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Structures Technology for Future Aerospace Systems

edited by Ahmed K. Noor
Format
Book
Published
Reston, Va. : American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, c2000.
Language
English
Series
Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics
ISBN
1563473844
Contents
  • Chapter 1 Perspectives on Structures Technology / Ahmed K. Noor
  • Major Characteristics of Future Aerospace Systems 10
  • Autonomy 11
  • Evolvability 11
  • Highly Distributed Systems 12
  • Paradigm Change in Structures Technology 13
  • Changes in Aerospace Engineering Organizations 15
  • Economic Pressures 15
  • Impact of Advances in Technology 16
  • Opportunities Provided by Synergistic Coupling of Structures Technology with Other Technologies 16
  • Novel Materials Technologies 16
  • Multifunctional Structures 18
  • Micro Air Vehicles 20
  • Biologically Inspired Structures 21
  • Chapter 2 Affordable Composite Structures / William Baron, Tia Benson Tolle, Dan Arnold, Gary Renieri, Larry Bersuch
  • Purpose of the Chapter 27
  • Structural Affordability: Low Cost Plus Performance 28
  • Benefits of Composites 29
  • Current Use of Composites 30
  • Challenges of an "All-Composite" Air Vehicle 33
  • Design Freedom Enabled with Composite Structures 36
  • Design Philosophy 36
  • Materials and Processes: Enabling for Novel Concepts 38
  • Materials and Processes Overview 38
  • Curing Processes 39
  • Nonautoclave Low-Temperature/Low-Pressure Curing 40
  • Electron Beam Processing 41
  • Induction Processing 45
  • Resin Infusion Methods 48
  • Innovative Reinforcements--Discontinuous Fiber Product Forms 49
  • Material Lay-Down Methods 50
  • Emerging Structural Concepts 52
  • Three-Dimensional Composites in Aircraft Joints 52
  • Three-Dimensional Composite Application for Bulkheads and Frames 57
  • Bonding of Primary Structure 58
  • Skin-Stiffening Concepts 65
  • Three-Dimensional Structure Analysis and Certification 71
  • Testing of Three-Dimensional Woven Preforms 72
  • Needs for Certification of Three-Dimensional Structure 74
  • Affordable Considerations for Ballistic Survivability 74
  • Description of Ballistic Event 75
  • Conventional Design Practice 76
  • Design Considerations for "All-Composite" Structure 78
  • Novel Airframe Configurations 81
  • Structural Definition 81
  • Unitized Composite Structure 82
  • Primary Sandwich Structure 84
  • Innovative Structural Layouts 87
  • Future Outlook for Composite Airframe Structures 88
  • Chapter 3 Aging Systems and Sustainment Technology / John W. Lincoln
  • Historical Background 93
  • Aging Commercial Aircraft Research at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center 96
  • Aging Commercial Aircraft Research at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center 101
  • Aging Military Aircraft Research in the United States Air Force 104
  • Aging Military Aircraft Research in the United States Navy 110
  • Widespread Fatigue Damage 111
  • Damage Tolerance Assessment Process 111
  • Technology for Assessment of Widespread Fatigue Damage 118
  • Case Study on Aging Aircraft and Widespread Fatigue Damage 121
  • Corrosion 125
  • Repair 133
  • Metallic Repairs 133
  • Composite Repairs 134
  • Future Actions 137
  • United States Air Force Actions 138
  • Chapter 4 Extreme Environment Structures / Donald B. Paul, Christopher L. Clay, Brett Harber, Harold Croop, David Glass, Steven Scotti
  • Actively Cooled Structures 147
  • Design Requirements and Conditions 147
  • Design Development 148
  • Refractory and Ceramic Composite Development 149
  • Refractory and Ceramic Composite Development (Recent Activities) 151
  • NARloy-Z Development 152
  • Haynes 188 Development 153
  • Molybdenum Rhenium Development 154
  • Copper Graphite Development 159
  • Copper Microcomposite Development 159
  • Test Facilities 159
  • Air Force Research Laboratory Hydrogen Facility 160
  • General Applied Sciences Laboratory Panel Oxidation and Erosion Test Facility 160
  • Rocketdyne Material and Structure Thermal Validation Rig 161
  • Thermal Protection Systems 161
  • Blanket TPS 163
  • Tile TPS 164
  • Stand-Off TPS 164
  • Hot Structure forf High-Speed Vehicles 166
  • Two-Dimensional Carbon--Carbon Control Surface 167
  • Three-Dimensional Carbon--Carbon Wing Box 169
  • Titanium Matrix Composite Hot Structure 170
  • Heat-Pipe-Cooled Leading Edges for Hypersonic Vehicle Airframes 172
  • Operation 174
  • Half-Scale Hastelloy-X Leading-Edge Component 177
  • Haynes 188 Leading Edge "D-Shaped" Heat Pipe 179
  • Niobium Heat-Pipe Leading-Edge Subcomponent 180
  • Niobium Nosecap Vapor Chamber 181
  • Hastelloy-X Leading-Edge-Shaped Heat Pipe 183
  • Refractory-Composite Heat-Pipe-Cooled Leading Edge 185
  • Straight Heat Pipes Embedded in Carbon/Carbon 188
  • Mo--Re Leading-Edge Shaped Heat Pipe 192
  • Assessment of the State of Heat-Pipe-Cooled Leading Edges 196
  • Chapter 5 Gossamer Structures: Space Membranes, Inflatables, and Other Expandables / A. B. Chmielewski, C. H. Jenkins
  • Technology Background 201
  • Overview of Gossamer Structures Technology 201
  • History of Gossamer Structures 204
  • Applications 206
  • Solar Arrays 206
  • Communication Systems 211
  • Human Habitats 212
  • Planetary Surface Exploration 214
  • Radar and Reflectarrays 217
  • Solar Concentrators 220
  • Solar Sails 221
  • Solar Shades 224
  • Structural Support Members 226
  • Telescopes and Optics 227
  • Membrane Materials 232
  • Materials for Membrane/Inflatables in Space 232
  • Rigidization Technology 234
  • Micrometeoroid and Space Debris Effects on Membrane Materials 239
  • Analysis of Gossamer Structures 243
  • Static and Dynamic Analysis 243
  • Analysis of Precision Membranes 247
  • Computational Technology for Membrane Analysis 250
  • Analysis of Membrane Wrinkling 251
  • Membrane/Inflatable Systems 252
  • Adaptive Compensation of Membrane Reflectors 253
  • Multifunctional Membranes 254
  • Smart Structures 256
  • Testing and Deployment 258
  • Ground Testing 258
  • Micrometeoroid and Debris Testing 259
  • Deployment/Inflation Methods 259
  • Future Directions 262
  • Future Requirements 262
  • Material Requirements 262
  • Analysis Requirements 262
  • Testing and Deployment Requirements 263
  • Chapter 6 Smart Air and Space Structures / Janet M. Sater, C. Robert Crowe, Richard Antcliff, Alok Das
  • Vision 271
  • Significant Demonstration Projects 273
  • Structural Integrity Monitoring 273
  • Vibration Suppression 276
  • Shape-Adaptive Structures 295
  • Integrated Electronics 303
  • Technology Status and Issues 308
  • Materials 308
  • Devices 313
  • Electronics 323
  • Control Approaches and Algorithms 324
  • Analytical Methods 327
  • Integration 331
  • Chapter 7 Computational Structures Technology / Ahmed K. Noor
  • Brief History of the Development of CST Software 352
  • Goals of CST Activities 354
  • Recent Advances in CST 356
  • Element Technology and Discretization Techniques 356
  • Computational Material Modeling 359
  • Computational Modeling of Composite, Sandwich, and Smart Structures 361
  • Computational Tools and Methodologies for Life Management 363
  • Transient Response Analysis 364
  • Nonlinear Analysis 365
  • Numerical Simulation of Frictional Contact/Impact Response 365
  • Computational Methods for Articulated Structural Dynamics 365
  • Nondeterministic Modeling and Analysis Methods 365
  • Qualitative Analysis and Simulation 366
  • Neuro-computing 366
  • Hybrid Techniques 367
  • Error Estimation and Adaptive Improvement Strategies 367
  • Strategies for Solution of Coupled Problems 370
  • Sensitivity Analysis 370
  • Integrated Analysis and Design 371
  • Strategies and Numerical Algorithms for New Computing Systems 371
  • Model Generation Facilities 372
  • Application of Object-Oriented Technology 373
  • CST at Universities and Industry 375
  • A Look at the Future 377
  • Characteristics of Future Engineering Systems 379
  • New and Emerging Computing Paradigm and Environment 380
  • Virtual Productr Development Systems and Information Technology 383
  • Primary Pacing Items 386
  • Related Tasks 391.
Description
xiv, 406 p., [22] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 24 cm.
Notes
Includes bibliographical references.
Series Statement
Progress in astronautics and aeronautics ; v. 188
Technical Details
  • Access in Virgo Classic
  • Staff View

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    g| Chapter 1 t| Perspectives on Structures Technology / r| Ahmed K. Noor -- t| Major Characteristics of Future Aerospace Systems g| 10 -- t| Autonomy g| 11 -- t| Evolvability g| 11 -- t| Highly Distributed Systems g| 12 -- t| Paradigm Change in Structures Technology g| 13 -- t| Changes in Aerospace Engineering Organizations g| 15 -- t| Economic Pressures g| 15 -- t| Impact of Advances in Technology g| 16 -- t| Opportunities Provided by Synergistic Coupling of Structures Technology with Other Technologies g| 16 -- t| Novel Materials Technologies g| 16 -- t| Multifunctional Structures g| 18 -- t| Micro Air Vehicles g| 20 -- t| Biologically Inspired Structures g| 21 -- g| Chapter 2 t| Affordable Composite Structures / r| William Baron, Tia Benson Tolle, Dan Arnold, Gary Renieri, Larry Bersuch -- t| Purpose of the Chapter g| 27 -- t| Structural Affordability: Low Cost Plus Performance g| 28 -- t| Benefits of Composites g| 29 -- t| Current Use of Composites g| 30 -- t| Challenges of an "All-Composite" Air Vehicle g| 33 -- t| Design Freedom Enabled with Composite Structures g| 36 -- t| Design Philosophy g| 36 -- t| Materials and Processes: Enabling for Novel Concepts g| 38 -- t| Materials and Processes Overview g| 38 -- t| Curing Processes g| 39 -- t| Nonautoclave Low-Temperature/Low-Pressure Curing g| 40 -- t| Electron Beam Processing g| 41 -- t| Induction Processing g| 45 -- t| Resin Infusion Methods g| 48 -- t| Innovative Reinforcements--Discontinuous Fiber Product Forms g| 49 -- t| Material Lay-Down Methods g| 50 -- t| Emerging Structural Concepts g| 52 -- t| Three-Dimensional Composites in Aircraft Joints g| 52 -- t| Three-Dimensional Composite Application for Bulkheads and Frames g| 57 -- t| Bonding of Primary Structure g| 58 -- t| Skin-Stiffening Concepts g| 65 -- t| Three-Dimensional Structure Analysis and Certification g| 71 -- t| Testing of Three-Dimensional Woven Preforms g| 72 -- t| Needs for Certification of Three-Dimensional Structure g| 74 -- t| Affordable Considerations for Ballistic Survivability g| 74 -- t| Description of Ballistic Event g| 75 -- t| Conventional Design Practice g| 76 -- t| Design Considerations for "All-Composite" Structure g| 78 -- t| Novel Airframe Configurations g| 81 -- t| Structural Definition g| 81 -- t| Unitized Composite Structure g| 82 -- t| Primary Sandwich Structure g| 84 -- t| Innovative Structural Layouts g| 87 -- t| Future Outlook for Composite Airframe Structures g| 88 -- g| Chapter 3 t| Aging Systems and Sustainment Technology / r| John W. Lincoln -- t| Historical Background g| 93 -- t| Aging Commercial Aircraft Research at the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center g| 96 -- t| Aging Commercial Aircraft Research at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center g| 101 -- t| Aging Military Aircraft Research in the United States Air Force g| 104 -- t| Aging Military Aircraft Research in the United States Navy g| 110 -- t| Widespread Fatigue Damage g| 111 -- t| Damage Tolerance Assessment Process g| 111 -- t| Technology for Assessment of Widespread Fatigue Damage g| 118 -- t| Case Study on Aging Aircraft and Widespread Fatigue Damage g| 121 -- t| Corrosion g| 125 -- t| Repair g| 133 -- t| Metallic Repairs g| 133 -- t| Composite Repairs g| 134 -- t| Future Actions g| 137 -- t| United States Air Force Actions g| 138 -- g| Chapter 4 t| Extreme Environment Structures / r| Donald B. Paul, Christopher L. Clay, Brett Harber, Harold Croop, David Glass, Steven Scotti -- t| Actively Cooled Structures g| 147 -- t| Design Requirements and Conditions g| 147 -- t| Design Development g| 148 -- t| Refractory and Ceramic Composite Development g| 149 -- t| Refractory and Ceramic Composite Development (Recent Activities) g| 151 -- t| NARloy-Z Development g| 152 -- t| Haynes 188 Development g| 153 -- t| Molybdenum Rhenium Development g| 154 -- t| Copper Graphite Development g| 159 -- t| Copper Microcomposite Development g| 159 -- t| Test Facilities g| 159 -- t| Air Force Research Laboratory Hydrogen Facility g| 160 -- t| General Applied Sciences Laboratory Panel Oxidation and Erosion Test Facility g| 160 -- t| Rocketdyne Material and Structure Thermal Validation Rig g| 161 -- t| Thermal Protection Systems g| 161 -- t| Blanket TPS g| 163 -- t| Tile TPS g| 164 -- t| Stand-Off TPS g| 164 -- t| Hot Structure forf High-Speed Vehicles g| 166 -- t| Two-Dimensional Carbon--Carbon Control Surface g| 167 -- t| Three-Dimensional Carbon--Carbon Wing Box g| 169 -- t| Titanium Matrix Composite Hot Structure g| 170 -- t| Heat-Pipe-Cooled Leading Edges for Hypersonic Vehicle Airframes g| 172 -- t| Operation g| 174 -- t| Half-Scale Hastelloy-X Leading-Edge Component g| 177 -- t| Haynes 188 Leading Edge "D-Shaped" Heat Pipe g| 179 -- t| Niobium Heat-Pipe Leading-Edge Subcomponent g| 180 -- t| Niobium Nosecap Vapor Chamber g| 181 -- t| Hastelloy-X Leading-Edge-Shaped Heat Pipe g| 183 -- t| Refractory-Composite Heat-Pipe-Cooled Leading Edge g| 185 -- t| Straight Heat Pipes Embedded in Carbon/Carbon g| 188 -- t| Mo--Re Leading-Edge Shaped Heat Pipe g| 192 -- t| Assessment of the State of Heat-Pipe-Cooled Leading Edges g| 196 -- g| Chapter 5 t| Gossamer Structures: Space Membranes, Inflatables, and Other Expandables / r| A. B. Chmielewski, C. H. Jenkins -- t| Technology Background g| 201 -- t| Overview of Gossamer Structures Technology g| 201 -- t| History of Gossamer Structures g| 204 -- t| Applications g| 206 -- t| Solar Arrays g| 206 -- t| Communication Systems g| 211 -- t| Human Habitats g| 212 -- t| Planetary Surface Exploration g| 214 -- t| Radar and Reflectarrays g| 217 -- t| Solar Concentrators g| 220 -- t| Solar Sails g| 221 -- t| Solar Shades g| 224 -- t| Structural Support Members g| 226 -- t| Telescopes and Optics g| 227 -- t| Membrane Materials g| 232 -- t| Materials for Membrane/Inflatables in Space g| 232 -- t| Rigidization Technology g| 234 -- t| Micrometeoroid and Space Debris Effects on Membrane Materials g| 239 -- t| Analysis of Gossamer Structures g| 243 -- t| Static and Dynamic Analysis g| 243 -- t| Analysis of Precision Membranes g| 247 -- t| Computational Technology for Membrane Analysis g| 250 -- t| Analysis of Membrane Wrinkling g| 251 -- t| Membrane/Inflatable Systems g| 252 -- t| Adaptive Compensation of Membrane Reflectors g| 253 -- t| Multifunctional Membranes g| 254 -- t| Smart Structures g| 256 -- t| Testing and Deployment g| 258 -- t| Ground Testing g| 258 -- t| Micrometeoroid and Debris Testing g| 259 -- t| Deployment/Inflation Methods g| 259 -- t| Future Directions g| 262 -- t| Future Requirements g| 262 -- t| Material Requirements g| 262 -- t| Analysis Requirements g| 262 -- t| Testing and Deployment Requirements g| 263 -- g| Chapter 6 t| Smart Air and Space Structures / r| Janet M. Sater, C. Robert Crowe, Richard Antcliff, Alok Das -- t| Vision g| 271 -- t| Significant Demonstration Projects g| 273 -- t| Structural Integrity Monitoring g| 273 -- t| Vibration Suppression g| 276 -- t| Shape-Adaptive Structures g| 295 -- t| Integrated Electronics g| 303 -- t| Technology Status and Issues g| 308 -- t| Materials g| 308 -- t| Devices g| 313 -- t| Electronics g| 323 -- t| Control Approaches and Algorithms g| 324 -- t| Analytical Methods g| 327 -- t| Integration g| 331 -- g| Chapter 7 t| Computational Structures Technology / r| Ahmed K. Noor -- t| Brief History of the Development of CST Software g| 352 -- t| Goals of CST Activities g| 354 -- t| Recent Advances in CST g| 356 -- t| Element Technology and Discretization Techniques g| 356 -- t| Computational Material Modeling g| 359 -- t| Computational Modeling of Composite, Sandwich, and Smart Structures g| 361 -- t| Computational Tools and Methodologies for Life Management g| 363 -- t| Transient Response Analysis g| 364 -- t| Nonlinear Analysis g| 365 -- t| Numerical Simulation of Frictional Contact/Impact Response g| 365 -- t| Computational Methods for Articulated Structural Dynamics g| 365 -- t| Nondeterministic Modeling and Analysis Methods g| 365 -- t| Qualitative Analysis and Simulation g| 366 -- t| Neuro-computing g| 366 -- t| Hybrid Techniques g| 367 -- t| Error Estimation and Adaptive Improvement Strategies g| 367 -- t| Strategies for Solution of Coupled Problems g| 370 -- t| Sensitivity Analysis g| 370 -- t| Integrated Analysis and Design g| 371 -- t| Strategies and Numerical Algorithms for New Computing Systems g| 371 -- t| Model Generation Facilities g| 372 -- t| Application of Object-Oriented Technology g| 373 -- t| CST at Universities and Industry g| 375 -- t| A Look at the Future g| 377 -- t| Characteristics of Future Engineering Systems g| 379 -- t| New and Emerging Computing Paradigm and Environment g| 380 -- t| Virtual Productr Development Systems and Information Technology g| 383 -- t| Primary Pacing Items g| 386 -- t| Related Tasks g| 391.
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    650
      
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    a| Airframes.
    650
      
    0
    a| Structural analysis (Engineering)
    700
    1
      
    a| Noor, Ahmed Khairy, d| 1938-
    994
      
      
    a| Z0 b| VA@
    999
      
      
    a| TL790 .P7 v.188 w| LC i| X004532314 l| STACKS m| SCI-ENG t| BOOK
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