Item Details

Sensor Technologies and Data Requirements for ITS

Lawrence A. Klein
Format
Book
Published
Boston : Artech House, c2001.
Language
English
Series
Artech House ITS Library
ISBN
158053077X
Contents
  • 1 Sensors in Modern Traffic Management Systems 1
  • 1.1 Prevalence of Recurring Congestion 5
  • 1.2 Impact of Traffic Management Strategies on Congestion 8
  • 1.3 Impact of Congestion on Accident Rates 14
  • 1.4 Impact of Congestion Mitigation on Fuel Consumption and Pollution Emissions 17
  • 1.5 Optimizing the Existing Transportation Network Through Information Gathering and Dissemination 23
  • 1.6 Sensors as Part of an Intelligent Transportation Traffic Management System 25
  • 1.7 Evolution of Sensor Requirements 28
  • 1.8 Chapter Synopses 32
  • 2 Traffic Flow Characterization 37
  • 2.1 Traffic Parameters For Uninterrupted Flow 37
  • 2.2 Traffic Parameters for Interrupted Flow 44
  • 2.3 Traffic Parameters as Measures of Effectiveness 45
  • 2.4 Traffic Flow Parameter Definitions 45
  • 2.5 Measures of Data Uniformity 74
  • 2.6 Statistical Measures of Data 77
  • 3 Applications of Sensor Data to Traffic Management 93
  • 3.1 Traffic Signal Timing Parameters 94
  • 3.2 Local Isolated Intersection Signal Control 94
  • 3.3 Interconnected Intersection Signal Control 98
  • 3.4 Interconnected Intersection Signal Control Using Online-Generated, Traffic-Adaptive Timing Plans 113
  • 3.5 Freeway Incident Detection 133
  • 3.6 Freeway Metering 142
  • 3.7 Coordinated Operation of Freeways and Surface Streets 156
  • 3.8 Enhanced Information Dissemination to Travelers 157
  • 3.9 Traffic Data Collection 159
  • 3.10 Using Sensor Data to Characterize, Detect, and Analyze Sensor Failure Modes 169
  • 3.11 Detection of Priority Vehicles 181
  • 3.12 Overheight Sensors 185
  • 3.13 Weather Sensors 186
  • 3.14 Vehicle-Mounted Sensors that Enhance Safe Operation 186
  • 3.15 Specifications for Inductive Loop Detectors 193
  • 3.16 Traffic Parameter Accuracy Requirements for Current Applications 193
  • 4 Data Requirements for Future Traffic Management Applications 209
  • 4.1 Sensor Data Requirements for Evolving Applications 209
  • 4.2 Detection Technology for IVHS Program 217
  • 4.3 Traffic Surveillance and Detection Technology Development Program 230
  • 5 Traffic Flow Sensor Technologies 239
  • 5.1 Video Image Processor 243
  • 5.2 Microwave Radar 262
  • 5.3 Infrared Sensors 269
  • 5.4 Ultrasonic Sensors 276
  • 5.5 Passive Acoustic Array Sensors 279
  • 5.6 Inductive Loop Detectors 281
  • 5.7 Magnetic Sensors 288
  • 5.8 Sensor Combinations 295
  • 5.9 Relative Cost of Sensors 296
  • 5.10 Traffic Flow Data from Automatic Vehicle Identification Transponders 299
  • 5.11 Traffic Flow Data from Cellular Telephones 304
  • 5.12 Sensor Technology Comparison 305
  • 5.13 Sensor Specification Summaries 311
  • 6 Overhead Sensor Installation Along a Highway 319
  • 6.1 Initial Sensor Evaluations 320
  • 6.2 Video Image Processors 321
  • 6.3 Microwave Radar Sensors 335
  • 6.4 Laser Radar Sensors 340
  • 6.5 Passive Infrared Sensors 343
  • 6.6 Ultrasonic Sensors 344
  • 6.7 Passive Acoustic Array Sensors 346
  • 6.8 Sensor Combinations 348
  • 7 Transponders and Standards for Dedicated Short-Range Communications 351
  • 7.1 Transponder Types 352
  • 7.2 Open Systems Interconnection Communications Model 354
  • 7.3 DSRC Standards 357
  • 8 Data Fusion at the Traffic Management Center 399
  • 8.1 Bayesian Inference 400
  • 8.2 Dempster-Shafer Inference 411
  • 8.3 Artificial Neural Networks 424
  • 8.4 Voting Fusion 440
  • 8.5 Fuzzy Logic 465
  • 8.6 Knowledge-Based Expert Systems 485
  • 9 Sensor Plan and Specification Requirements 501
  • 9.1 Planning for Sensor Use 502
  • 9.2 Sensor Specification Issues 502
  • Appendix A Elements of Selected United States and Canadian Traffic Management Systems 1
  • Appendix B Freeway Incident Detection Algorithms 1
  • B.1 Detection Rate and False Alarm Rate 1
  • B.2 California Algorithms 2
  • B.3 McMaster Algorithms 6 --g B.4 Other Speed-Based Incident Detection Algorithms 9
  • B.5 Incident Detection in Japan 9
  • B.6 Incident Detection in Europe 10
  • B.7 Incident Detection Algorithm Performance Comparison 11
  • Appendix C Energy Use and Emissions by Transportation Mode 1
  • Appendix D Inductive Loop Detector Specifications 1
  • Appendix E Deterministic and Random Components of Traffic Data 1
  • Appendix F Axel Counting and Weigh-in-Motion Sensors 1
  • F.1 Pneumatic Road Tube 1
  • F.2 Fiberoptic Sensors 3
  • F.3 Piezoelectric Sensors 4
  • F.4 Weigh-in-Motion Systems 7
  • F.5 Weigh-in-Motion System Costs 15
  • Appendix G Transmission Rate Requirements for Selected Traffic Management Applications 1
  • Appendix H Specifications of Representative Sensor Models 1
  • Appendix I Sensor Manufacturers and Vendors 1
  • Appendix J Data Fusion Algorithms and Architectures 1
  • J.1 Definition of Data Fusion 2
  • J.2 Level 1 Processing 4
  • J.3 Levels 2, 3, and 4 Processing 17
  • J.4 Definition of an Architecture 19
  • J.5 Data Fusion Processes 19
  • J.6 Data Fusion Architectures 20
  • J.7 Sensor Footprint Registration and Size Considerations 27
  • Appendix K Freeway and Multilane Highway Capacity for Other Than Base Conditions 1
  • K.1 Free-Flow Speed Estimate 1
  • K.2 Equivalent Passenger Car Flow-Rate Estimate 5.
Description
xxi, 549 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm. + 1 computer optical disc (4 3/4 in.)
System requirements for accompanying computer disc: Adobe Acrobat.
Notes
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Technical Details
  • Access in Virgo Classic

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    g| 1 t| Sensors in Modern Traffic Management Systems g| 1 -- g| 1.1 t| Prevalence of Recurring Congestion g| 5 -- g| 1.2 t| Impact of Traffic Management Strategies on Congestion g| 8 -- g| 1.3 t| Impact of Congestion on Accident Rates g| 14 -- g| 1.4 t| Impact of Congestion Mitigation on Fuel Consumption and Pollution Emissions g| 17 -- g| 1.5 t| Optimizing the Existing Transportation Network Through Information Gathering and Dissemination g| 23 -- g| 1.6 t| Sensors as Part of an Intelligent Transportation Traffic Management System g| 25 -- g| 1.7 t| Evolution of Sensor Requirements g| 28 -- g| 1.8 t| Chapter Synopses g| 32 -- g| 2 t| Traffic Flow Characterization g| 37 -- g| 2.1 t| Traffic Parameters For Uninterrupted Flow g| 37 -- g| 2.2 t| Traffic Parameters for Interrupted Flow g| 44 -- g| 2.3 t| Traffic Parameters as Measures of Effectiveness g| 45 -- g| 2.4 t| Traffic Flow Parameter Definitions g| 45 -- g| 2.5 t| Measures of Data Uniformity g| 74 -- g| 2.6 t| Statistical Measures of Data g| 77 -- g| 3 t| Applications of Sensor Data to Traffic Management g| 93 -- g| 3.1 t| Traffic Signal Timing Parameters g| 94 -- g| 3.2 t| Local Isolated Intersection Signal Control g| 94 -- g| 3.3 t| Interconnected Intersection Signal Control g| 98 -- g| 3.4 t| Interconnected Intersection Signal Control Using Online-Generated, Traffic-Adaptive Timing Plans g| 113 -- g| 3.5 t| Freeway Incident Detection g| 133 -- g| 3.6 t| Freeway Metering g| 142 -- g| 3.7 t| Coordinated Operation of Freeways and Surface Streets g| 156 -- g| 3.8 t| Enhanced Information Dissemination to Travelers g| 157 -- g| 3.9 t| Traffic Data Collection g| 159 -- g| 3.10 t| Using Sensor Data to Characterize, Detect, and Analyze Sensor Failure Modes g| 169 -- g| 3.11 t| Detection of Priority Vehicles g| 181 -- g| 3.12 t| Overheight Sensors g| 185 -- g| 3.13 t| Weather Sensors g| 186 -- g| 3.14 t| Vehicle-Mounted Sensors that Enhance Safe Operation g| 186 -- g| 3.15 t| Specifications for Inductive Loop Detectors g| 193 -- g| 3.16 t| Traffic Parameter Accuracy Requirements for Current Applications g| 193 -- g| 4 t| Data Requirements for Future Traffic Management Applications g| 209 -- g| 4.1 t| Sensor Data Requirements for Evolving Applications g| 209 -- g| 4.2 t| Detection Technology for IVHS Program g| 217 -- g| 4.3 t| Traffic Surveillance and Detection Technology Development Program g| 230 -- g| 5 t| Traffic Flow Sensor Technologies g| 239 -- g| 5.1 t| Video Image Processor g| 243 -- g| 5.2 t| Microwave Radar g| 262 -- g| 5.3 t| Infrared Sensors g| 269 -- g| 5.4 t| Ultrasonic Sensors g| 276 -- g| 5.5 t| Passive Acoustic Array Sensors g| 279 -- g| 5.6 t| Inductive Loop Detectors g| 281 -- g| 5.7 t| Magnetic Sensors g| 288 -- g| 5.8 t| Sensor Combinations g| 295 -- g| 5.9 t| Relative Cost of Sensors g| 296 -- g| 5.10 t| Traffic Flow Data from Automatic Vehicle Identification Transponders g| 299 -- g| 5.11 t| Traffic Flow Data from Cellular Telephones g| 304 -- g| 5.12 t| Sensor Technology Comparison g| 305 -- g| 5.13 t| Sensor Specification Summaries g| 311 -- g| 6 t| Overhead Sensor Installation Along a Highway g| 319 -- g| 6.1 t| Initial Sensor Evaluations g| 320 -- g| 6.2 t| Video Image Processors g| 321 -- g| 6.3 t| Microwave Radar Sensors g| 335 -- g| 6.4 t| Laser Radar Sensors g| 340 -- g| 6.5 t| Passive Infrared Sensors g| 343 -- g| 6.6 t| Ultrasonic Sensors g| 344 -- g| 6.7 t| Passive Acoustic Array Sensors g| 346 -- g| 6.8 t| Sensor Combinations g| 348 -- g| 7 t| Transponders and Standards for Dedicated Short-Range Communications g| 351 -- g| 7.1 t| Transponder Types g| 352 -- g| 7.2 t| Open Systems Interconnection Communications Model g| 354 -- g| 7.3 t| DSRC Standards g| 357 -- g| 8 t| Data Fusion at the Traffic Management Center g| 399 -- g| 8.1 t| Bayesian Inference g| 400 -- g| 8.2 t| Dempster-Shafer Inference g| 411 -- g| 8.3 t| Artificial Neural Networks g| 424 -- g| 8.4 t| Voting Fusion g| 440 -- g| 8.5 t| Fuzzy Logic g| 465 -- g| 8.6 t| Knowledge-Based Expert Systems g| 485 -- g| 9 t| Sensor Plan and Specification Requirements g| 501 -- g| 9.1 t| Planning for Sensor Use g| 502 -- g| 9.2 t| Sensor Specification Issues g| 502 -- g| Appendix A t| Elements of Selected United States and Canadian Traffic Management Systems g| 1 -- g| Appendix B t| Freeway Incident Detection Algorithms g| 1 -- g| B.1 t| Detection Rate and False Alarm Rate g| 1 -- g| B.2 t| California Algorithms g| 2 -- g| B.3 t| McMaster Algorithms g| 6 --g g| B.4 t| Other Speed-Based Incident Detection Algorithms g| 9 -- g| B.5 t| Incident Detection in Japan g| 9 -- g| B.6 t| Incident Detection in Europe g| 10 -- g| B.7 t| Incident Detection Algorithm Performance Comparison g| 11 -- g| Appendix C t| Energy Use and Emissions by Transportation Mode g| 1 -- g| Appendix D t| Inductive Loop Detector Specifications g| 1 -- g| Appendix E t| Deterministic and Random Components of Traffic Data g| 1 -- g| Appendix F t| Axel Counting and Weigh-in-Motion Sensors g| 1 -- g| F.1 t| Pneumatic Road Tube g| 1 -- g| F.2 t| Fiberoptic Sensors g| 3 -- g| F.3 t| Piezoelectric Sensors g| 4 -- g| F.4 t| Weigh-in-Motion Systems g| 7 -- g| F.5 t| Weigh-in-Motion System Costs g| 15 -- g| Appendix G t| Transmission Rate Requirements for Selected Traffic Management Applications g| 1 -- g| Appendix H t| Specifications of Representative Sensor Models g| 1 -- g| Appendix I t| Sensor Manufacturers and Vendors g| 1 -- g| Appendix J t| Data Fusion Algorithms and Architectures g| 1 -- g| J.1 t| Definition of Data Fusion g| 2 -- g| J.2 t| Level 1 Processing g| 4 -- g| J.3 t| Levels 2, 3, and 4 Processing g| 17 -- g| J.4 t| Definition of an Architecture g| 19 -- g| J.5 t| Data Fusion Processes g| 19 -- g| J.6 t| Data Fusion Architectures g| 20 -- g| J.7 t| Sensor Footprint Registration and Size Considerations g| 27 -- g| Appendix K t| Freeway and Multilane Highway Capacity for Other Than Base Conditions g| 1 -- g| K.1 t| Free-Flow Speed Estimate g| 1 -- g| K.2 t| Equivalent Passenger Car Flow-Rate Estimate g| 5.
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    a| Intelligent transportation systems
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    a| Motor vehicles x| Automatic control.
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