Item Details

Forest Fires: Behavior and Ecological Effects

edited by Edward A. Johnson, Kiyoko Miyanishi
Format
Book
Published
San Diego, Calif. : Academic Press, Inc., 2001.
Language
English
ISBN
012386660X
Contents
  • 1 Strengthening Fire Ecology's Roots / E. A. Johnson, K. Miyanishi
  • II. Processes 3
  • III. Transfer Rates and Budgets 4
  • IV. Examples of Traditional vs. Proposed Approach 5
  • 2 Flames / K. Saito
  • II. Basic Aspects of Combustion in Forest Fires 13
  • III. Temperature, Velocity, Species Concentration, and Flame Height 18
  • IV. Premixed and Diffusion Flames 23
  • V. Extinction of Diffusion Flames 27
  • VI. Diffusion Flames and Scaling Analysis 29
  • VII. Spreading Flames 41
  • VIII. Structure of Flame Base 45
  • 3 Combustion Chemistry and Smoke / D. Ward
  • II. Fuel Chemistry and Combustion 57
  • III. Smoke Production 62
  • IV. Minimizing Smoke Production 72
  • 4 Water Relations of Forest Fuels / Ralph M. Nelson, Jr.
  • II. Forest Fuels 81
  • III. Fuel Moisture Relationships 96
  • IV. Moisture Content Estimation 137
  • 5 Wildland Fire Spread Models / R. O. Weber
  • II. Head Fire Rate of Spread (Physical Principles and Their Mathematical Embodiment) 152
  • III. Head Fire Rate of Spread: Australia 155
  • IV. Head Fire Rate of Spread: United States 156
  • V. Head Fire Rate of Spread: Canada 158
  • VI. Smoldering 158
  • VII. Whole Fire Modeling--Fire Shape 160
  • 6 Wind-Aided Fire Spread / F. E. Fendell, M. F. Wolff
  • II. Laboratory-Scale Setup 176
  • III. Fire Spread Model 180
  • IV. Preliminary Testing of the Model 204
  • V. Test Results for the Effect of Wind Speed and Fuel Loading on the Rate of Fire Spread 214
  • 7 Fire Plumes / G. N. Mercer, R. O. Weber
  • II. Modeling Fire Temperature Maxima 229
  • III. Plumes above Fires in a Cross Wind 243
  • 8 Coupling Atmospheric and Fire Models / Mary Ann Jenkins, Terry Clark, Janice Coen
  • II. Vorticity Dynamics in a Fire 260
  • III. Coupling between Atmosphere and Fire 266
  • IV. Elements of Fire Modeling 269
  • V. Modeling the Atmosphere 269
  • VI. Coupled Fire--Atmosphere Modeling Approach 272
  • VII. Idealized Studies of Wildfire Behavior 277
  • VIII. Infrared Observations of Fires 286
  • IX. Conclusions and Future Work 288
  • Appendix I. Circulation and Vorticity 290
  • Appendix II. Development of Vertical Rotation in a Frictionless Fluid 292
  • Appendix III. Generation of Vertical Motion in Rotating Convective Cells 297
  • 9 Surface Energy Budget and Fuel Moisture / Kenneth E. Kunkel
  • II. Evapotranspiration Processes and the Meteorological Controlling Factors 305
  • III. Estimation of Potential Evapotranspiration Rates 317
  • IV. Functional Dependence of PET and AET 327
  • V. Characteristics of PET 329
  • VI. Near-Surface Environment 333
  • VII. Models of Land-Surface Interactions 336
  • VIII. Remote Sensing of the Surface Energy Budget 339
  • IX. Fire Weather Rating Systems 341
  • 10 Climate, Weather, and Area Burned / M. D. Flannigan, B. M. Wotton
  • II. Weather and Area Burned--Synoptic Surface Features 352
  • III. Weather and Area Burned--Upper Air Features 354
  • IV. Teleconnections 359
  • V. Future Warming and Area Burned 365
  • 11 Lightning and Forest Fires / Don Latham, Earle Williams
  • II. Lightning 376
  • III. Previous Studies of Lightning-Initiated Fire 380
  • IV. Interaction between Lightning and Fuels 389
  • V. How Ignition Occurs 391
  • VI. Ignition Experiments with Real Forest Fuels 402
  • VII. Generating Models for Operational Use 406
  • VIII. Smoke, Lightning, and Cloud Microphysics 410
  • IX. Global Implications of Lightning Ignition Characteristics 411
  • 12 Statistical Inference for Historical Fire Frequency Using the Spatial Mosaic / W. J. Reed
  • II. Graphical Analysis 420
  • III. Statistical Inference with Prespecified Change Points 422
  • IV. Efficiency of Sample vs. Map Data 427
  • V. Determining Epochs of Constant Fire Frequency 430
  • 13 Duff Consumption / K. Miyanishi
  • II. Characteristics of Duff 439
  • III. Empirical Studies of Duff Consumption 441
  • IV. Flaming Combustion 443
  • V. Smoldering Combustion and Pyrolysis 448
  • VI. Models of Smoldering Combustion 456
  • VII. Contribution of Smoldering Combustion Models to Understanding of Duff Consumption 464
  • 14 Fire Effects on Trees / M. B. Dickinson, E. A. Johnson
  • II. Effects of Fire on the Tree Bole 483
  • III. Effects of Fire on Canopy Components 505
  • IV. Root Necrosis 514
  • V. Tree Mortality 515
  • 15 Forest Fire Management / David L. Martell
  • II. Relationship between Fire and Forest Land Management Objectives 532
  • III. Assessing Fire Impacts 534
  • IV. Forest Fire Management Organizations 544
  • V. Level of Fire Protection Planning 572
  • VI. Some Challenges 576.
Description
xvii, 594 p., [4] p. of plates : ill. (some col.), maps ; 24 cm.
Notes
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Technical Details
  • Access in Virgo Classic

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    g| 1 t| Strengthening Fire Ecology's Roots / r| E. A. Johnson, K. Miyanishi -- g| II. t| Processes g| 3 -- g| III. t| Transfer Rates and Budgets g| 4 -- g| IV. t| Examples of Traditional vs. Proposed Approach g| 5 -- g| 2 t| Flames / r| K. Saito -- g| II. t| Basic Aspects of Combustion in Forest Fires g| 13 -- g| III. t| Temperature, Velocity, Species Concentration, and Flame Height g| 18 -- g| IV. t| Premixed and Diffusion Flames g| 23 -- g| V. t| Extinction of Diffusion Flames g| 27 -- g| VI. t| Diffusion Flames and Scaling Analysis g| 29 -- g| VII. t| Spreading Flames g| 41 -- g| VIII. t| Structure of Flame Base g| 45 -- g| 3 t| Combustion Chemistry and Smoke / r| D. Ward -- g| II. t| Fuel Chemistry and Combustion g| 57 -- g| III. t| Smoke Production g| 62 -- g| IV. t| Minimizing Smoke Production g| 72 -- g| 4 t| Water Relations of Forest Fuels / r| Ralph M. Nelson, Jr. -- g| II. t| Forest Fuels g| 81 -- g| III. t| Fuel Moisture Relationships g| 96 -- g| IV. t| Moisture Content Estimation g| 137 -- g| 5 t| Wildland Fire Spread Models / r| R. O. Weber -- g| II. t| Head Fire Rate of Spread (Physical Principles and Their Mathematical Embodiment) g| 152 -- g| III. t| Head Fire Rate of Spread: Australia g| 155 -- g| IV. t| Head Fire Rate of Spread: United States g| 156 -- g| V. t| Head Fire Rate of Spread: Canada g| 158 -- g| VI. t| Smoldering g| 158 -- g| VII. t| Whole Fire Modeling--Fire Shape g| 160 -- g| 6 t| Wind-Aided Fire Spread / r| F. E. Fendell, M. F. Wolff -- g| II. t| Laboratory-Scale Setup g| 176 -- g| III. t| Fire Spread Model g| 180 -- g| IV. t| Preliminary Testing of the Model g| 204 -- g| V. t| Test Results for the Effect of Wind Speed and Fuel Loading on the Rate of Fire Spread g| 214 -- g| 7 t| Fire Plumes / r| G. N. Mercer, R. O. Weber -- g| II. t| Modeling Fire Temperature Maxima g| 229 -- g| III. t| Plumes above Fires in a Cross Wind g| 243 -- g| 8 t| Coupling Atmospheric and Fire Models / r| Mary Ann Jenkins, Terry Clark, Janice Coen -- g| II. t| Vorticity Dynamics in a Fire g| 260 -- g| III. t| Coupling between Atmosphere and Fire g| 266 -- g| IV. t| Elements of Fire Modeling g| 269 -- g| V. t| Modeling the Atmosphere g| 269 -- g| VI. t| Coupled Fire--Atmosphere Modeling Approach g| 272 -- g| VII. t| Idealized Studies of Wildfire Behavior g| 277 -- g| VIII. t| Infrared Observations of Fires g| 286 -- g| IX. t| Conclusions and Future Work g| 288 -- g| Appendix I. t| Circulation and Vorticity g| 290 -- g| Appendix II. t| Development of Vertical Rotation in a Frictionless Fluid g| 292 -- g| Appendix III. t| Generation of Vertical Motion in Rotating Convective Cells g| 297 -- g| 9 t| Surface Energy Budget and Fuel Moisture / r| Kenneth E. Kunkel -- g| II. t| Evapotranspiration Processes and the Meteorological Controlling Factors g| 305 -- g| III. t| Estimation of Potential Evapotranspiration Rates g| 317 -- g| IV. t| Functional Dependence of PET and AET g| 327 -- g| V. t| Characteristics of PET g| 329 -- g| VI. t| Near-Surface Environment g| 333 -- g| VII. t| Models of Land-Surface Interactions g| 336 -- g| VIII. t| Remote Sensing of the Surface Energy Budget g| 339 -- g| IX. t| Fire Weather Rating Systems g| 341 -- g| 10 t| Climate, Weather, and Area Burned / r| M. D. Flannigan, B. M. Wotton -- g| II. t| Weather and Area Burned--Synoptic Surface Features g| 352 -- g| III. t| Weather and Area Burned--Upper Air Features g| 354 -- g| IV. t| Teleconnections g| 359 -- g| V. t| Future Warming and Area Burned g| 365 -- g| 11 t| Lightning and Forest Fires / r| Don Latham, Earle Williams -- g| II. t| Lightning g| 376 -- g| III. t| Previous Studies of Lightning-Initiated Fire g| 380 -- g| IV. t| Interaction between Lightning and Fuels g| 389 -- g| V. t| How Ignition Occurs g| 391 -- g| VI. t| Ignition Experiments with Real Forest Fuels g| 402 -- g| VII. t| Generating Models for Operational Use g| 406 -- g| VIII. t| Smoke, Lightning, and Cloud Microphysics g| 410 -- g| IX. t| Global Implications of Lightning Ignition Characteristics g| 411 -- g| 12 t| Statistical Inference for Historical Fire Frequency Using the Spatial Mosaic / r| W. J. Reed -- g| II. t| Graphical Analysis g| 420 -- g| III. t| Statistical Inference with Prespecified Change Points g| 422 -- g| IV. t| Efficiency of Sample vs. Map Data g| 427 -- g| V. t| Determining Epochs of Constant Fire Frequency g| 430 -- g| 13 t| Duff Consumption / r| K. Miyanishi -- g| II. t| Characteristics of Duff g| 439 -- g| III. t| Empirical Studies of Duff Consumption g| 441 -- g| IV. t| Flaming Combustion g| 443 -- g| V. t| Smoldering Combustion and Pyrolysis g| 448 -- g| VI. t| Models of Smoldering Combustion g| 456 -- g| VII. t| Contribution of Smoldering Combustion Models to Understanding of Duff Consumption g| 464 -- g| 14 t| Fire Effects on Trees / r| M. B. Dickinson, E. A. Johnson -- g| II. t| Effects of Fire on the Tree Bole g| 483 -- g| III. t| Effects of Fire on Canopy Components g| 505 -- g| IV. t| Root Necrosis g| 514 -- g| V. t| Tree Mortality g| 515 -- g| 15 t| Forest Fire Management / r| David L. Martell -- g| II. t| Relationship between Fire and Forest Land Management Objectives g| 532 -- g| III. t| Assessing Fire Impacts g| 534 -- g| IV. t| Forest Fire Management Organizations g| 544 -- g| V. t| Level of Fire Protection Planning g| 572 -- g| VI. t| Some Challenges g| 576.
    596
      
      
    a| 5
    650
      
    4
    a| Forest Fires.
    650
      
    4
    a| Fire Behavior.
    650
      
    4
    a| Ecology.
    650
      
    0
    a| Forest fires.
    650
      
    0
    a| Fire ecology.
    700
    1
      
    a| Johnson, E. A. q| (Edward Arnold)
    700
    1
      
    a| Miyanishi, Kiyoko.
    994
      
      
    a| Z0 b| VA@
    999
      
      
    a| SD421 .F674 2001 w| LC i| X004477158 l| STACKS m| SCI-ENG t| BOOK

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