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Reliability, Maintainability, and Risk: Practical Methods for Engineers

David J. Smith
Format
Book
Published
Oxford ; Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001.
Edition
6th ed
Language
English
ISBN
0750651687
Contents
  • Part 1 Understanding Reliability Parameters and Costs 1
  • 1 History of reliability and safety technology 3
  • 1.1 Failure data 3
  • 1.2 Hazardous failures 4
  • 1.3 Reliability and risk prediction 5
  • 1.4 Achieving reliability and safety-integrity 6
  • 1.5 RAMS-cycle 7
  • 1.6 Contractual pressures 9
  • 2 Understanding terms and jargon 11
  • 2.1 Defining failure and failure modes 11
  • 2.2 Failure Rate and Mean Time Between Failures 12
  • 2.3 Interrelationships of terms 14
  • 2.4 Bathtub Distribution 16
  • 2.5 Down Time and Repair Time 17
  • 2.6 Availability 20
  • 2.7 Hazard and risk-related terms 20
  • 2.8 Choosing the appropriate parameter 21
  • 3 A cost-effective approach to quality, reliability and safety 23
  • 3.1 Cost of quality 23
  • 3.2 Reliability and cost 26
  • 3.3 Costs and safety 29
  • Part 2 Interpreting Failure Rates 33
  • 4 Realistic failure rates and prediction confidence 35
  • 4.1 Data accuracy 35
  • 4.2 Sources of data 37
  • 4.3 Data ranges 41
  • 4.4 Confidence limits of prediction 44
  • 4.5 Overall conclusions 46
  • 5 Interpreting data and demonstrating reliability 47
  • 5.1 Four cases 47
  • 5.2 Inference and confidence levels 47
  • 5.3 Chi-square Test 49
  • 5.4 Double-sided confidence limits 50
  • 5.5 Summarizing the Chi-square Test 51
  • 5.6 Reliability demonstration 52
  • 5.7 Sequential testing 56
  • 5.8 Setting up demonstration tests 57
  • 6 Variable failure rates and probability plotting 58
  • 6.1 Weibull Distribution 58
  • 6.2 Using the Weibull Method 60
  • 6.3 More complex cases of the Weibull Distribution 67
  • 6.4 Continuous processes 68
  • Part 3 Predicting Reliability and Risk 71
  • 7 Essential reliability theory 73
  • 7.1 Why predict RAMS? 73
  • 7.2 Probability theory 73
  • 7.3 Reliability of series systems 76
  • 7.4 Redundancy rules 77
  • 7.5 General features of redundancy 83
  • 8 Methods of modelling 87
  • 8.1 Block Diagram and Markov Analysis 87
  • 8.2 Common cause (dependent) failure 98
  • 8.3 Fault Tree Analysis 103
  • 8.4 Event Tree Diagrams 110
  • 9 Quantifying the reliability models 114
  • 9.1 Reliability prediction method 114
  • 9.2 Allowing for diagnostic intervals 115
  • 9.3 FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) 117
  • 9.4 Human factors 118
  • 9.5 Simulation 123
  • 9.6 Comparing predictions with targets 126
  • 10 Risk assessment (QRA) 128
  • 10.1 Frequency and consequence 128
  • 10.2 Perception of risk and ALARP 129
  • 10.3 Hazard identification 130
  • 10.4 Factors to quantify 135
  • Part 4 Achieving Reliability and Maintainability 140
  • 11 Design and assurance techniques 142
  • 11.1 Specifying and allocating the requirement 142
  • 11.2 Stress analysis 145
  • 11.3 Environmental stress protection 148
  • 11.4 Failure mechanisms 148
  • 11.5 Complexity and parts 150
  • 11.6 Burn-in and screening 153
  • 11.7 Maintenance strategies 154
  • 12 Design review and test 155
  • 12.1 Review techniques 155
  • 12.2 Categories of testing 156
  • 12.3 Reliability growth modelling 160
  • 13 Field data collection and feedback 164
  • 13.1 Reasons for data collection 164
  • 13.2 Information and difficulties 164
  • 13.3 Times to failure 165
  • 13.4 Spreadsheets and databases 166
  • 13.5 Best practice and recommendations 168
  • 13.6 Analysis and presentation of results 169
  • 13.7 Examples of failure report forms 170
  • 14 Factors influencing down time 173
  • 14.1 Key design areas 173
  • 14.2 Maintenance strategies and handbooks 180
  • 15 Predicting and demonstrating repair times 193
  • 15.1 Prediction methods 193
  • 15.2 Demonstration plans 201
  • 16 Quantified reliability centred maintenance 205
  • 16.1 What is QRCM? 205
  • 16.2 QRCM decision process 206
  • 16.3 Optimum replacement (discard) 207
  • 16.4 Optimume spares 209
  • 16.5 Optimum proof-test 210
  • 16.6 Condition monitoring 211
  • 17 Software quality/reliability 213
  • 17.1 Programmable devices 213
  • 17.2 Software failures 214
  • 17.3 Software failure modelling 215
  • 17.4 Software quality assurance 217
  • 17.5 Modern/formal methods 223
  • 17.6 Software checklists 226
  • Part 5 Legal, Management and Safety Considerations 231
  • 18 Project management 233
  • 18.1 Setting objectives and specifications 233
  • 18.2 Planning, feasibility and allocation 234
  • 18.3 Programme activities 234
  • 18.4 Responsibilities 237
  • 18.5 Standards and guidance documents 237
  • 19 Contract clauses and their pitfalls 238
  • 19.1 Essential areas 238
  • 19.2 Other areas 241
  • 19.3 Pitfalls 242
  • 19.4 Penalties 244
  • 19.5 Subcontracted reliability assessments 246
  • 20 Product liability and safety legislation 248
  • 20.2 Strict liability 249
  • 20.3 Consumer Protection Act 1987 250
  • 20.4 Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 251
  • 20.5 Insurance and product recall 252
  • 21 Major incident legislation 254
  • 21.1 History of major incidents 254
  • 21.2 Development of major incident legislation 255
  • 21.3 CIMAH safety reports 256
  • 21.4 Offshore safety cases 259
  • 21.5 Problem areas 261
  • 21.6 COMAH directive (1999) 262
  • 22 Integrity of safety-related systems 263
  • 22.1 Safety-related or safety-critical? 263
  • 22.2 Safety-integrity levels (SILs) 264
  • 22.3 Programmable electronic systems (PESs) 266
  • 22.4 Current guidance 268
  • 22.5 Accreditation and conformity of assessment 272
  • 23 A case study: The Datamet Project 273
  • 23.2 DATAMET Concept 273
  • 23.3 Formation of the project group 277
  • 23.4 Reliability requirements 278
  • 23.5 First design review 279
  • 23.6 Design and development 281
  • 23.7 Syndicate study 282
  • 23.8 Hints 282
  • Appendix 2 Percentage points of the Chi-square distribution 292
  • Appendix 3 Microelectronics failure rates 296
  • Appendix 4 General failure rates 298
  • Appendix 5 Failure mode percentages 305
  • Appendix 6 Human error rates 308
  • Appendix 7 Fatality rates 310
  • Appendix 10 Scoring criteria for BETAPLUS common cause model 320
  • Appendix 11 Example of HAZOP 327
  • Appendix 12 HAZID checklist 330.
Description
xii, 335 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
Notes
Includes bibliographical references (p. [317]-319) and index.
Technical Details
  • Access in Virgo Classic
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    g| Part 1 t| Understanding Reliability Parameters and Costs g| 1 -- g| 1 t| History of reliability and safety technology g| 3 -- g| 1.1 t| Failure data g| 3 -- g| 1.2 t| Hazardous failures g| 4 -- g| 1.3 t| Reliability and risk prediction g| 5 -- g| 1.4 t| Achieving reliability and safety-integrity g| 6 -- g| 1.5 t| RAMS-cycle g| 7 -- g| 1.6 t| Contractual pressures g| 9 -- g| 2 t| Understanding terms and jargon g| 11 -- g| 2.1 t| Defining failure and failure modes g| 11 -- g| 2.2 t| Failure Rate and Mean Time Between Failures g| 12 -- g| 2.3 t| Interrelationships of terms g| 14 -- g| 2.4 t| Bathtub Distribution g| 16 -- g| 2.5 t| Down Time and Repair Time g| 17 -- g| 2.6 t| Availability g| 20 -- g| 2.7 t| Hazard and risk-related terms g| 20 -- g| 2.8 t| Choosing the appropriate parameter g| 21 -- g| 3 t| A cost-effective approach to quality, reliability and safety g| 23 -- g| 3.1 t| Cost of quality g| 23 -- g| 3.2 t| Reliability and cost g| 26 -- g| 3.3 t| Costs and safety g| 29 -- g| Part 2 t| Interpreting Failure Rates g| 33 -- g| 4 t| Realistic failure rates and prediction confidence g| 35 -- g| 4.1 t| Data accuracy g| 35 -- g| 4.2 t| Sources of data g| 37 -- g| 4.3 t| Data ranges g| 41 -- g| 4.4 t| Confidence limits of prediction g| 44 -- g| 4.5 t| Overall conclusions g| 46 -- g| 5 t| Interpreting data and demonstrating reliability g| 47 -- g| 5.1 t| Four cases g| 47 -- g| 5.2 t| Inference and confidence levels g| 47 -- g| 5.3 t| Chi-square Test g| 49 -- g| 5.4 t| Double-sided confidence limits g| 50 -- g| 5.5 t| Summarizing the Chi-square Test g| 51 -- g| 5.6 t| Reliability demonstration g| 52 -- g| 5.7 t| Sequential testing g| 56 -- g| 5.8 t| Setting up demonstration tests g| 57 -- g| 6 t| Variable failure rates and probability plotting g| 58 -- g| 6.1 t| Weibull Distribution g| 58 -- g| 6.2 t| Using the Weibull Method g| 60 -- g| 6.3 t| More complex cases of the Weibull Distribution g| 67 -- g| 6.4 t| Continuous processes g| 68 -- g| Part 3 t| Predicting Reliability and Risk g| 71 -- g| 7 t| Essential reliability theory g| 73 -- g| 7.1 t| Why predict RAMS? g| 73 -- g| 7.2 t| Probability theory g| 73 -- g| 7.3 t| Reliability of series systems g| 76 -- g| 7.4 t| Redundancy rules g| 77 -- g| 7.5 t| General features of redundancy g| 83 -- g| 8 t| Methods of modelling g| 87 -- g| 8.1 t| Block Diagram and Markov Analysis g| 87 -- g| 8.2 t| Common cause (dependent) failure g| 98 -- g| 8.3 t| Fault Tree Analysis g| 103 -- g| 8.4 t| Event Tree Diagrams g| 110 -- g| 9 t| Quantifying the reliability models g| 114 -- g| 9.1 t| Reliability prediction method g| 114 -- g| 9.2 t| Allowing for diagnostic intervals g| 115 -- g| 9.3 t| FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) g| 117 -- g| 9.4 t| Human factors g| 118 -- g| 9.5 t| Simulation g| 123 -- g| 9.6 t| Comparing predictions with targets g| 126 -- g| 10 t| Risk assessment (QRA) g| 128 -- g| 10.1 t| Frequency and consequence g| 128 -- g| 10.2 t| Perception of risk and ALARP g| 129 -- g| 10.3 t| Hazard identification g| 130 -- g| 10.4 t| Factors to quantify g| 135 -- g| Part 4 t| Achieving Reliability and Maintainability g| 140 -- g| 11 t| Design and assurance techniques g| 142 -- g| 11.1 t| Specifying and allocating the requirement g| 142 -- g| 11.2 t| Stress analysis g| 145 -- g| 11.3 t| Environmental stress protection g| 148 -- g| 11.4 t| Failure mechanisms g| 148 -- g| 11.5 t| Complexity and parts g| 150 -- g| 11.6 t| Burn-in and screening g| 153 -- g| 11.7 t| Maintenance strategies g| 154 -- g| 12 t| Design review and test g| 155 -- g| 12.1 t| Review techniques g| 155 -- g| 12.2 t| Categories of testing g| 156 -- g| 12.3 t| Reliability growth modelling g| 160 -- g| 13 t| Field data collection and feedback g| 164 -- g| 13.1 t| Reasons for data collection g| 164 -- g| 13.2 t| Information and difficulties g| 164 -- g| 13.3 t| Times to failure g| 165 -- g| 13.4 t| Spreadsheets and databases g| 166 -- g| 13.5 t| Best practice and recommendations g| 168 -- g| 13.6 t| Analysis and presentation of results g| 169 -- g| 13.7 t| Examples of failure report forms g| 170 -- g| 14 t| Factors influencing down time g| 173 -- g| 14.1 t| Key design areas g| 173 -- g| 14.2 t| Maintenance strategies and handbooks g| 180 -- g| 15 t| Predicting and demonstrating repair times g| 193 -- g| 15.1 t| Prediction methods g| 193 -- g| 15.2 t| Demonstration plans g| 201 -- g| 16 t| Quantified reliability centred maintenance g| 205 -- g| 16.1 t| What is QRCM? g| 205 -- g| 16.2 t| QRCM decision process g| 206 -- g| 16.3 t| Optimum replacement (discard) g| 207 -- g| 16.4 t| Optimume spares g| 209 -- g| 16.5 t| Optimum proof-test g| 210 -- g| 16.6 t| Condition monitoring g| 211 -- g| 17 t| Software quality/reliability g| 213 -- g| 17.1 t| Programmable devices g| 213 -- g| 17.2 t| Software failures g| 214 -- g| 17.3 t| Software failure modelling g| 215 -- g| 17.4 t| Software quality assurance g| 217 -- g| 17.5 t| Modern/formal methods g| 223 -- g| 17.6 t| Software checklists g| 226 -- g| Part 5 t| Legal, Management and Safety Considerations g| 231 -- g| 18 t| Project management g| 233 -- g| 18.1 t| Setting objectives and specifications g| 233 -- g| 18.2 t| Planning, feasibility and allocation g| 234 -- g| 18.3 t| Programme activities g| 234 -- g| 18.4 t| Responsibilities g| 237 -- g| 18.5 t| Standards and guidance documents g| 237 -- g| 19 t| Contract clauses and their pitfalls g| 238 -- g| 19.1 t| Essential areas g| 238 -- g| 19.2 t| Other areas g| 241 -- g| 19.3 t| Pitfalls g| 242 -- g| 19.4 t| Penalties g| 244 -- g| 19.5 t| Subcontracted reliability assessments g| 246 -- g| 20 t| Product liability and safety legislation g| 248 -- g| 20.2 t| Strict liability g| 249 -- g| 20.3 t| Consumer Protection Act 1987 g| 250 -- g| 20.4 t| Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 g| 251 -- g| 20.5 t| Insurance and product recall g| 252 -- g| 21 t| Major incident legislation g| 254 -- g| 21.1 t| History of major incidents g| 254 -- g| 21.2 t| Development of major incident legislation g| 255 -- g| 21.3 t| CIMAH safety reports g| 256 -- g| 21.4 t| Offshore safety cases g| 259 -- g| 21.5 t| Problem areas g| 261 -- g| 21.6 t| COMAH directive (1999) g| 262 -- g| 22 t| Integrity of safety-related systems g| 263 -- g| 22.1 t| Safety-related or safety-critical? g| 263 -- g| 22.2 t| Safety-integrity levels (SILs) g| 264 -- g| 22.3 t| Programmable electronic systems (PESs) g| 266 -- g| 22.4 t| Current guidance g| 268 -- g| 22.5 t| Accreditation and conformity of assessment g| 272 -- g| 23 t| A case study: The Datamet Project g| 273 -- g| 23.2 t| DATAMET Concept g| 273 -- g| 23.3 t| Formation of the project group g| 277 -- g| 23.4 t| Reliability requirements g| 278 -- g| 23.5 t| First design review g| 279 -- g| 23.6 t| Design and development g| 281 -- g| 23.7 t| Syndicate study g| 282 -- g| 23.8 t| Hints g| 282 -- g| Appendix 2 t| Percentage points of the Chi-square distribution g| 292 -- g| Appendix 3 t| Microelectronics failure rates g| 296 -- g| Appendix 4 t| General failure rates g| 298 -- g| Appendix 5 t| Failure mode percentages g| 305 -- g| Appendix 6 t| Human error rates g| 308 -- g| Appendix 7 t| Fatality rates g| 310 -- g| Appendix 10 t| Scoring criteria for BETAPLUS common cause model g| 320 -- g| Appendix 11 t| Example of HAZOP g| 327 -- g| Appendix 12 t| HAZID checklist g| 330.
    596
      
      
    a| 5
    650
      
    0
    a| Reliability (Engineering)
    650
      
    0
    a| Maintainability (Engineering)
    650
      
    0
    a| Engineering design.
    999
      
      
    a| TA169 .S64 2001 w| LC i| X004527243 l| STACKS m| SCI-ENG t| BOOK
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