)
    020
      
      
    a| 3446210687 (hardcover)
    035
      
      
    a| (Sirsi) i1569903123
    035
      
      
    a| (OCoLC)123142723
    040
      
      
    a| DLC c| DLC d| NhCcYBP d| MvI
    042
      
      
    a| pcc
    050
    0
    0
    a| TP1087 b| .B35 2001
    082
    0
    0
    a| 668.9 2| 21
    090
      
      
    a| SCIENG/TP1087 b| .B35 2001
    100
    1
      
    a| Baker, W. q| (Warren E.)
    245
    1
    0
    a| Reactive polymer blending / c| W. Baker, C.E. Scott, G.-H. Hu ; with contributions from M.K. Akkapeddi ... [et al.].
    260
      
      
    a| Munich : b| Hanser Publishers ; a| Cincinnati : b| Hanser Gardner Publications, c| c2001.
    300
      
      
    a| xvi, 289 p. : b| ill. ; c| 25 cm.
    440
      
    0
    a| Progress in polymer processing
    504
      
      
    a| Includes bibliographical references and index.
    505
    0
    0
    g| 1.2 t| Important Blending Principles g| 3 -- g| 1.3 t| A Historical Perspective on Reactive Blending g| 7 -- g| 1.4 t| Evolution of Commercial Practice g| 9 -- g| 1.4.1 t| Patents and Products g| 9 -- g| 1.4.2 t| Processing g| 10 -- g| 2 t| Types of Reactive Polymers Used in Blending g| 13 -- g| 2.2 t| Compatibility in Polymer Blends g| 15 -- g| 2.2.2 t| Strategies for Blend Compatibilization g| 15 -- g| 2.2.2.1 t| Addition of Block and Graft Copolymers g| 15 -- g| 2.2.2.2 t| Utilization of Non-Bonding Specific Interactions g| 16 -- g| 2.2.2.3 t| Addition of Low Molecular Weight Coupling Agents g| 16 -- g| 2.2.2.4 t| Reactive Compatibilization g| 17 -- g| 2.3 t| Preparation of Reactive Polymers g| 17 -- g| 2.4 t| Types of Compatibilizing Reactions g| 19 -- g| 2.5 t| Types of Reactive Polymers and Their Applications g| 19 -- g| 2.5.1 t| Reactive Polymers Having MAn Functionality g| 20 -- g| 2.5.2 t| Reactive Polymers with Carboxylic Acid Functionality g| 22 -- g| 2.5.3 t| Reactive Polymers Capable of Interchange Reactions g| 24 -- g| 2.5.4 t| Reactive Polymers Containing Primary and Secondary Amines g| 26 -- g| 2.5.5 t| Reactive Polymers Containing Hydroxyl Groups g| 26 -- g| 2.5.6 t| Reactive Polymers Containing Heterocyclic Groups g| 29 -- g| 2.5.7 t| Reactive Polymers Capable of Ionic Interactions g| 31 -- g| 2.5.8 t| Miscellaneous Reactive Polymers g| 31 -- g| 3 t| Reactive Blending with Immiscible Functional Polymers: Molecular, Morphological, and Interfacial Aspects g| 43 -- g| 3.2 t| Reactive Versus Physical Blending with Respect to Compatibilization g| 44 -- g| 3.2.1 t| Similarities and Differences g| 44 -- g| 3.2.2 t| Industrial Feasibility and Current Trends g| 46 -- g| 3.3 t| In Situ Interfacial Chemical Reactions of Functional Polymers g| 47 -- g| 3.3.1 t| Types of In Situ Chemical Reactions Involved g| 47 -- g| 3.3.2 t| Kinetics of Interfacial Reactions and Molecular Characterization g| 49 -- g| 3.4 t| Effects of Reactive Blending on Phase Morphology g| 53 -- g| 3.4.1 t| Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Morphology Generation g| 53 -- g| 3.4.1.1 t| General Aspects of Phase Morphology Development g| 53 -- g| 3.4.1.2 t| Phase Morphology Development in Non-Reactive Blending g| 54 -- g| 3.4.1.3 t| Phase Morphology Development in Reactive Blending g| 56 -- g| 3.4.2 t| Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Stabilisation in the Melt g| 63 -- g| 3.4.3 t| Effect of Reactive Blending on Phase Co-Continuity g| 64 -- g| 3.4.4 t| Interfacial Stability of the In Situ Formed Copolymer g| 67 -- g| 3.5 t| Effect of Reactive Blending on Crystallization of Blends Containing Crystallizable Components g| 67 -- g| 3.6 t| Blend Interface Characterization g| 69 -- g| 3.6.1 t| General Aspects Concerning Polymer/Polymer Interfaces g| 69 -- g| 3.6.2 t| Determination of the Interfacial Tension in Reactively Compatibilized Blends g| 72 -- g| 3.6.2.1 t| Blend Rheology Using the Palierne Model g| 72 -- g| 3.6.2.2 t| Breaking Thread Method g| 73 -- g| 3.6.3 t| Determination of the Interfacial Thickness in Reactive Blends g| 74 -- g| 3.6.3.1 t| Ellipsometry g| 74 -- g| 3.6.3.2 t| Neutron Reflectometry g| 75 -- g| 3.6.3.3 t| Transmission Electron Microscopy g| 77 -- g| 4 t| Key Role of Structural Features of Compatibilizing Polymer Additives in Reactive Blending g| 82 -- g| 4.3 t| Molecular Architecture of the Compatibilizer g| 85 -- g| 4.3.1 t| Alternative 1 g| 86 -- g| 4.3.2 t| Alternative 2 g| 86 -- g| 4.3.3 t| Alternative 3 g| 87 -- g| 4.4 t| Phase Morphology Development g| 87 -- g| 4.5 t| Effect of the Interfacial Reaction on the Phase Morphology Development g| 89 -- g| 4.6 t| Effect of the Molecular Characteristic Features of the Reactive Polymers g| 90 -- g| 4.6.1 t| Kinetics of the Interfacial Reaction g| 90 -- g| 4.6.2 t| Molecular Weight of the Compatibilizer Precursors g| 95 -- g| 4.6.3 t| Reactive Group Content of the Reacting Polymers g| 98 -- g| 4.6.4 t| Distribution of the Reactive Groups Along the Chains g| 104 -- g| 4.7 t| Effect of Processing Conditions g| 105 -- g| 4.7.1 t| Melting Order of the Constitutive Components of Reactive Polyblends g| 105 -- g| 4.7.2 t| Effect of Shearing g| 106 -- g| 4.7.3 t| Initial State of Dispersion g| 107 -- g| 4.7.4 t| Mixing Temperature g| 107 -- g| 5 t| Morphological and Rheological Aspects of Reactive Polymer Blending g| 113 -- g| 5.1 t| Morphology Development During Blending of Immiscible Polymers g| 114 -- g| 5.1.1 t| Melting Regime g| 116 -- g| 5.1.2 t| Melt Flow Regime g| 120 -- g| 5.1.3 t| Final Morphology of Reactive Blends g| 127 -- g| 5.1.4 t| Miscible Reactive Polymer Blends g| 132 -- g| 5.2 t| Rheological Aspects of Reactive Polymer Blending g| 132 -- g| 5.2.1 t| Rheological Changes During Blending g| 132 -- g| 5.2.2 t| Rheology of Reactively Compatibilized Polymer Blends g| 134 -- g| 5.4 t| Future Challenges g| 139 -- g| 6 t| Reactive Blending in Screw Extruders g| 142 -- g| 6.2 t| Reactive Blending in Mixers g| 144 -- g| 6.2.1 t| Copolymer Formation at Polymer/Polymer Interfaces g| 145 -- g| 6.2.1.1 t| Chemical Considerations g| 145 -- g| 6.2.1.2 t| Copolymer Architecture Considerations g| 145 -- g| 6.2.1.3 t| Kinetics Considerations g| 145 -- g| 6.2.1.4 t| Experimental Assessment of Reaction Kinetics at Polymer-Polymer Interfaces g| 151 -- g| 6.2.2 t| Batch Mixers for Reactive Blending g| 154 -- g| 6.2.2.1 t| Reactive Compatibilization vs. Physical Compatibilization g| 154 -- g| 6.2.2.2 t| Morphology Development g| 155 -- g| 6.2.3 t| Reactive Blending in Screw Extruders g| 158 -- g| 6.2.3.1 t| Non-Reactive vs. Reactive PP/PA6 Blends g| 163 -- g| 6.2.3.2 t| Influence of Screw Configuration g| 164 -- g| 6.2.3.3 t| Influences of Feed Rate and Screw Speed g| 165 -- g| 6.2.3.4 t| Influence of the Maleic Anhydride Modified PP Content g| 166 -- g| 6.2.3.5 t| Correlation Between Morphology and Mechanical Properties g| 167 -- g| 6.4 t| One-Step and Two-Step Reactive Blending Processes g| 170 -- g| 6.4.1 t| PP/PA6 Blends g| 171 -- g| 6.4.2 t| PP/PBT Blends g| 174 -- g| 7 t| Extrusion Equipment for Reactive Blending g| 180 -- g| 7.1 t| Extruders Used for Reactive Blending g| 181 -- g| 7.2 t| Mixing Mechanism g| 185 -- g| 7.2.1 t| Distributive and Dispersive Mixing g| 186 -- g| 7.2.1.1 t| Distributive Mixing g| 186 -- g| 7.2.1.2 t| Dispersive Mixing g| 187 -- g| 7.2.1.3 t| Viscosity Ratio and Surface Tension g| 187 -- g| 7.2.1.4 t| Extensional Flow g| 188 -- g| 7.2.2 t| Dissipative Melting g| 188 -- g| 7.3 t| Residence Time and Residence Time Distribution g| 193 -- g| 7.4 t| Devolatilization g| 194 -- g| 7.5 t| Microstructure Development and Monitoring in Reactive Blending g| 197 -- g| 7.6 t| Hybridized Polymer Processing Systems g| 201 -- g| 8 t| Rubber Toughening of Polyamides by Reactive Blending g| 207 -- g| 8.2 t| Evolution of Polyamide Impact Modification Technology g| 211 -- g| 8.3 t| Comparison of Reactivity vs. Toughening Efficiency of Various Functional Rubbers g| 216 -- g| 8.4 t| Toughening Efficiency of Maleated EP Rubbers g| 224 -- g| 8.4.1 t| Effect of Maleic Anhydride Content g| 224 -- g| 8.4.2 t| Effect of Polyamide End Groups g| 226 -- g| 8.5 t| Toughening Efficiency of Maleated Styrene-Ethylene/Butylene-Styrene (M-SEBS) Block Copolymer Rubbers g| 231 -- g| 8.6 t| Effect of Mixtures of Reactive and Non-Reactive (Maleated and Unmaleated) Rubbers g| 236 -- g| 8.7 t| Reactive Toughening of PA6 with Acyllactam-Grafted EP Rubbers g| 237 -- g| 8.8 t| Toughening of Polyamides with Maleated LDPE g| 239 -- g| 8.9 t| High Impact Polyamide/ABS Blend g| 241 -- g| 8.10 t| Toughening Mechanisms in Rubber Modified Polyamides g| 243 -- g| 8.10.1 t| Role of Rubber Particle Size on Polyamide Toughness g| 243 -- g| 8.10.2 t| Role of Rubber Particle Cavitation on the PA Matrix Toughening g| 245 -- g| 8.11 t| Rubber Toughening of Reinforced Polyamides g| 246 -- g| 8.12 t| Applications of Rubber Toughened Polyamide g| 247 -- g| 8.13 t| High Rubber/Polyamide Blends g| 248 -- g| 8.14 t| Polyamide/Reactive Rubber Blending Process g| 250 -- g| 8.16 t| Future Directions in Rubber Toughened Polyamides g| 251 -- g| 9 t| Compatibilization Using Low Molecular Weight Reactive Additives g| 254 -- g| 9.2 t| Free Radical Reactivity and Compatibilization of Polyolefins g| 256 -- g| 9.3 t| Polyethylene/Polystyrene Compatibilization g| 259 -- g| 9.4 t| Compatibilization of Polyolefin/Polyamide Blends g| 263 -- g| 9.5 t| Development of the Vector Fluid Compatibilization Concept g| 266 -- g| 9.6 t| Special Peroxide g| 272 -- g| 9.7 t| Inorganic Catalyst for PE/PS Compatibilization g| 273.
    596
      
      
    a| 5
    650
      
    0
    a| Polymers.
    650
      
    0
    a| Plastics.
    700
    1
      
    a| Scott, C. q| (Chris E.)
    700
    1
      
    a| Hu, G.-H. q| (Guo-Hua)
    999
      
      
    a| TP1087 .B35 2001 w| LC i| X004523074 l| STACKS m| SCI-ENG t| BOOK

Availability

Google Preview

Library Location Map Availability Call Number
Brown Science and Engineering Stacks N/A Available