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The Phonological Structure of the Verbal Roots in Arabic and Hebrew

by Bernard N. Bachra
Format
Book
Published
Leiden [The Netherlands] ; Boston : Brill, 2001.
Language
English
Series
Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics
ISBN
9004120084 (alk. paper)
Contents
  • Chapter 1. General introduction, purpose and scope of this study
  • 1.3 Accidental absence or presence 4
  • 1.4 Outline and Organization of the Presentation 6
  • Chapter 2. Verbal roots of Arabic and Hebrew and their autosegmental representation
  • 2.1 Aspects of the phonology of Arabic and Hebrew 8
  • 2.1.1 Consonant phonemes of Arabic 9
  • 2.1.2 Consonant phonemes of Hebrew 9
  • 2.1.3 Subdivision of the consonants into phonological groups 12
  • 2.2 Types of verbal roots 12
  • 2.3 Autosegmental representation of phonological features 16
  • 2.3.1 Autosegmental representation of tonal features 16
  • 2.3.2 Autosegmental representation of the Arabic verb 18
  • 2.3.3 Autosegmental representation of the Hebrew verb 22
  • 2.3.4 Further developments and criticisms of McCarthy's model 23
  • Chapter 3. Earlier work on co-occurrence restrictions in Semitic
  • 3.1 Phonological constraints on pairs of consonants 25
  • 3.2 Pregenerative approach 26
  • 3.2.1 Work of Cantineau on Classical Arabic 26
  • 3.2.2 Work of Greenberg on Classical Arabic 27
  • 3.2.3 Work of Koskinen on Biblical Hebrew 31
  • 3.2.4 Work of Reiner on Akkadian 32
  • 3.2.5 Work of Kurylowicz work on Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew 34
  • 3.2.6 Work of Morgenbrod and Serifi on HEB 35
  • 3.2.7 Work of Weitzman on Biblical Hebrew and Classical Arabic 38
  • 3.2.8 Work of Tobin on Modern Israeli Hebrew 40
  • 3.2.9 Work of Petracek on Classical Arabic 41
  • 3.3 Generative approach 41
  • 3.3.1 Work of Yip on Modern Standard Arabic 41
  • 3.3.2 Work of McCarthy on Modern Standard Arabic 43
  • 3.3.3 A gradient model of OCP-Place 45
  • 3.4 Discussion of the earlier work on co-occurrence restrictions and preferences 46
  • 3.4.1 Some general remarks 46
  • 3.4.2 Comparison of the findings in the earlier studies 47
  • 3.4.2.1 Structuralist approach 47
  • 3.4.2.2 Generative approach 48
  • Chapter 4. Methodology used in this study
  • 4.1 Files of verbal roots 51
  • 4.2 Method of calculation for the triliterals 52
  • 4.3 Method of calculation for the quadriliterals 56
  • 4.4 Possible effects of low frequencies of occurrence 57
  • 4.5 Two approaches used in this study 58
  • Chapter 5. Co-occurrence restrictions which act on the consonants in the verbal root patterns of Arabic and Hebrew
  • 5.2 Types of phonological constraints which can cause co-occurrence restrictions 62
  • 5.3 Consonant distribution in the three root positions of the Triliterals 63
  • 5.3.1 Positional constraints 63
  • 5.3.2 Positional preferences 64
  • 5.4 Combinatory constraints which act on triliterals 65
  • 5.4.1 Absolute combinatory and ordering constraints 65
  • 5.4.2 Relative (statistical) combinatory constraints 66
  • 5.4.2.1 Relative combinatory constraints on consonants from the same group 66
  • 5.4.2.2 Relative combinatory constraints on consonants from different groups 67
  • 5.5 Ordering constraints which act on triliterals 68
  • 5.6 Co-occurrence restrictions on specific consonants 68
  • 5.6.1 Labials and the coronal sonorants 68
  • 5.6.1.1 Root patterns with two labials, two coronal sonorants or one labial and one coronal sonorant 69
  • 5.6.1.2 Root patterns with a labial or a coronal sonorant and one of the consonant groups 69
  • 5.6.2 Status of the fa' and the jim in Arabic and of the sade in Hebrew 70
  • 5.6.3 Status of the uvular stop /q/ 71
  • 5.7 Co-occurrence restrictions on consonant pairs in the Mediae Geminatae 72
  • 5.8 Co-occurrence restrictions on the quadriliterals 72
  • 5.8.1 Combinatory constraints 73
  • 5.8.2 Ordering constraints 74
  • 5.9 Co-occurrence restrictions on root patterns of the type C1C2C1C2 74
  • 5.10 Co-occurrence restrictions on triliteral root patterns with three specified root positions 75
  • 5.10.1 Root patterns with three specified consonant groups 76
  • 5.10.2 Root patternsn with two specified consonant groups and a labial or a coronal sonorant 79
  • Chapter 6. Co-occurrence preferences for verbal roots in Arabic and Hebrew
  • 6.2 Co-occurrence preferences for triliteral root patterns with two specified consonant groups 80
  • 6.2.1 Combinatory preferences for consonant pairs from different groups 81
  • 6.2.2 Ordering preferences for consonant pairs from different groups 83
  • 6.2.3 Summary of combinatory and ordering preferences for the triliterals 87
  • 6.3 Co-occurrence preferences for triliterals with a labial or a coronal sonorant and one of the consonant groups 88
  • 6.3.1 Combinatory preferences 88
  • 6.3.2 Ordering preferences 89
  • 6.3.3 Summary of the findings 93
  • 6.4 Co-occurrence preferences for consonant pairs in the Mediae Geminatae 94
  • 6.5 Co-occurrence preferences for consonant pairs in the quadriliterals 94
  • 6.6 Co-occurrence preferences for consonant pairs in the root patterns of the type C1C2C1C2 97
  • 6.7 Preferred triliteral root patterns with three specified root positions 98
  • 6.7.1 Consonant groups classified on the basis of Manner 98
  • 6.7.2 Consonant groups classified on the basis of Place 101
  • 6.7.3 Summary of the findings for the preferred root patterns with three specified consonant groups 105
  • 6.8 Triliteral root patterns with three specified positions which contain a labial or a coronal sonorant 106
  • 6.8.1 Consonant groups classified on the basis of Manner 106
  • 6.8.2 Consonant groups classified on the basis of Place 108
  • 6.8.3 Summary of the findings for the Triliterals with three specified positions and a labial or a coronal sonorant 110
  • 6.9 Co-occurrence preferences among the Quadriliterals of the type C1C2C3C3 110
  • Chapter 7. Co-occurrence restrictions and co-occurrence preference in Arabic and Hebrew. Refinement and summary of the findings
  • 7.2 Co-occurrence restrictions on triliterals with two specified root positions 112
  • 7.2.1 Restrictions on pairs of consonant groups 112
  • 7.2.1.1 Co-occurrence restrictions on the basis of Manner 113
  • 7.2.1.1.1 Pairs of consonant groups classified on the basis of Manner 113
  • 7.2.1.1.2 Pairs of an individual labial or coronal sonorant and consonant groups classified on the basis of Manner 114
  • 7.2.1.2 Restrictions on the basis of Place 114
  • 7.2.1.2.1 Pairs of consonant groups classified on the basis of Place 114
  • 7.2.1.2.2 Pairs of an individual labial or a coronal sonorant and a consonant group classified on the basis of Place 115
  • 7.2.1.2.3 Pairs consisting of individual labial and coronal sonorants 116
  • 7.3 Co-occurrence preferences for triliterals 117
  • 7.3.1 Root patterns with two specified positions 117
  • 7.3.1.1 Preferences on the basis of Manner 117
  • 7.3.1.2 Preferences on the basis of Place 118
  • 7.3.1.2.1 Comparison of root patterns with coronal stops or coronal fricatives 118
  • 7.3.1.2.2 Root patterns with coronal obstruents as a group and other consonant groups 118
  • 7.3.1.2.3 Triliteral root patterns with an individual labial or a coronal sonorant and one of the consonant groups 119
  • 7.4 Co-occurrence relationships of the quadriliterals with two specified root positions 120
  • 7.4.1 Quadriliterals different from C1C2C1C2 or C1C2C3C3 120
  • 7.4.2 Quadriliterals of the type C1C2C1C2 122
  • 7.5 Co-occurrence preferences for triliterals with three specified root positions 123
  • 7.5.1 Preferences on the basis of Manner 123
  • 7.5.1.1 Root patterns with three specified consonants groups 123
  • 7.5.1.1.1 Root patterns with stops or fricatives in two positions 123
  • 7.5.1.1.2 Root patterns with both stops and fricatives 124
  • 7.5.1.1.3 Root patterns with nasals or liquids adjacent to stops or fricatives 125
  • 7.5.1.1.4 Root patterns with both nasals and liquids 126
  • 7.5.1.2 Root patterns with an individual labial or as coronal sonorant and stops and/or fricatives 126
  • 7.5.2 Preferences on the basis of Place 128
  • 7.5.2.1 Root patterns with three specified consonants groups 128
  • 7.5.2.1.1 Root patterns with coronal stops, coronal fricatives or coronal obstruents as a group 128
  • 7.5.2.1.2 Root patterns with various consonant groups 129
  • 7.5.2.2 Root patterns with an individual labial or a coronal sonorant and two specified consonant groups 133
  • 7.6 Comparison of the Mediae Geminatae and the triliterals with three specified positions 134
  • Chapter 8. Theoretical implications
  • 8.2 Co-occurrence restrictions. The OCP and the NBC 136
  • 8.3 Co-occurrence relationships of the uvular stop /q/ 137
  • 8.4 Role of [continuant] in the co-occurrence relationships 143
  • 8.4.1 Root patterns classified on the basis of Manner 143
  • 8.4.2 Root patterns classified on the basis of Place 145
  • 8.5 Sonority and Manner features 147
  • 8.5.1 Can Sonority be defined phonologically? 147
  • 8.5.2 Sonority and Manner features in feature geometry 149
  • 8.6 Co-occurrence relationships of nasals, liquids and coronal sonorants 153
  • 8.7 Root patterns with three specified positions classified on the basis of Place 155
  • 8.7.1 Root patterns with expected frequencies 155
  • 8.7.2 Preferred root patterns 156
  • 8.8 Quadriliterals and triliterals. Similarities and differences in their co-occurrence relationships 157
  • 8.9 Other explanations for the co-occurrence restrictions 158
  • 8.9.1 Intersyllabic consonant clusters 158
  • 8.9.2 Verbal roots are an abstraction and the OCP is not needed 160
  • 8.9.3 Unknown morphological processes in unwritten precursor languages 164
  • 8.9.4 OCP acts on biconsonantal precursors of the roots 167
  • -- 8.10 Co-occurrence restrictions and co-occurrence preferences. Rules and exceptions 170
  • 8.10.1 Explaining the fairly large number of roots of the type C1C1X in MIH 171
  • 8.10.2 Reasons why co-occurrence restrictions are relative (statistical) and not absolute 172
  • 8.10.3 Preferences by chance or by phonological factors 174
  • 8.10.3.1 Root patterns classified on the basis of Manner 174
  • 8.10.3.2 Root patterns classified on the basis of Place 175
  • 8.10.3.3 Lack of proper acoustic and perceptual features 176
  • 8.11 Comparison of the co-occurrence relationships of the consonants in the verbal roots of AR, BH and HEB 177
  • 8.12 Reasons for the differences between AR, BH and HEB 181.
Description
xiv, 325 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
Notes
Includes bibliographical references (p. [189]-193) and index.
Series Statement
Studies in Semitic languages and linguistics ; v. 34
Studies in Semitic languages and linguistics 34
Technical Details
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    a| The phonological structure of the verbal roots in Arabic and Hebrew / c| by Bernard N. Bachra.
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    g| Chapter 1. t| General introduction, purpose and scope of this study -- g| 1.3 t| Accidental absence or presence g| 4 -- g| 1.4 t| Outline and Organization of the Presentation g| 6 -- g| Chapter 2. t| Verbal roots of Arabic and Hebrew and their autosegmental representation -- g| 2.1 t| Aspects of the phonology of Arabic and Hebrew g| 8 -- g| 2.1.1 t| Consonant phonemes of Arabic g| 9 -- g| 2.1.2 t| Consonant phonemes of Hebrew g| 9 -- g| 2.1.3 t| Subdivision of the consonants into phonological groups g| 12 -- g| 2.2 t| Types of verbal roots g| 12 -- g| 2.3 t| Autosegmental representation of phonological features g| 16 -- g| 2.3.1 t| Autosegmental representation of tonal features g| 16 -- g| 2.3.2 t| Autosegmental representation of the Arabic verb g| 18 -- g| 2.3.3 t| Autosegmental representation of the Hebrew verb g| 22 -- g| 2.3.4 t| Further developments and criticisms of McCarthy's model g| 23 -- g| Chapter 3. t| Earlier work on co-occurrence restrictions in Semitic -- g| 3.1 t| Phonological constraints on pairs of consonants g| 25 -- g| 3.2 t| Pregenerative approach g| 26 -- g| 3.2.1 t| Work of Cantineau on Classical Arabic g| 26 -- g| 3.2.2 t| Work of Greenberg on Classical Arabic g| 27 -- g| 3.2.3 t| Work of Koskinen on Biblical Hebrew g| 31 -- g| 3.2.4 t| Work of Reiner on Akkadian g| 32 -- g| 3.2.5 t| Work of Kurylowicz work on Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew g| 34 -- g| 3.2.6 t| Work of Morgenbrod and Serifi on HEB g| 35 -- g| 3.2.7 t| Work of Weitzman on Biblical Hebrew and Classical Arabic g| 38 -- g| 3.2.8 t| Work of Tobin on Modern Israeli Hebrew g| 40 -- g| 3.2.9 t| Work of Petracek on Classical Arabic g| 41 -- g| 3.3 t| Generative approach g| 41 -- g| 3.3.1 t| Work of Yip on Modern Standard Arabic g| 41 -- g| 3.3.2 t| Work of McCarthy on Modern Standard Arabic g| 43 -- g| 3.3.3 t| A gradient model of OCP-Place g| 45 -- g| 3.4 t| Discussion of the earlier work on co-occurrence restrictions and preferences g| 46 -- g| 3.4.1 t| Some general remarks g| 46 -- g| 3.4.2 t| Comparison of the findings in the earlier studies g| 47 -- g| 3.4.2.1 t| Structuralist approach g| 47 -- g| 3.4.2.2 t| Generative approach g| 48 -- g| Chapter 4. t| Methodology used in this study -- g| 4.1 t| Files of verbal roots g| 51 -- g| 4.2 t| Method of calculation for the triliterals g| 52 -- g| 4.3 t| Method of calculation for the quadriliterals g| 56 -- g| 4.4 t| Possible effects of low frequencies of occurrence g| 57 -- g| 4.5 t| Two approaches used in this study g| 58 -- g| Chapter 5. t| Co-occurrence restrictions which act on the consonants in the verbal root patterns of Arabic and Hebrew -- g| 5.2 t| Types of phonological constraints which can cause co-occurrence restrictions g| 62 -- g| 5.3 t| Consonant distribution in the three root positions of the Triliterals g| 63 -- g| 5.3.1 t| Positional constraints g| 63 -- g| 5.3.2 t| Positional preferences g| 64 -- g| 5.4 t| Combinatory constraints which act on triliterals g| 65 -- g| 5.4.1 t| Absolute combinatory and ordering constraints g| 65 -- g| 5.4.2 t| Relative (statistical) combinatory constraints g| 66 -- g| 5.4.2.1 t| Relative combinatory constraints on consonants from the same group g| 66 -- g| 5.4.2.2 t| Relative combinatory constraints on consonants from different groups g| 67 -- g| 5.5 t| Ordering constraints which act on triliterals g| 68 -- g| 5.6 t| Co-occurrence restrictions on specific consonants g| 68 -- g| 5.6.1 t| Labials and the coronal sonorants g| 68 -- g| 5.6.1.1 t| Root patterns with two labials, two coronal sonorants or one labial and one coronal sonorant g| 69 -- g| 5.6.1.2 t| Root patterns with a labial or a coronal sonorant and one of the consonant groups g| 69 -- g| 5.6.2 t| Status of the fa' and the jim in Arabic and of the sade in Hebrew g| 70 -- g| 5.6.3 t| Status of the uvular stop /q/ g| 71 -- g| 5.7 t| Co-occurrence restrictions on consonant pairs in the Mediae Geminatae g| 72 -- g| 5.8 t| Co-occurrence restrictions on the quadriliterals g| 72 -- g| 5.8.1 t| Combinatory constraints g| 73 -- g| 5.8.2 t| Ordering constraints g| 74 -- g| 5.9 t| Co-occurrence restrictions on root patterns of the type C1C2C1C2 g| 74 -- g| 5.10 t| Co-occurrence restrictions on triliteral root patterns with three specified root positions g| 75 -- g| 5.10.1 t| Root patterns with three specified consonant groups g| 76 -- g| 5.10.2 t| Root patternsn with two specified consonant groups and a labial or a coronal sonorant g| 79 -- g| Chapter 6. t| Co-occurrence preferences for verbal roots in Arabic and Hebrew -- g| 6.2 t| Co-occurrence preferences for triliteral root patterns with two specified consonant groups g| 80 -- g| 6.2.1 t| Combinatory preferences for consonant pairs from different groups g| 81 -- g| 6.2.2 t| Ordering preferences for consonant pairs from different groups g| 83 -- g| 6.2.3 t| Summary of combinatory and ordering preferences for the triliterals g| 87 -- g| 6.3 t| Co-occurrence preferences for triliterals with a labial or a coronal sonorant and one of the consonant groups g| 88 -- g| 6.3.1 t| Combinatory preferences g| 88 -- g| 6.3.2 t| Ordering preferences g| 89 -- g| 6.3.3 t| Summary of the findings g| 93 -- g| 6.4 t| Co-occurrence preferences for consonant pairs in the Mediae Geminatae g| 94 -- g| 6.5 t| Co-occurrence preferences for consonant pairs in the quadriliterals g| 94 -- g| 6.6 t| Co-occurrence preferences for consonant pairs in the root patterns of the type C1C2C1C2 g| 97 -- g| 6.7 t| Preferred triliteral root patterns with three specified root positions g| 98 -- g| 6.7.1 t| Consonant groups classified on the basis of Manner g| 98 -- g| 6.7.2 t| Consonant groups classified on the basis of Place g| 101 -- g| 6.7.3 t| Summary of the findings for the preferred root patterns with three specified consonant groups g| 105 -- g| 6.8 t| Triliteral root patterns with three specified positions which contain a labial or a coronal sonorant g| 106 -- g| 6.8.1 t| Consonant groups classified on the basis of Manner g| 106 -- g| 6.8.2 t| Consonant groups classified on the basis of Place g| 108 -- g| 6.8.3 t| Summary of the findings for the Triliterals with three specified positions and a labial or a coronal sonorant g| 110 -- g| 6.9 t| Co-occurrence preferences among the Quadriliterals of the type C1C2C3C3 g| 110 -- g| Chapter 7. t| Co-occurrence restrictions and co-occurrence preference in Arabic and Hebrew. Refinement and summary of the findings -- g| 7.2 t| Co-occurrence restrictions on triliterals with two specified root positions g| 112 -- g| 7.2.1 t| Restrictions on pairs of consonant groups g| 112 -- g| 7.2.1.1 t| Co-occurrence restrictions on the basis of Manner g| 113 -- g| 7.2.1.1.1 t| Pairs of consonant groups classified on the basis of Manner g| 113 -- g| 7.2.1.1.2 t| Pairs of an individual labial or coronal sonorant and consonant groups classified on the basis of Manner g| 114 -- g| 7.2.1.2 t| Restrictions on the basis of Place g| 114 -- g| 7.2.1.2.1 t| Pairs of consonant groups classified on the basis of Place g| 114 -- g| 7.2.1.2.2 t| Pairs of an individual labial or a coronal sonorant and a consonant group classified on the basis of Place g| 115 -- g| 7.2.1.2.3 t| Pairs consisting of individual labial and coronal sonorants g| 116 -- g| 7.3 t| Co-occurrence preferences for triliterals g| 117 -- g| 7.3.1 t| Root patterns with two specified positions g| 117 -- g| 7.3.1.1 t| Preferences on the basis of Manner g| 117 -- g| 7.3.1.2 t| Preferences on the basis of Place g| 118 -- g| 7.3.1.2.1 t| Comparison of root patterns with coronal stops or coronal fricatives g| 118 -- g| 7.3.1.2.2 t| Root patterns with coronal obstruents as a group and other consonant groups g| 118 -- g| 7.3.1.2.3 t| Triliteral root patterns with an individual labial or a coronal sonorant and one of the consonant groups g| 119 -- g| 7.4 t| Co-occurrence relationships of the quadriliterals with two specified root positions g| 120 -- g| 7.4.1 t| Quadriliterals different from C1C2C1C2 or C1C2C3C3 g| 120 -- g| 7.4.2 t| Quadriliterals of the type C1C2C1C2 g| 122 -- g| 7.5 t| Co-occurrence preferences for triliterals with three specified root positions g| 123 -- g| 7.5.1 t| Preferences on the basis of Manner g| 123 -- g| 7.5.1.1 t| Root patterns with three specified consonants groups g| 123 -- g| 7.5.1.1.1 t| Root patterns with stops or fricatives in two positions g| 123 -- g| 7.5.1.1.2 t| Root patterns with both stops and fricatives g| 124 -- g| 7.5.1.1.3 t| Root patterns with nasals or liquids adjacent to stops or fricatives g| 125 -- g| 7.5.1.1.4 t| Root patterns with both nasals and liquids g| 126 -- g| 7.5.1.2 t| Root patterns with an individual labial or as coronal sonorant and stops and/or fricatives g| 126 -- g| 7.5.2 t| Preferences on the basis of Place g| 128 -- g| 7.5.2.1 t| Root patterns with three specified consonants groups g| 128 -- g| 7.5.2.1.1 t| Root patterns with coronal stops, coronal fricatives or coronal obstruents as a group g| 128 -- g| 7.5.2.1.2 t| Root patterns with various consonant groups g| 129 -- g| 7.5.2.2 t| Root patterns with an individual labial or a coronal sonorant and two specified consonant groups g| 133 -- g| 7.6 t| Comparison of the Mediae Geminatae and the triliterals with three specified positions g| 134 -- g| Chapter 8. t| Theoretical implications -- g| 8.2 t| Co-occurrence restrictions. The OCP and the NBC g| 136 -- g| 8.3 t| Co-occurrence relationships of the uvular stop /q/ g| 137 -- g| 8.4 t| Role of [continuant] in the co-occurrence relationships g| 143 -- g| 8.4.1 t| Root patterns classified on the basis of Manner g| 143 -- g| 8.4.2 t| Root patterns classified on the basis of Place g| 145 -- g| 8.5 t| Sonority and Manner features g| 147 -- g| 8.5.1 t| Can Sonority be defined phonologically? g| 147 -- g| 8.5.2 t| Sonority and Manner features in feature geometry g| 149 -- g| 8.6 t| Co-occurrence relationships of nasals, liquids and coronal sonorants g| 153 -- g| 8.7 t| Root patterns with three specified positions classified on the basis of Place g| 155 -- g| 8.7.1 t| Root patterns with expected frequencies g| 155 -- g| 8.7.2 t| Preferred root patterns g| 156 -- g| 8.8 t| Quadriliterals and triliterals. Similarities and differences in their co-occurrence relationships g| 157 -- g| 8.9 t| Other explanations for the co-occurrence restrictions g| 158 -- g| 8.9.1 t| Intersyllabic consonant clusters g| 158 -- g| 8.9.2 t| Verbal roots are an abstraction and the OCP is not needed g| 160 -- g| 8.9.3 t| Unknown morphological processes in unwritten precursor languages g| 164 -- g| 8.9.4 t| OCP acts on biconsonantal precursors of the roots g| 167 --
    505
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    g| 8.10 t| Co-occurrence restrictions and co-occurrence preferences. Rules and exceptions g| 170 -- g| 8.10.1 t| Explaining the fairly large number of roots of the type C1C1X in MIH g| 171 -- g| 8.10.2 t| Reasons why co-occurrence restrictions are relative (statistical) and not absolute g| 172 -- g| 8.10.3 t| Preferences by chance or by phonological factors g| 174 -- g| 8.10.3.1 t| Root patterns classified on the basis of Manner g| 174 -- g| 8.10.3.2 t| Root patterns classified on the basis of Place g| 175 -- g| 8.10.3.3 t| Lack of proper acoustic and perceptual features g| 176 -- g| 8.11 t| Comparison of the co-occurrence relationships of the consonants in the verbal roots of AR, BH and HEB g| 177 -- g| 8.12 t| Reasons for the differences between AR, BH and HEB g| 181.
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    a| Arabic language x| Verb.
    650
      
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    a| Hebrew language x| Verb.
    650
      
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    a| Arabic language x| Phonology, Comparative x| Hebrew.
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    a| Hebrew language x| Phonology, Comparative x| Arabic.
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    a| Studies in Semitic languages and linguistics v| 34.
    999
      
      
    a| PJ6351 .B33 2001 w| LC i| X004477622 l| STACKS m| ALDERMAN t| BOOK
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