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Chance, Development, and Aging

Caleb E. Finch & Thomas B.L. Kirkwood
Format
Book
Published
New York : Oxford University Press, 2000.
Language
English
ISBN
0195133617 (alk. paper)
Contents
  • 1. Chance and Its Outcomes in Aging 3
  • 1.1. Main issues 11
  • 1.2. Life span variations 14
  • 1.3. Variation in reproductive aging 19
  • 1.4. Variable numbers of irreplaceable cells 23
  • 1.4.1. Ovarian oocytes 25
  • 1.4.2. Neuron numbers 28
  • 1.4.3. Variations of neuron structures in genetically identical individuals 38
  • 1.4.4. Neuron numbers and the threshold for dysfunctions 39
  • 1.5. Variations within an individual 42
  • 1.5.1. Lateral line system 42
  • 1.5.2. Asymmetry of brain regions 43
  • 1.5.3. Asymmetry and its fluctuations 48
  • 1.6. Variations in molecular controls 54
  • 1.6.1. Pattern formation and the suppression of errors 54
  • 1.6.2. Control of gene expression 58
  • 1.7. Limits to genomic specification 65
  • 1.7.1. Programmed versus stochastic aging 65
  • 1.7.2. Errors in gene expression 69
  • 1.7.3. Genes, evolution, and aging 73
  • 1.8. Synopsis of the argument 75
  • 2. Chance and Reproductive Aging 76
  • 2.1. Mammalian ovary 76
  • 2.2. Oocyte numbers determine menopause 83
  • 2.3. Development and ovarian oocyte variations 86
  • 2.4. Maternal age factors in birth defects 91
  • 2.5. Health risks associated with menopause 94
  • 2.6. Fetal steroid variations and reproductive system development 98
  • 2.6.1. Brain 98
  • 2.6.2. Prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia 103
  • 2.7. Prezygotic phenomena 108
  • 3. Chance, Cell Fate, and Clonality 111
  • 3.1. Stochastic aspects of cell fate 111
  • 3.1.1. Asymmetric cell division 111
  • 3.1.2. Cell migration 116
  • 3.1.3. Cell death 117
  • 3.2. Stochastic aspects of cell clones 120
  • 3.2.1. Dispersion of neurons during cortical development 120
  • 3.2.2. A repeated neuron structure: the lateral line system of frogs 125
  • 3.2.3. Chance and clonality in intestinal crypts 131
  • 3.2.4. Hematopoiesis 137
  • 3.2.5. Colony size variation in cell cultures 142
  • 3.3. Somatic genome instability 146
  • 3.4. Clonal attenuation, cell immortalization, and cancer 150
  • 4. Chance in the Developmental Environment 157
  • 4.1. Fetal interactions 158
  • 4.1.1. Rodents 158
  • 4.1.2. Humans 165
  • 4.1.3. Evolutionary questions 170
  • 4.2. Environmental estrogens 172
  • 4.3. Stress and effects on the nervous system 174
  • 4.3.1. During pregnancy 175
  • 4.3.2. Neonatal handling and later neuron loss 176
  • 4.4. Nutrition during pregnancy 181
  • 5. Limits of Determinism in Aging 186
  • 5.1 Recapitulation and synthesis 186
  • 5.2. Genetic predictions and their limitations 196
  • 5.3. Research agenda 205
  • 5.3.1. Attending to the noise 205
  • 5.3.2. Need for a mathematical framework 206
  • 5.3.3. Applications to medicine 209
  • 5.4. Next steps toward a biology of aging and the individual 210.
Description
x, 278 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Notes
Includes bibliographical references (p. 213-258) and index.
Technical Details
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    g| 1. t| Chance and Its Outcomes in Aging g| 3 -- g| 1.1. t| Main issues g| 11 -- g| 1.2. t| Life span variations g| 14 -- g| 1.3. t| Variation in reproductive aging g| 19 -- g| 1.4. t| Variable numbers of irreplaceable cells g| 23 -- g| 1.4.1. t| Ovarian oocytes g| 25 -- g| 1.4.2. t| Neuron numbers g| 28 -- g| 1.4.3. t| Variations of neuron structures in genetically identical individuals g| 38 -- g| 1.4.4. t| Neuron numbers and the threshold for dysfunctions g| 39 -- g| 1.5. t| Variations within an individual g| 42 -- g| 1.5.1. t| Lateral line system g| 42 -- g| 1.5.2. t| Asymmetry of brain regions g| 43 -- g| 1.5.3. t| Asymmetry and its fluctuations g| 48 -- g| 1.6. t| Variations in molecular controls g| 54 -- g| 1.6.1. t| Pattern formation and the suppression of errors g| 54 -- g| 1.6.2. t| Control of gene expression g| 58 -- g| 1.7. t| Limits to genomic specification g| 65 -- g| 1.7.1. t| Programmed versus stochastic aging g| 65 -- g| 1.7.2. t| Errors in gene expression g| 69 -- g| 1.7.3. t| Genes, evolution, and aging g| 73 -- g| 1.8. t| Synopsis of the argument g| 75 -- g| 2. t| Chance and Reproductive Aging g| 76 -- g| 2.1. t| Mammalian ovary g| 76 -- g| 2.2. t| Oocyte numbers determine menopause g| 83 -- g| 2.3. t| Development and ovarian oocyte variations g| 86 -- g| 2.4. t| Maternal age factors in birth defects g| 91 -- g| 2.5. t| Health risks associated with menopause g| 94 -- g| 2.6. t| Fetal steroid variations and reproductive system development g| 98 -- g| 2.6.1. t| Brain g| 98 -- g| 2.6.2. t| Prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia g| 103 -- g| 2.7. t| Prezygotic phenomena g| 108 -- g| 3. t| Chance, Cell Fate, and Clonality g| 111 -- g| 3.1. t| Stochastic aspects of cell fate g| 111 -- g| 3.1.1. t| Asymmetric cell division g| 111 -- g| 3.1.2. t| Cell migration g| 116 -- g| 3.1.3. t| Cell death g| 117 -- g| 3.2. t| Stochastic aspects of cell clones g| 120 -- g| 3.2.1. t| Dispersion of neurons during cortical development g| 120 -- g| 3.2.2. t| A repeated neuron structure: the lateral line system of frogs g| 125 -- g| 3.2.3. t| Chance and clonality in intestinal crypts g| 131 -- g| 3.2.4. t| Hematopoiesis g| 137 -- g| 3.2.5. t| Colony size variation in cell cultures g| 142 -- g| 3.3. t| Somatic genome instability g| 146 -- g| 3.4. t| Clonal attenuation, cell immortalization, and cancer g| 150 -- g| 4. t| Chance in the Developmental Environment g| 157 -- g| 4.1. t| Fetal interactions g| 158 -- g| 4.1.1. t| Rodents g| 158 -- g| 4.1.2. t| Humans g| 165 -- g| 4.1.3. t| Evolutionary questions g| 170 -- g| 4.2. t| Environmental estrogens g| 172 -- g| 4.3. t| Stress and effects on the nervous system g| 174 -- g| 4.3.1. t| During pregnancy g| 175 -- g| 4.3.2. t| Neonatal handling and later neuron loss g| 176 -- g| 4.4. t| Nutrition during pregnancy g| 181 -- g| 5. t| Limits of Determinism in Aging g| 186 -- g| 5.1 t| Recapitulation and synthesis g| 186 -- g| 5.2. t| Genetic predictions and their limitations g| 196 -- g| 5.3. t| Research agenda g| 205 -- g| 5.3.1. t| Attending to the noise g| 205 -- g| 5.3.2. t| Need for a mathematical framework g| 206 -- g| 5.3.3. t| Applications to medicine g| 209 -- g| 5.4. t| Next steps toward a biology of aging and the individual g| 210.
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