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Reflections on the Revolution in France

Edmund Burke ; edited by J.C.D. Clark
Format
Book
Published
Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 2001.
Language
English
ISBN
0804739234 (alk. paper), 0804742057 (paper : alk. paper)
Contents
  • (i) Identity of Edmund Burke 23
  • (ii) Revolution of 1688 38
  • (iii) Burke's knowledge of France 43
  • (iv) Genesis of the Reflections 53
  • (v) Burke's theory of the French Revolution 69
  • (vi) Political theory of the Reflections 85
  • (vii) Burke's crusade against the Revolution 97
  • (viii) Burke's later influence 109
  • Reflections on the Revolution in France 141
  • Part I. English constitution and the Revolution of 1688 145
  • Origins of the work [1] 145
  • Society for Constitution Information and the Revolution Society [3] 146
  • Burke on liberty and prudence [7] 150
  • Astonishing nature of French revolution [11] 154
  • Richard Price's sermon; Nonconformity [12] 155
  • Price misrepresents the constitution [16] 159
  • Price's general interpretation of 1688 reviewed [20] 161
  • Right to choose governors denied; hereditary principle reasserted [22] 163
  • Right to cashier governors for misconduct denied [37] 176
  • Right 'to form a government for ourselves' denied [44] 181
  • Liberties as an inheritance [45] 181
  • Part II. French Revolution
  • France might have repaired ancient constitution [50] 185
  • Intrinsic evils of French Revolution, [54] 189
  • Explained by composition of National Assembly [58] 192
  • Its Third Estate: predominance of lawyers [60] 194
  • Its First Estate: predominance of minor clergy [67] 200
  • Its Second Estate: role of discontented nobility [68] 201
  • Qualifications for government: virtue, wisdom, property [72] 205
  • Consequent flaws in future French constitution [77] 209
  • Price's threat to extend French principles to England [79] 211
  • Destructive consequences of natural rights claims [85] 215
  • Contrasting Whig theory of formation of civil society and rights of men within it [87] 217
  • Effects of false claims of rights: 'speculative designs', 'desperate strokes' [92] 221
  • Price's sermon implicitly condones massacre; Price compared to Hugh Peters [96] 224
  • Horrors of 5-6 October 1789 [99] 226
  • National Assembly overawed by Paris mob [100] 227
  • Events of 5-6 October [105] 232
  • Eulogy of the Queen [111] 236
  • Chivalry and 'manners' compared with 'this barbarous philosophy' [113] 238
  • Why Burke reacts differently from Price [119] 243
  • Defence of Louis XVI [122] 245
  • Part III. English society
  • Different conduct of the English; cause of this [124] 246
  • French philosophes compared with English Deists [132] 253
  • Religion as the basis of civil society [134] 254
  • Defence of 'our church establishment': [136] 256
  • Moral restraints on the people [138] 257
  • Obligations between generations [141] 259
  • Divine origin of civil society [146] 262
  • Religion and education [148] 263
  • Independent endowment of the Church [149] 264
  • Importance of religion to rich and poor [151] 266
  • Property rights of the Church [155] 268
  • Part IV. Contrasting principles of the French Revolution
  • Confiscation of property [156] 269
  • Betrayal of national faith [160] 272
  • Role of 'monied interest' [163] 274
  • Role of 'political Men of Letters' [165] 275
  • Alliance of these against 'property, law and religion' [168] 278
  • Part V. French society before the Revolution
  • Its finances reformable; Necker [174] 282
  • Previous taxes on nobility and clergy [178] 286
  • 'Project of confiscation' [179] 286
  • A 'third option' between monarchy and democracy [184] 290
  • Nature of the French monarchy [188] 294
  • Flourishing population disproves tyranny [189] 294
  • As does France's wealth; Necker [192] 297
  • Both reduced by the Revolution [196] 300
  • Nobility and clergy had supported reform [199] 303
  • Characteristics of the French nobility [202] 306
  • Value of nobility as such [205] 308
  • Characteristics of French clergy [206] 309
  • Wrongly blamed for past offences [207] 310
  • Qualities of present clergy [212] 314
  • Part- VI. Expropriation of the French Church
  • Consequences of reform of the church: 'abolition ... of the Christian religion' [217] 317
  • Contrasting policy in England [221] 320
  • Consequences of French 'atheistical fanaticism' [225] 323
  • Its 'spirit of proselytism' across Europe [226] 324
  • Injustice of French confiscations [230] 327
  • Wisdom of moderate reform [231] 328
  • Practial bad consequences of confiscations of church property [235] 330
  • Part VII. Proceedings of the National Assembly
  • Burke's further thoughts on the actions of the Assembly [241] 334
  • National Assembly's lack of authority [242] 335
  • Its members' lack of political wisdom [245] 337
  • Their actions regarding
  • (a) Constitution of the legislature: [253] 343
  • Not to be formed on theories [253] 343
  • Basis of territory [254] 344
  • Basis of population [256] 346
  • Basis of contribution [258] 347
  • Contradictions of this scheme [259] 348
  • Its electoral consequences [262] 350
  • Its divisive consequences [265] 352
  • Contrasting electoral system in Britain [269] 355
  • General purpose of elections [271] 356
  • Superiority of ancient republics [272] 357
  • 'Cementing principles': (i) confiscation [276] 359
  • Social consequences of paper currency [277] 360
  • 'Cementing principles': (ii) superiority of Paris [284] 364
  • Loss of local identity [285] 365
  • Absolute power of National Assembly [286] 366
  • (b) Constitution of the executive power: [288] 367
  • Monarch no longer the fountain of justice [289] 368
  • Monarch now powerless to execute laws [290] 369
  • Executive magistracy depends on veneration [291] 369
  • Position of king's ministers [293] 371
  • 'Fictitious' position of executive [295] 372
  • (c) Constitution of judicature: [298] 374
  • Importance of parlements [298] 374
  • Judges now subordinate to National Assembly [301] 377
  • ['Cementing principles': (iii) the army] [304] 379
  • (d) Constitution of the army: [304] 379
  • Account of war minister [305] 379
  • Collapse of discipline and loyalty [307] 381
  • Army subverted by revolutionary ideas [309] 382
  • Reimposition of discipline unlikely [311] 383
  • Constitutional errors are interlinked [313] 385
  • Relation of army to crown [315] 386
  • Relation of army to National Assembly [317] 387
  • Elective principle in army [318] 388
  • Assembly must rule by the army; [320] 389
  • Since peasantry now claim land on revolutionary principle [322] 391
  • 'Municipal army' is merely democratic [327] 394
  • (e) System of finance: [328] 395
  • High expectations of reform, [328] 395
  • Contrasted with report of M. Vernier [331] 397
  • Financial mistakes of National Assembly: [332] 398
  • Voluntary benevolences [333] 398
  • Patriotic donations [334] 399
  • Paper currency [336] 401
  • Failure to reduce expenditure [337] 401
  • Collapse of credit [337] 401
  • Resort to assignats as sole remedy [338] 402
  • Difficulty of securing paper credit on land [340] 404
  • Mismanagement of expropriation of the Church [342] 405
  • Effects of first issue of assignats [345] 407
  • Analogy with Law's Mississippi Company [346] 408
  • Speeches of M. Bailly [349] 410
  • General effects of financial 'dilapidation' [350] 410
  • Liberty requires wisdom and virtue [352] 412
  • Difficulty of forming a free government [353] 412
  • Commends example of the British constitution [354] 413
  • Burke's lifelong struggle for liberty of others [356] 414
  • Appendix I Textual variations in subsequent editions 417
  • Appendix II Richard Price's reply to Burke 424.
Description
446 p. ; 25 cm.
Notes
Includes bibliographical references (p. [125]-140) and index.
Technical Details
  • Access in Virgo Classic
  • Staff View

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    g| (i) t| Identity of Edmund Burke g| 23 -- g| (ii) t| Revolution of 1688 g| 38 -- g| (iii) t| Burke's knowledge of France g| 43 -- g| (iv) t| Genesis of the Reflections g| 53 -- g| (v) t| Burke's theory of the French Revolution g| 69 -- g| (vi) t| Political theory of the Reflections g| 85 -- g| (vii) t| Burke's crusade against the Revolution g| 97 -- g| (viii) t| Burke's later influence g| 109 -- t| Reflections on the Revolution in France g| 141 -- g| Part I. t| English constitution and the Revolution of 1688 g| 145 -- t| Origins of the work [1] g| 145 -- t| Society for Constitution Information and the Revolution Society [3] g| 146 -- t| Burke on liberty and prudence [7] g| 150 -- t| Astonishing nature of French revolution [11] g| 154 -- t| Richard Price's sermon; Nonconformity [12] g| 155 -- t| Price misrepresents the constitution [16] g| 159 -- t| Price's general interpretation of 1688 reviewed [20] g| 161 -- t| Right to choose governors denied; hereditary principle reasserted [22] g| 163 -- t| Right to cashier governors for misconduct denied [37] g| 176 -- t| Right 'to form a government for ourselves' denied [44] g| 181 -- t| Liberties as an inheritance [45] g| 181 -- g| Part II. t| French Revolution -- t| France might have repaired ancient constitution [50] g| 185 -- t| Intrinsic evils of French Revolution, [54] g| 189 -- t| Explained by composition of National Assembly [58] g| 192 -- t| Its Third Estate: predominance of lawyers [60] g| 194 -- t| Its First Estate: predominance of minor clergy [67] g| 200 -- t| Its Second Estate: role of discontented nobility [68] g| 201 -- t| Qualifications for government: virtue, wisdom, property [72] g| 205 -- t| Consequent flaws in future French constitution [77] g| 209 -- t| Price's threat to extend French principles to England [79] g| 211 -- t| Destructive consequences of natural rights claims [85] g| 215 -- t| Contrasting Whig theory of formation of civil society and rights of men within it [87] g| 217 -- t| Effects of false claims of rights: 'speculative designs', 'desperate strokes' [92] g| 221 -- t| Price's sermon implicitly condones massacre; Price compared to Hugh Peters [96] g| 224 -- t| Horrors of 5-6 October 1789 [99] g| 226 -- t| National Assembly overawed by Paris mob [100] g| 227 -- t| Events of 5-6 October [105] g| 232 -- t| Eulogy of the Queen [111] g| 236 -- t| Chivalry and 'manners' compared with 'this barbarous philosophy' [113] g| 238 -- t| Why Burke reacts differently from Price [119] g| 243 -- t| Defence of Louis XVI [122] g| 245 -- g| Part III. t| English society -- t| Different conduct of the English; cause of this [124] g| 246 -- t| French philosophes compared with English Deists [132] g| 253 -- t| Religion as the basis of civil society [134] g| 254 -- t| Defence of 'our church establishment': [136] g| 256 -- t| Moral restraints on the people [138] g| 257 -- t| Obligations between generations [141] g| 259 -- t| Divine origin of civil society [146] g| 262 -- t| Religion and education [148] g| 263 -- t| Independent endowment of the Church [149] g| 264 -- t| Importance of religion to rich and poor [151] g| 266 -- t| Property rights of the Church [155] g| 268 -- g| Part IV. t| Contrasting principles of the French Revolution -- t| Confiscation of property [156] g| 269 -- t| Betrayal of national faith [160] g| 272 -- t| Role of 'monied interest' [163] g| 274 -- t| Role of 'political Men of Letters' [165] g| 275 -- t| Alliance of these against 'property, law and religion' [168] g| 278 -- g| Part V. t| French society before the Revolution -- t| Its finances reformable; Necker [174] g| 282 -- t| Previous taxes on nobility and clergy [178] g| 286 -- t| 'Project of confiscation' [179] g| 286 -- t| A 'third option' between monarchy and democracy [184] g| 290 -- t| Nature of the French monarchy [188] g| 294 -- t| Flourishing population disproves tyranny [189] g| 294 -- t| As does France's wealth; Necker [192] g| 297 -- t| Both reduced by the Revolution [196] g| 300 -- t| Nobility and clergy had supported reform [199] g| 303 -- t| Characteristics of the French nobility [202] g| 306 -- t| Value of nobility as such [205] g| 308 -- t| Characteristics of French clergy [206] g| 309 -- t| Wrongly blamed for past offences [207] g| 310 -- t| Qualities of present clergy [212] g| 314 -- g| Part- VI. t| Expropriation of the French Church -- t| Consequences of reform of the church: 'abolition ... of the Christian religion' [217] g| 317 -- t| Contrasting policy in England [221] g| 320 -- t| Consequences of French 'atheistical fanaticism' [225] g| 323 -- t| Its 'spirit of proselytism' across Europe [226] g| 324 -- t| Injustice of French confiscations [230] g| 327 -- t| Wisdom of moderate reform [231] g| 328 -- t| Practial bad consequences of confiscations of church property [235] g| 330 -- g| Part VII. t| Proceedings of the National Assembly -- t| Burke's further thoughts on the actions of the Assembly [241] g| 334 -- t| National Assembly's lack of authority [242] g| 335 -- t| Its members' lack of political wisdom [245] g| 337 -- t| Their actions regarding -- g| (a) t| Constitution of the legislature: [253] g| 343 -- t| Not to be formed on theories [253] g| 343 -- t| Basis of territory [254] g| 344 -- t| Basis of population [256] g| 346 -- t| Basis of contribution [258] g| 347 -- t| Contradictions of this scheme [259] g| 348 -- t| Its electoral consequences [262] g| 350 -- t| Its divisive consequences [265] g| 352 -- t| Contrasting electoral system in Britain [269] g| 355 -- t| General purpose of elections [271] g| 356 -- t| Superiority of ancient republics [272] g| 357 -- t| 'Cementing principles': (i) confiscation [276] g| 359 -- t| Social consequences of paper currency [277] g| 360 -- t| 'Cementing principles': (ii) superiority of Paris [284] g| 364 -- t| Loss of local identity [285] g| 365 -- t| Absolute power of National Assembly [286] g| 366 -- g| (b) t| Constitution of the executive power: [288] g| 367 -- t| Monarch no longer the fountain of justice [289] g| 368 -- t| Monarch now powerless to execute laws [290] g| 369 -- t| Executive magistracy depends on veneration [291] g| 369 -- t| Position of king's ministers [293] g| 371 -- t| 'Fictitious' position of executive [295] g| 372 -- g| (c) t| Constitution of judicature: [298] g| 374 -- t| Importance of parlements [298] g| 374 -- t| Judges now subordinate to National Assembly [301] g| 377 -- t| ['Cementing principles': (iii) the army] [304] g| 379 -- g| (d) t| Constitution of the army: [304] g| 379 -- t| Account of war minister [305] g| 379 -- t| Collapse of discipline and loyalty [307] g| 381 -- t| Army subverted by revolutionary ideas [309] g| 382 -- t| Reimposition of discipline unlikely [311] g| 383 -- t| Constitutional errors are interlinked [313] g| 385 -- t| Relation of army to crown [315] g| 386 -- t| Relation of army to National Assembly [317] g| 387 -- t| Elective principle in army [318] g| 388 -- t| Assembly must rule by the army; [320] g| 389 -- t| Since peasantry now claim land on revolutionary principle [322] g| 391 -- t| 'Municipal army' is merely democratic [327] g| 394 -- g| (e) t| System of finance: [328] g| 395 -- t| High expectations of reform, [328] g| 395 -- t| Contrasted with report of M. Vernier [331] g| 397 -- t| Financial mistakes of National Assembly: [332] g| 398 -- t| Voluntary benevolences [333] g| 398 -- t| Patriotic donations [334] g| 399 -- t| Paper currency [336] g| 401 -- t| Failure to reduce expenditure [337] g| 401 -- t| Collapse of credit [337] g| 401 -- t| Resort to assignats as sole remedy [338] g| 402 -- t| Difficulty of securing paper credit on land [340] g| 404 -- t| Mismanagement of expropriation of the Church [342] g| 405 -- t| Effects of first issue of assignats [345] g| 407 -- t| Analogy with Law's Mississippi Company [346] g| 408 -- t| Speeches of M. Bailly [349] g| 410 -- t| General effects of financial 'dilapidation' [350] g| 410 -- t| Liberty requires wisdom and virtue [352] g| 412 -- t| Difficulty of forming a free government [353] g| 412 -- t| Commends example of the British constitution [354] g| 413 -- t| Burke's lifelong struggle for liberty of others [356] g| 414 -- g| Appendix I t| Textual variations in subsequent editions g| 417 -- g| Appendix II t| Richard Price's reply to Burke g| 424.
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    a| Burke, Edmund, d| 1729-1797 v| Correspondence.
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    a| Burke, Edmund, d| 1729-1797 t| Reflections on the Revolution in France.
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    a| Public opinion z| Great Britain x| History y| 18th century.
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    a| France x| History y| Revolution, 1789-1799 x| Foreign public opinion, British.
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    a| Clark, J. C. D.
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    a| DC150 .B9 B85 2001 w| LC i| X004479096 k| CHECKEDOUT l| STACKS m| ALDERMAN t| BOOK
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