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United States Presidential Election Campaign Media Analysis, 1996 [electronic resource]

Marion R. Just, Ann N. Crigler, Tami Buhr
Format
Computer Resource; Online
Published
Ann Arbor, Mich. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor] 2001
Edition
2006-01-12
Series
ICPSR
ICPSR (Series)
Access Restriction
AVAILABLE. This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions.
Abstract
This study consists of a content analysis of 12 different campaign information sources from the 1996 presidential election campaign. Each communication outlet (or medium) was analyzed using a consistent set of guidelines so the various kinds of media could be rigorously compared. The media include traditional news outlets, such as network and cable television news (CBS, ABC, NBC, CNN), news magazines (TIME magazine), newspapers (the NEW YORK TIMES and various other local newspapers), and political advertising, speeches, and debates. Other analyzed media include newer forms of campaign media, such as televised candidate interviews, candidate Web sites, and free televised candidate spots. Areas of investigation include type of news story, partisan focus of the story, control of the story, substantive focus of the story, election topics covered, sources of the story, issues revised, policy debate, reporting of the candidates' records and proposals, discussions of candidates' general political conduct, their personal background, and associates of the presidential candidates, and the political "horse race," in which reporters and sources assess the political strength or viability of each of the candidates. The information is presented in three types of files for each medium. The first file type is the Story-Level Data file, which is the master data file. It contains all of the variables coded, and the unit of analysis is the story, interview, ad, speech, etc. The second file type is the Multiple Story-Level Data file. In this file, topics span a number of units. For example, all issues mentioned in a "story" are coded, and each issue is considered a unit. This file contains the following coding blocks: polls, interview guests, topics, sources, issues, candidates' records, proposals and issue stands, sound bites, mentions of election-year players, correcting the record, and state contests/voting blocs. The third file type is the Statement-Level Data file. This file contains the following coding blocks: policy debate, evaluations of 1996 candidates, and horse race assessments. The unit of analysis in this file is the "statement," and each story is comprised of multiple statements. This file groups the statements by story and orders them by their placement within the story.Cf: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03139.v1
Contents
  • Candidate Ads, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • Candidate Ads, Statement-Level Data
  • Candidate Ads, Story-Level Data
  • CNN, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • CNN, Statement-Level Data
  • CNN, Story-Level Data
  • Convention Speeches, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • Convention Speeches, Statement-Level Data
  • Convention Speeches, Story-Level Data
  • Candidate Debates, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • Candidate Debates, Statement-Level Data
  • Candidate Debates, Story-Level Data
  • Free Airtime Ads, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • Free Airtime Ads, Statement-Level Data
  • Free Airtime Ads, Story-Level Data
  • Televised Candidate Interviews, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • Televised Candidate Interviews, Statement-Level Data
  • Televised Candidate Interviews, Story-Level Data
  • Composite Local Newspaper, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • Composite Local Newspaper, Statement-Level Data
  • Composite Local Newspaper, Story-Level Data
  • Network News, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • Network News, Statement-Level Data
  • Network News, Story-Level Data
  • NEW YORK TIMES, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • NEW YORK TIMES, Statement-Level Data
  • NEW YORK TIMES, Story-Level Data
  • Candidate Campaign Trail Speeches, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • Candidate Campaign Trail Speeches, Statement-Level Data
  • Candidate Campaign Trail Speeches, Story-Level Data
  • TIME Magazine, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • TIME Magazine, Statement-Level Data
  • TIME Magazine, Story-Level Data
  • Candidates' Web Sites, Multiple Story-Level Data
  • Candidates' Web Sites, Statement-Level Data
  • Candidates' Web Sites, Story-Level Data
Description
Mode of access: Intranet.
Notes
Title from ICPSR DDI metadata of 2016-02-11.
Series Statement
ICPSR 3139
ICPSR (Series) 3139
Other Forms
Also available as downloadable files.
Copyright Not EvaluatedCopyright Not Evaluated
Technical Details
  • Staff View

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    a| This study consists of a content analysis of 12 different campaign information sources from the 1996 presidential election campaign. Each communication outlet (or medium) was analyzed using a consistent set of guidelines so the various kinds of media could be rigorously compared. The media include traditional news outlets, such as network and cable television news (CBS, ABC, NBC, CNN), news magazines (TIME magazine), newspapers (the NEW YORK TIMES and various other local newspapers), and political advertising, speeches, and debates. Other analyzed media include newer forms of campaign media, such as televised candidate interviews, candidate Web sites, and free televised candidate spots. Areas of investigation include type of news story, partisan focus of the story, control of the story, substantive focus of the story, election topics covered, sources of the story, issues revised, policy debate, reporting of the candidates' records and proposals, discussions of candidates' general political conduct, their personal background, and associates of the presidential candidates, and the political "horse race," in which reporters and sources assess the political strength or viability of each of the candidates. The information is presented in three types of files for each medium. The first file type is the Story-Level Data file, which is the master data file. It contains all of the variables coded, and the unit of analysis is the story, interview, ad, speech, etc. The second file type is the Multiple Story-Level Data file. In this file, topics span a number of units. For example, all issues mentioned in a "story" are coded, and each issue is considered a unit. This file contains the following coding blocks: polls, interview guests, topics, sources, issues, candidates' records, proposals and issue stands, sound bites, mentions of election-year players, correcting the record, and state contests/voting blocs. The third file type is the Statement-Level Data file. This file contains the following coding blocks: policy debate, evaluations of 1996 candidates, and horse race assessments. The unit of analysis in this file is the "statement," and each story is comprised of multiple statements. This file groups the statements by story and orders them by their placement within the story.Cf: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03139.v1
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    t| Candidate Ads, Multiple Story-Level Data
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    t| Candidate Ads, Statement-Level Data
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    t| Candidate Ads, Story-Level Data
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    t| CNN, Multiple Story-Level Data
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    t| CNN, Statement-Level Data
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    t| CNN, Story-Level Data
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    t| Convention Speeches, Multiple Story-Level Data
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    t| Convention Speeches, Statement-Level Data
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    t| Convention Speeches, Story-Level Data
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    t| Candidate Debates, Multiple Story-Level Data
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    t| Candidate Debates, Statement-Level Data
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    t| Candidate Debates, Story-Level Data
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    t| Free Airtime Ads, Multiple Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Free Airtime Ads, Statement-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Free Airtime Ads, Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Televised Candidate Interviews, Multiple Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Televised Candidate Interviews, Statement-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Televised Candidate Interviews, Story-Level Data
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    t| Composite Local Newspaper, Multiple Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Composite Local Newspaper, Statement-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Composite Local Newspaper, Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Network News, Multiple Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Network News, Statement-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Network News, Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| NEW YORK TIMES, Multiple Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| NEW YORK TIMES, Statement-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| NEW YORK TIMES, Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Candidate Campaign Trail Speeches, Multiple Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Candidate Campaign Trail Speeches, Statement-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| Candidate Campaign Trail Speeches, Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| TIME Magazine, Multiple Story-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| TIME Magazine, Statement-Level Data
    505
      
      
    t| TIME Magazine, Story-Level Data
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    t| Candidates' Web Sites, Multiple Story-Level Data
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    t| Candidates' Web Sites, Statement-Level Data
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    a| Buhr, Tami
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