Item Details

The Brazilian Economy: Growth and Development

Werner Baer
Format
Book
Published
Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2001.
Edition
5th ed
Language
English
ISBN
027596678X (alk. paper), 0275966798 (pbk. : alk. paper)
Contents
  • Part I Historical Perspective 1
  • Physical and Demographic Setting 5
  • Natural Resources 6
  • Population 7
  • 2. Historical Perspective 11
  • Colonial Economy 11
  • Early Socioeconomic Organization 11
  • Sugar Cycle 12
  • Gold Cycle and the Rise of Mercantilist Control 14
  • Colony's Last Years 16
  • Century after Independence 16
  • Coffee Cycle 17
  • Other Exports 18
  • Public Policies in the Nineteenth Century 19
  • 3. Early Industrial Growth 25
  • Pre-World War I Period 25
  • World War I 31
  • 1920s 32
  • Great Depression 35
  • Industrial Growth during the Depression 36
  • World War II 38
  • Evaluation of Brazil's Early Industrial Growth 38
  • Early Attempts at Planning in Brazil 41
  • 4. Post-World War II Industrialization Drive: 1946-61 47
  • Brazil's Foreign Trade and Its Role in the Economy 47
  • World Market for Brazil's Traditional Exports in the 1950s 49
  • Immediate Postwar Years 51
  • Exchange Controls: 1946-53 53
  • Multiple Exchange Rate System: 1953-57 54
  • Changes in Exchange Controls: 1957-61 56
  • Exchange Reform: 1961-63 58
  • Law of Similars 58
  • Special Plans and Programs 59
  • Special Incentive Programs 62
  • Effects of Industrialization Policies 63
  • Imbalances and Bottlenecks 66
  • 5. Stagnation and Boom: Brazil in the 1960s and 1970s 71
  • Two Views of the Stagnation of the 1960s 72
  • Economic Policies Since 1964 73
  • Achievements of the Post-1964 Governments 75
  • Government Sector 77
  • Issues Surrounding the Post-1964 Growth Experience 78
  • Departure from Post-1964 Orthodoxy 83
  • 6. From Adjustment to External Shocks to the Debt Crisis: 1973-85 87
  • First Oil Shock: Impact and Reaction 87
  • Political Changes 88
  • Geisel Policies 88
  • Growing International Indebtedness 90
  • Toward the Debt Crisis 93
  • Economic Performance in 1980 98
  • Adjustment through Recession 99
  • Macro Impact of the Adjustment Period 103
  • 7. Resurgence of Inflation in Brazil: 1974-86 117
  • Nature of Brazil's Inflation: Two Visions 118
  • General Background to Brazil's Inflation 122
  • Inflationary Impact of External Shocks 123
  • Propagating Mechanism of Inflation 124
  • Monetary Aspects of the Inflationary Process 130
  • Brazil's Authoritarian Budgetary Process 135
  • Indexation 136
  • Controlling Inflation through Index Tampering 138
  • Price Controls 138
  • 8. Decline and Fall of Brazil's Cruzado 145
  • Events Leading to the Cruzado Plan 148
  • Cruzado Plan 148
  • Emerging Difficulties and Contradictions 150
  • Breakdown of the Cruzado Plan 165
  • External Debt 167
  • Evaluation 168
  • 9. Brazil's Drifting Economy: Stagnation and Inflation during 1987-93 173
  • General Setting 173
  • Sarney after the Cruzado Collapse 175
  • Fiscal Impact of the 1988 Constitution 178
  • Collor Period--Collor I 178
  • Collor Period--Collor II 182
  • Itamar Franco Period: An Interregnum 187
  • A Statistical Review of the Years 1987-93 188
  • Brazil's Stagflation, 1987-93: An Interpretation 192
  • 10. Illusion of Stability: The Brazilian Economy Under Cardoso 199
  • Plano Real 199
  • Initial Impact of the Real 201
  • Exchange Rate Becomes the Key Policy Instrument 204
  • Unresolved Fiscal Dilemma 205
  • Capital Flows 212
  • Performance of the Real Economy 212
  • Banking Crisis 214
  • Crisis 1998-99 215
  • Part II Contemporary Issues 221
  • 11. External Sector: Trade and Foreign Investments 223
  • International Economic Policies in the ISI Period 223
  • "Outward-Looking" Policies of the 1964-74 Period 225
  • From Debt-Led Growth to the Debt Crisis 226
  • Opening of the Economy in the 1990s 226
  • Statistical Summary of Brazil's International Position 226
  • Brazil's Ties with the Outside World 228
  • Complementarity versus Competitiveness in Brazil's Relations with the Industrialized World 234
  • Foreign Investments in Brazil: Their Benefits and Costs 235
  • Historical Perspective 235
  • 1950-86 Period 237
  • Benefits and Costs of Multinationals: Some General Considerations 240
  • A Brief Survey of the Empirical Evidence 248
  • Government Policies and the Behavior of Multinationals in Brazil 253
  • Era of Neoliberalism: The 1990s 254
  • A Statistical Picture of FDI in Brazil 256
  • Impact of Foreign Investments in the 1990s 258
  • 12. Brazil's Extended Public Sector: Its Changing Role and Privatization 267
  • Stages in the Growth of State Involvement in the Economy 268
  • 1970s and the 1980s 274
  • Degree of State Control over the Economy 276
  • Government Control over Savings and Their Distribution 279
  • Decay of Public Enterprises 283
  • Privatization as a Solution to the State's Bankruptcy 284
  • Privatization Process in the Collor Administration 286
  • Privatization in the 1990s 287
  • Wealth Distribution Effect of Privatization 289
  • Income Distribution Effect of Privatization 292
  • 13. Banking System: Privatization and Restructuring 301
  • A Brief Historical Perspective 302
  • Bank Behavior During High Inflation Periods 304
  • Stability and Institutional Change 306
  • Banking Sector Restructuring 310
  • Implications 316
  • 14. Regional Imbalances 323
  • Degree of Regional Inequality 323
  • Dynamics of Regional Inequalities 331
  • Internal Population Migration 333
  • Interaction between the Northeast and the Center-South 334
  • Resource Transfers through the Fiscal Mechanism 339
  • Regional Policies 340
  • Regional Trends in the 1980s: The Northeast versus Brazil 343
  • Northeast in an Increasingly Open Economy 346
  • Structural Weaknesses of the Northeastern Economy 350
  • Market, the State, and Regional Equity 351
  • 15. Performance of Agriculture 357
  • Growth of Agricultural Output Since World War II 358
  • Changes in Production Methods 361
  • Regional Patterns 365
  • Sources of Agricultural Growth 366
  • Distribution of Land 369
  • Rural Poverty 372
  • Agricultural Policies 373
  • Brazil's Agriculture in the 1990s 376
  • Policy Reforms in the Late 1980s and 1990s 378
  • Agricultural Employment 380
  • 16. Environmental Aspects of Brazil's Development 385
  • Economic Expansion and the Environment in Historical Perspective 386
  • Industrialization, Urban Growth, and the Environment 387
  • Industrial Pollution 390
  • Urban Pollution 395
  • Urban Poverty and the Environment 396
  • Summary View of the Environmental Degradation from Urban Poverty 397
  • Agricultural Growth and the Environment 400
  • Amazon Strategy and the Environment 405
  • Extent of Amazon deforestation 409
  • Brazil's Environmental Policies 412
  • Policies to Curtail Urban-Industrial Pollution 413
  • 17. Health in Brazil's Development Process 425
  • Health Record 426
  • Health and Health Care in Brazil Prior to the Mid-1980s 429
  • 1988 Constitution and Its Impact on Brazil's Health Delivery System 432
  • Private versus Public Contributions to Brazil's Health Care 434
  • Distribution of Health Care 434
  • Health Status in Brazil 435
  • Demand for Health Services 436
  • Expenditures on Health 436
  • Financing of Health Care 437
  • 18. Structural Changes in Brazil's Industrial Economy, 1960-95 441
  • General Structural Changes 442
  • Brazil's Post-World War II Industrial History 443
  • Structural Changes, 1959-98 446.
Description
xix, 498 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Notes
Includes bibliographical references (p. [473]-491) and index.
Technical Details
  • Access in Virgo Classic

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    g| Part I t| Historical Perspective g| 1 -- t| Physical and Demographic Setting g| 5 -- t| Natural Resources g| 6 -- t| Population g| 7 -- g| 2. t| Historical Perspective g| 11 -- t| Colonial Economy g| 11 -- t| Early Socioeconomic Organization g| 11 -- t| Sugar Cycle g| 12 -- t| Gold Cycle and the Rise of Mercantilist Control g| 14 -- t| Colony's Last Years g| 16 -- t| Century after Independence g| 16 -- t| Coffee Cycle g| 17 -- t| Other Exports g| 18 -- t| Public Policies in the Nineteenth Century g| 19 -- g| 3. t| Early Industrial Growth g| 25 -- t| Pre-World War I Period g| 25 -- t| World War I g| 31 -- t| 1920s g| 32 -- t| Great Depression g| 35 -- t| Industrial Growth during the Depression g| 36 -- t| World War II g| 38 -- t| Evaluation of Brazil's Early Industrial Growth g| 38 -- t| Early Attempts at Planning in Brazil g| 41 -- g| 4. t| Post-World War II Industrialization Drive: 1946-61 g| 47 -- t| Brazil's Foreign Trade and Its Role in the Economy g| 47 -- t| World Market for Brazil's Traditional Exports in the 1950s g| 49 -- t| Immediate Postwar Years g| 51 -- t| Exchange Controls: 1946-53 g| 53 -- t| Multiple Exchange Rate System: 1953-57 g| 54 -- t| Changes in Exchange Controls: 1957-61 g| 56 -- t| Exchange Reform: 1961-63 g| 58 -- t| Law of Similars g| 58 -- t| Special Plans and Programs g| 59 -- t| Special Incentive Programs g| 62 -- t| Effects of Industrialization Policies g| 63 -- t| Imbalances and Bottlenecks g| 66 -- g| 5. t| Stagnation and Boom: Brazil in the 1960s and 1970s g| 71 -- t| Two Views of the Stagnation of the 1960s g| 72 -- t| Economic Policies Since 1964 g| 73 -- t| Achievements of the Post-1964 Governments g| 75 -- t| Government Sector g| 77 -- t| Issues Surrounding the Post-1964 Growth Experience g| 78 -- t| Departure from Post-1964 Orthodoxy g| 83 -- g| 6. t| From Adjustment to External Shocks to the Debt Crisis: 1973-85 g| 87 -- t| First Oil Shock: Impact and Reaction g| 87 -- t| Political Changes g| 88 -- t| Geisel Policies g| 88 -- t| Growing International Indebtedness g| 90 -- t| Toward the Debt Crisis g| 93 -- t| Economic Performance in 1980 g| 98 -- t| Adjustment through Recession g| 99 -- t| Macro Impact of the Adjustment Period g| 103 -- g| 7. t| Resurgence of Inflation in Brazil: 1974-86 g| 117 -- t| Nature of Brazil's Inflation: Two Visions g| 118 -- t| General Background to Brazil's Inflation g| 122 -- t| Inflationary Impact of External Shocks g| 123 -- t| Propagating Mechanism of Inflation g| 124 -- t| Monetary Aspects of the Inflationary Process g| 130 -- t| Brazil's Authoritarian Budgetary Process g| 135 -- t| Indexation g| 136 -- t| Controlling Inflation through Index Tampering g| 138 -- t| Price Controls g| 138 -- g| 8. t| Decline and Fall of Brazil's Cruzado g| 145 -- t| Events Leading to the Cruzado Plan g| 148 -- t| Cruzado Plan g| 148 -- t| Emerging Difficulties and Contradictions g| 150 -- t| Breakdown of the Cruzado Plan g| 165 -- t| External Debt g| 167 -- t| Evaluation g| 168 -- g| 9. t| Brazil's Drifting Economy: Stagnation and Inflation during 1987-93 g| 173 -- t| General Setting g| 173 -- t| Sarney after the Cruzado Collapse g| 175 -- t| Fiscal Impact of the 1988 Constitution g| 178 -- t| Collor Period--Collor I g| 178 -- t| Collor Period--Collor II g| 182 -- t| Itamar Franco Period: An Interregnum g| 187 -- t| A Statistical Review of the Years 1987-93 g| 188 -- t| Brazil's Stagflation, 1987-93: An Interpretation g| 192 -- g| 10. t| Illusion of Stability: The Brazilian Economy Under Cardoso g| 199 -- t| Plano Real g| 199 -- t| Initial Impact of the Real g| 201 -- t| Exchange Rate Becomes the Key Policy Instrument g| 204 -- t| Unresolved Fiscal Dilemma g| 205 -- t| Capital Flows g| 212 -- t| Performance of the Real Economy g| 212 -- t| Banking Crisis g| 214 -- t| Crisis 1998-99 g| 215 -- g| Part II t| Contemporary Issues g| 221 -- g| 11. t| External Sector: Trade and Foreign Investments g| 223 -- t| International Economic Policies in the ISI Period g| 223 -- t| "Outward-Looking" Policies of the 1964-74 Period g| 225 -- t| From Debt-Led Growth to the Debt Crisis g| 226 -- t| Opening of the Economy in the 1990s g| 226 -- t| Statistical Summary of Brazil's International Position g| 226 -- t| Brazil's Ties with the Outside World g| 228 -- t| Complementarity versus Competitiveness in Brazil's Relations with the Industrialized World g| 234 -- t| Foreign Investments in Brazil: Their Benefits and Costs g| 235 -- t| Historical Perspective g| 235 -- t| 1950-86 Period g| 237 -- t| Benefits and Costs of Multinationals: Some General Considerations g| 240 -- t| A Brief Survey of the Empirical Evidence g| 248 -- t| Government Policies and the Behavior of Multinationals in Brazil g| 253 -- t| Era of Neoliberalism: The 1990s g| 254 -- t| A Statistical Picture of FDI in Brazil g| 256 -- t| Impact of Foreign Investments in the 1990s g| 258 -- g| 12. t| Brazil's Extended Public Sector: Its Changing Role and Privatization g| 267 -- t| Stages in the Growth of State Involvement in the Economy g| 268 -- t| 1970s and the 1980s g| 274 -- t| Degree of State Control over the Economy g| 276 -- t| Government Control over Savings and Their Distribution g| 279 -- t| Decay of Public Enterprises g| 283 -- t| Privatization as a Solution to the State's Bankruptcy g| 284 -- t| Privatization Process in the Collor Administration g| 286 -- t| Privatization in the 1990s g| 287 -- t| Wealth Distribution Effect of Privatization g| 289 -- t| Income Distribution Effect of Privatization g| 292 -- g| 13. t| Banking System: Privatization and Restructuring g| 301 -- t| A Brief Historical Perspective g| 302 -- t| Bank Behavior During High Inflation Periods g| 304 -- t| Stability and Institutional Change g| 306 -- t| Banking Sector Restructuring g| 310 -- t| Implications g| 316 -- g| 14. t| Regional Imbalances g| 323 -- t| Degree of Regional Inequality g| 323 -- t| Dynamics of Regional Inequalities g| 331 -- t| Internal Population Migration g| 333 -- t| Interaction between the Northeast and the Center-South g| 334 -- t| Resource Transfers through the Fiscal Mechanism g| 339 -- t| Regional Policies g| 340 -- t| Regional Trends in the 1980s: The Northeast versus Brazil g| 343 -- t| Northeast in an Increasingly Open Economy g| 346 -- t| Structural Weaknesses of the Northeastern Economy g| 350 -- t| Market, the State, and Regional Equity g| 351 -- g| 15. t| Performance of Agriculture g| 357 -- t| Growth of Agricultural Output Since World War II g| 358 -- t| Changes in Production Methods g| 361 -- t| Regional Patterns g| 365 -- t| Sources of Agricultural Growth g| 366 -- t| Distribution of Land g| 369 -- t| Rural Poverty g| 372 -- t| Agricultural Policies g| 373 -- t| Brazil's Agriculture in the 1990s g| 376 -- t| Policy Reforms in the Late 1980s and 1990s g| 378 -- t| Agricultural Employment g| 380 -- g| 16. t| Environmental Aspects of Brazil's Development g| 385 -- t| Economic Expansion and the Environment in Historical Perspective g| 386 -- t| Industrialization, Urban Growth, and the Environment g| 387 -- t| Industrial Pollution g| 390 -- t| Urban Pollution g| 395 -- t| Urban Poverty and the Environment g| 396 -- t| Summary View of the Environmental Degradation from Urban Poverty g| 397 -- t| Agricultural Growth and the Environment g| 400 -- t| Amazon Strategy and the Environment g| 405 -- t| Extent of Amazon deforestation g| 409 -- t| Brazil's Environmental Policies g| 412 -- t| Policies to Curtail Urban-Industrial Pollution g| 413 -- g| 17. t| Health in Brazil's Development Process g| 425 -- t| Health Record g| 426 -- t| Health and Health Care in Brazil Prior to the Mid-1980s g| 429 -- t| 1988 Constitution and Its Impact on Brazil's Health Delivery System g| 432 -- t| Private versus Public Contributions to Brazil's Health Care g| 434 -- t| Distribution of Health Care g| 434 -- t| Health Status in Brazil g| 435 -- t| Demand for Health Services g| 436 -- t| Expenditures on Health g| 436 -- t| Financing of Health Care g| 437 -- g| 18. t| Structural Changes in Brazil's Industrial Economy, 1960-95 g| 441 -- t| General Structural Changes g| 442 -- t| Brazil's Post-World War II Industrial History g| 443 -- t| Structural Changes, 1959-98 g| 446.
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