Item Details

Terrestrial Ecosystems

John D. Aber, Jerry M. Melillo
Format
Book
Published
San Diego : Harcourt Academic Press, c2001.
Edition
2nd ed
Language
English
ISBN
0120417553
Contents
  • Chapter 1 Development of Concepts in Ecosystem Science 3
  • Development of Ecosystem Concepts 4
  • Delimiting the Ecosystem 9
  • Components of Terrestrial Ecosystems 11
  • Chapter 2 Structure of Terrestrial Ecosystems 15
  • Distribution and Characteristics of Major Ecosystem Types 15
  • Vegetation Type, Plant Structure, and Major Processes 16
  • Soil Processes and Distribution of Soil Types 19
  • Major Vegetation and Soil Types of the Earth 22
  • Correlations Between Climate and Ecosystem Function 27
  • Variation Within Large Climatic Regions 30
  • Chapter 3 Measurement of Ecosystem Function I: The Carbon Balance 33
  • Carbon Balance of Terrestrial Ecosystems 33
  • Chapter 4 Measurement of Ecosystem Function II: Nutrient and Water Balances 51
  • Nutrient and Water Balances 52
  • Methods in Watershed-Ecosystem Studies 53
  • Some Results from Watershed-Ecosystem Studies 55
  • Studies on Responses to Disturbance 60
  • Chapter 5 Additional Approaches to Analysis and Synthesis in Ecosystem Studies 67
  • Analytical Methods 67
  • Gradients in Ecosystem Processes over Space and Time 73
  • Systems Analysis and Ecosystem Studies 81
  • Computer Modeling: A Synthesis Tool for Ecosystem Studies 87
  • Part 2 Mechanisms: Processes Controlling Ecosystem Structure and Function 91
  • Chapter 6 Energy, Water, and Carbon Balances over Leaves 93
  • Energy, Carbon, and Water Balance of a Leaf 94
  • Chemical and Latent Energy Exchanges 94
  • Net Radiation 103
  • Sensible Heat Exchange: Conduction and Convection 103
  • Structural and Physiological Adaptations 104
  • Leaf Structure and Function in Major Ecosystem Types 109
  • Chapter 7 Water Use and Water Balances in Ecosystems 113
  • Hydrologic Cycle of Ecosystems 113
  • Concept of Water Potential in Soils, Plants, and the Atmosphere 114
  • Integrating Water Stress over Time: An Isotope-Based Method 122
  • Chapter 8 Structure and Dynamics of Canopy Systems 127
  • Canopy Environment 127
  • Structured Canopies, Succession, and Light-Use Efficiency 132
  • Phenology: Seasonal Variation in Canopy Structure and Function 138
  • Models of Canopy Carbon Exchange 141
  • Chapter 9 Soil Development and the Soil Environment 147
  • Major Elements 148
  • Soil Environment 151
  • Soil Chemical Processes Affecting Nutrient Availability 152
  • Chapter 10 Biological Processes in Soils 169
  • Measures of Nutrient Availability 169
  • Measures Based on Rate of Mineralization from Organic Matter 170
  • Nutrient Uptake and the Biological Modification of Nutrient Availability 171
  • Chapter 11 Resource Allocation and Net Primary Production 183
  • Resource Limitations on Production: A Simplified View 184
  • Resource Pools in Plants and Their Allocation 184
  • An Ecological Enigma: Why Do Trees Stop Growing? 201
  • Chapter 12 Chemical Properties of Litter and Soil Organic Matter: The Decomposition Continuum 205
  • Organic Matter as a Resource for Microbial Growth 206
  • Biochemical Constituents of Litter and Their Rates of Decay 207
  • What Is Humus? 215
  • Formation of Humus 218
  • Decomposition and Stabilization of Humus 220
  • Three Examples of New Approaches to "Seeing" the Structure and Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter 222
  • Chapter 13 Decay Rates and Nutrient Dynamics of Litter and Soil Organic Matter 227
  • Litter Decomposition Rates 227
  • Decomposition and Nutrient Release from Humus 243
  • Important Role of Soil Organic Matter 250
  • Chapter 14 Plant-Soil Interactions: Summary Effects on Nutrient Cycles 253
  • Comparisons of Generalized Nutrient Cycles 253
  • Changes in Solution Chemistry in Ecosystems 262
  • Species Effects on Nutrient Distribution and Cycling 264
  • Chapter 15 Factors Limiting Consumption: Plant-Herbivore Interactions 271
  • Consumption as a Fraction of Net Primary Productivity 271
  • Structural and Chemical Inhibition of Herbivory 273
  • , Patterns of Herbivore Inhibitor Production in Plants 281
  • Implications 284
  • Chapter 16 Characteristics of Ecosystems with High Herbivore Consumption Rates 287
  • Ungulates and Grasses: Coevolution? 287
  • Plants, Herbivores, Carnivores, and Cyclic Patterns of Consumption in Nongrassland Systems 290
  • Stabilizing Effects of Territoriality and Predation: Moose and Wolves on Isle Royale 296
  • Effects of Vegetative Change and Climate on Irruptions of Insect Populations 302
  • Chapter 17 Role of Fire in Carbon and Nutrient Balances 307
  • Major Categories of Fire Types 308
  • Fire Frequency and Intensity in Different Types of Ecosystems 310
  • Effects on Soils and Plants 313
  • Plant Adaptations to Different Fire Regimes 318
  • Fire-Herbivory Interactions 321
  • Fire and the Management of Ecosystems 322
  • Chapter 18 Synthesis: A Generalized Theory of Ecosystem Dynamics 331
  • Successional Theories of Ecosystem Development 331
  • Physiological Theories of Ecosystem Development 338
  • Comparing Successional and Physiological Theories 342
  • Part 3 Synthesis: Dynamics of Selected Ecosystems 347
  • Chapter 19 A Fire-Dominated Ecosystem: The Taiga Forests of Interior Alaska 349
  • Taiga Forests of Interior Alaska 349
  • Fire and Succession in Taiga Forests 353
  • Experimental Modification of Taiga Ecosystems 358
  • Summary of Interactions and Relation to General Theory 358
  • Implications for Human Use of the Taiga 359
  • Boreal Forests and Global Change 360
  • Chapter 20 Serengeti: An Herbivore-Dominated Ecosystem 367
  • Environment of the Serengeti Region 367
  • Resource Partitioning and Use by Herbivores 372
  • Resource Partitioning Among Predators 376
  • Vegetation-Herbivore-Predator Interactions 378
  • Predation Versus Food as Limiting Factors in Herbivore Populations 378
  • Perturbations, Succession, and the Dynamics of the Serengeti System 379
  • Human Use and Conservation Concerns in the Serengeti 383
  • Chapter 21 A Gap-Regeneration System: The Northern Hardwood Forests of the United States 387
  • Northern Hardwood Ecosystems of New England 387
  • Patterns of Disturbance in Northern Hardwoods and Effects on Resource Availability 390
  • Species Adaptations to the Disturbance Gradient: Reproductive and Life History Strategies 392
  • Integration of Plant and Biogeochemical Responses to Disturbance 397
  • Alternate Endpoints for Succession: Species-Site Interactions 400
  • Human Use and History of the Northern Hardwoods Region 400
  • Chapter 22 Ecosystem Development over Geologic Time: The Tropical Forests of Hawaii 411
  • Hawaiian Islands 411
  • Soil Development, Soil Chemistry, and Nutrient Availability 413
  • Feedbacks Between Plant Limitations and Nutrient Cycling 418
  • Long-Range Nutrient Transport and the Long-Term Maintenance of Productivity 418
  • Human Influences and Changes in Ecosystem Function 421
  • Part 4 Application: Human Impacts on Local, Regional, and Global Ecosystems 425
  • Chapter 23 Ecosystems Managed for Food and Fiber 427
  • Malthus and the Race Between Population Growth and Increased Agricultural Production 427
  • A Gradient in the Intensity of Management of Arable Land 429
  • Management of Native Forests for Timber and Fiber 430
  • Plantation Forestry 434
  • Conserving Forest Resources 436
  • Low-Input/Low-Yield Agriculture: Traditional Practices in the Humid Tropics 436
  • Agroforestry: Increasing Yields by Intercropping and Managing the Fallow Forest 437
  • Permanent High-Yield Agriculture: An Extreme Example 442
  • Methods for Improving Sustainability 445
  • Historical Methods of Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropics 452
  • Characteristics of Sustainable Agroecosystems 452
  • Relation to Conservation of Native Ecosystems 454
  • Chapter 24 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function 459
  • Defining Biodiversity 460
  • Biodiversity at the Global Scale: Evolution and9 Extinction 461
  • Patterns of Biodiversity in Terrestrial Ecosystems 462
  • Human Effects on Biodiversity and Consequences for Ecosystems 465
  • Invasive Species and Introductions 473
  • Environmental Change and Biodiversity 475
  • Chapter 25 Effects of Air Pollution on Terrestrial Ecosystems 483
  • Air Pollution Sources 483
  • Distribution of Air Pollutants 487
  • Effects of Air Pollutants on Terrestrial Ecosystems 492
  • Effects of Individual Air Pollutants 496
  • Forest Decline: The Interactive Effects of Pollutants 501
  • Determining "Critical Loads" of Pollution 504
  • Environmental Success Stories: Pollution Reductions in the United States and Europe 505
  • Chapter 26 Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change 511
  • Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Climate 511
  • Physiological Effects of Carbon Dioxide and Climate 516
  • Historical Changes in Land Use and Carbon Storage 579
  • A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Carbon Balances: The United States as a Case Study 521
  • Predicting Net Primary Production and Carbon Balances in the Future 529.
Description
xix, 556 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. (some col.), maps (some col.) ; 26 cm.
Notes
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Technical Details
  • Access in Virgo Classic

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    a| 2nd ed.
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    a| San Diego : b| Harcourt Academic Press, c| c2001.
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    a| xix, 556 p., [16] p. of plates : b| ill. (some col.), maps (some col.) ; c| 26 cm.
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    g| Chapter 1 t| Development of Concepts in Ecosystem Science g| 3 -- t| Development of Ecosystem Concepts g| 4 -- t| Delimiting the Ecosystem g| 9 -- t| Components of Terrestrial Ecosystems g| 11 -- g| Chapter 2 t| Structure of Terrestrial Ecosystems g| 15 -- t| Distribution and Characteristics of Major Ecosystem Types g| 15 -- t| Vegetation Type, Plant Structure, and Major Processes g| 16 -- t| Soil Processes and Distribution of Soil Types g| 19 -- t| Major Vegetation and Soil Types of the Earth g| 22 -- t| Correlations Between Climate and Ecosystem Function g| 27 -- t| Variation Within Large Climatic Regions g| 30 -- g| Chapter 3 t| Measurement of Ecosystem Function I: The Carbon Balance g| 33 -- t| Carbon Balance of Terrestrial Ecosystems g| 33 -- g| Chapter 4 t| Measurement of Ecosystem Function II: Nutrient and Water Balances g| 51 -- t| Nutrient and Water Balances g| 52 -- t| Methods in Watershed-Ecosystem Studies g| 53 -- t| Some Results from Watershed-Ecosystem Studies g| 55 -- t| Studies on Responses to Disturbance g| 60 -- g| Chapter 5 t| Additional Approaches to Analysis and Synthesis in Ecosystem Studies g| 67 -- t| Analytical Methods g| 67 -- t| Gradients in Ecosystem Processes over Space and Time g| 73 -- t| Systems Analysis and Ecosystem Studies g| 81 -- t| Computer Modeling: A Synthesis Tool for Ecosystem Studies g| 87 -- g| Part 2 t| Mechanisms: Processes Controlling Ecosystem Structure and Function g| 91 -- g| Chapter 6 t| Energy, Water, and Carbon Balances over Leaves g| 93 -- t| Energy, Carbon, and Water Balance of a Leaf g| 94 -- t| Chemical and Latent Energy Exchanges g| 94 -- t| Net Radiation g| 103 -- t| Sensible Heat Exchange: Conduction and Convection g| 103 -- t| Structural and Physiological Adaptations g| 104 -- t| Leaf Structure and Function in Major Ecosystem Types g| 109 -- g| Chapter 7 t| Water Use and Water Balances in Ecosystems g| 113 -- t| Hydrologic Cycle of Ecosystems g| 113 -- t| Concept of Water Potential in Soils, Plants, and the Atmosphere g| 114 -- t| Integrating Water Stress over Time: An Isotope-Based Method g| 122 -- g| Chapter 8 t| Structure and Dynamics of Canopy Systems g| 127 -- t| Canopy Environment g| 127 -- t| Structured Canopies, Succession, and Light-Use Efficiency g| 132 -- t| Phenology: Seasonal Variation in Canopy Structure and Function g| 138 -- t| Models of Canopy Carbon Exchange g| 141 -- g| Chapter 9 t| Soil Development and the Soil Environment g| 147 -- t| Major Elements g| 148 -- t| Soil Environment g| 151 -- t| Soil Chemical Processes Affecting Nutrient Availability g| 152 -- g| Chapter 10 t| Biological Processes in Soils g| 169 -- t| Measures of Nutrient Availability g| 169 -- t| Measures Based on Rate of Mineralization from Organic Matter g| 170 -- t| Nutrient Uptake and the Biological Modification of Nutrient Availability g| 171 -- g| Chapter 11 t| Resource Allocation and Net Primary Production g| 183 -- t| Resource Limitations on Production: A Simplified View g| 184 -- t| Resource Pools in Plants and Their Allocation g| 184 -- t| An Ecological Enigma: Why Do Trees Stop Growing? g| 201 -- g| Chapter 12 t| Chemical Properties of Litter and Soil Organic Matter: The Decomposition Continuum g| 205 -- t| Organic Matter as a Resource for Microbial Growth g| 206 -- t| Biochemical Constituents of Litter and Their Rates of Decay g| 207 -- t| What Is Humus? g| 215 -- t| Formation of Humus g| 218 -- t| Decomposition and Stabilization of Humus g| 220 -- t| Three Examples of New Approaches to "Seeing" the Structure and Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter g| 222 -- g| Chapter 13 t| Decay Rates and Nutrient Dynamics of Litter and Soil Organic Matter g| 227 -- t| Litter Decomposition Rates g| 227 -- t| Decomposition and Nutrient Release from Humus g| 243 -- t| Important Role of Soil Organic Matter g| 250 -- g| Chapter 14 t| Plant-Soil Interactions: Summary Effects on Nutrient Cycles g| 253 -- t| Comparisons of Generalized Nutrient Cycles g| 253 -- t| Changes in Solution Chemistry in Ecosystems g| 262 -- t| Species Effects on Nutrient Distribution and Cycling g| 264 -- g| Chapter 15 t| Factors Limiting Consumption: Plant-Herbivore Interactions g| 271 -- t| Consumption as a Fraction of Net Primary Productivity g| 271 -- t| Structural and Chemical Inhibition of Herbivory g| 273 --, t| Patterns of Herbivore Inhibitor Production in Plants g| 281 -- t| Implications g| 284 -- g| Chapter 16 t| Characteristics of Ecosystems with High Herbivore Consumption Rates g| 287 -- t| Ungulates and Grasses: Coevolution? g| 287 -- t| Plants, Herbivores, Carnivores, and Cyclic Patterns of Consumption in Nongrassland Systems g| 290 -- t| Stabilizing Effects of Territoriality and Predation: Moose and Wolves on Isle Royale g| 296 -- t| Effects of Vegetative Change and Climate on Irruptions of Insect Populations g| 302 -- g| Chapter 17 t| Role of Fire in Carbon and Nutrient Balances g| 307 -- t| Major Categories of Fire Types g| 308 -- t| Fire Frequency and Intensity in Different Types of Ecosystems g| 310 -- t| Effects on Soils and Plants g| 313 -- t| Plant Adaptations to Different Fire Regimes g| 318 -- t| Fire-Herbivory Interactions g| 321 -- t| Fire and the Management of Ecosystems g| 322 -- g| Chapter 18 t| Synthesis: A Generalized Theory of Ecosystem Dynamics g| 331 -- t| Successional Theories of Ecosystem Development g| 331 -- t| Physiological Theories of Ecosystem Development g| 338 -- t| Comparing Successional and Physiological Theories g| 342 -- g| Part 3 t| Synthesis: Dynamics of Selected Ecosystems g| 347 -- g| Chapter 19 t| A Fire-Dominated Ecosystem: The Taiga Forests of Interior Alaska g| 349 -- t| Taiga Forests of Interior Alaska g| 349 -- t| Fire and Succession in Taiga Forests g| 353 -- t| Experimental Modification of Taiga Ecosystems g| 358 -- t| Summary of Interactions and Relation to General Theory g| 358 -- t| Implications for Human Use of the Taiga g| 359 -- t| Boreal Forests and Global Change g| 360 -- g| Chapter 20 t| Serengeti: An Herbivore-Dominated Ecosystem g| 367 -- t| Environment of the Serengeti Region g| 367 -- t| Resource Partitioning and Use by Herbivores g| 372 -- t| Resource Partitioning Among Predators g| 376 -- t| Vegetation-Herbivore-Predator Interactions g| 378 -- t| Predation Versus Food as Limiting Factors in Herbivore Populations g| 378 -- t| Perturbations, Succession, and the Dynamics of the Serengeti System g| 379 -- t| Human Use and Conservation Concerns in the Serengeti g| 383 -- g| Chapter 21 t| A Gap-Regeneration System: The Northern Hardwood Forests of the United States g| 387 -- t| Northern Hardwood Ecosystems of New England g| 387 -- t| Patterns of Disturbance in Northern Hardwoods and Effects on Resource Availability g| 390 -- t| Species Adaptations to the Disturbance Gradient: Reproductive and Life History Strategies g| 392 -- t| Integration of Plant and Biogeochemical Responses to Disturbance g| 397 -- t| Alternate Endpoints for Succession: Species-Site Interactions g| 400 -- t| Human Use and History of the Northern Hardwoods Region g| 400 -- g| Chapter 22 t| Ecosystem Development over Geologic Time: The Tropical Forests of Hawaii g| 411 -- t| Hawaiian Islands g| 411 -- t| Soil Development, Soil Chemistry, and Nutrient Availability g| 413 -- t| Feedbacks Between Plant Limitations and Nutrient Cycling g| 418 -- t| Long-Range Nutrient Transport and the Long-Term Maintenance of Productivity g| 418 -- t| Human Influences and Changes in Ecosystem Function g| 421 -- g| Part 4 t| Application: Human Impacts on Local, Regional, and Global Ecosystems g| 425 -- g| Chapter 23 t| Ecosystems Managed for Food and Fiber g| 427 -- t| Malthus and the Race Between Population Growth and Increased Agricultural Production g| 427 -- t| A Gradient in the Intensity of Management of Arable Land g| 429 -- t| Management of Native Forests for Timber and Fiber g| 430 -- t| Plantation Forestry g| 434 -- t| Conserving Forest Resources g| 436 -- t| Low-Input/Low-Yield Agriculture: Traditional Practices in the Humid Tropics g| 436 -- t| Agroforestry: Increasing Yields by Intercropping and Managing the Fallow Forest g| 437 -- t| Permanent High-Yield Agriculture: An Extreme Example g| 442 -- t| Methods for Improving Sustainability g| 445 -- t| Historical Methods of Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropics g| 452 -- t| Characteristics of Sustainable Agroecosystems g| 452 -- t| Relation to Conservation of Native Ecosystems g| 454 -- g| Chapter 24 t| Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function g| 459 -- t| Defining Biodiversity g| 460 -- t| Biodiversity at the Global Scale: Evolution and9 Extinction g| 461 -- t| Patterns of Biodiversity in Terrestrial Ecosystems g| 462 -- t| Human Effects on Biodiversity and Consequences for Ecosystems g| 465 -- t| Invasive Species and Introductions g| 473 -- t| Environmental Change and Biodiversity g| 475 -- g| Chapter 25 t| Effects of Air Pollution on Terrestrial Ecosystems g| 483 -- t| Air Pollution Sources g| 483 -- t| Distribution of Air Pollutants g| 487 -- t| Effects of Air Pollutants on Terrestrial Ecosystems g| 492 -- t| Effects of Individual Air Pollutants g| 496 -- t| Forest Decline: The Interactive Effects of Pollutants g| 501 -- t| Determining "Critical Loads" of Pollution g| 504 -- t| Environmental Success Stories: Pollution Reductions in the United States and Europe g| 505 -- g| Chapter 26 t| Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change g| 511 -- t| Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Climate g| 511 -- t| Physiological Effects of Carbon Dioxide and Climate g| 516 -- t| Historical Changes in Land Use and Carbon Storage g| 579 -- t| A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Carbon Balances: The United States as a Case Study g| 521 -- t| Predicting Net Primary Production and Carbon Balances in the Future g| 529.
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    a| Ecology.
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    a| Nature x| Effect of human beings on.
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    a| Melillo, Jerry M.
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    a| QH541 .A24 2001 w| LC i| X004475657 k| CHECKEDOUT l| STACKS m| SCI-ENG t| BOOK

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